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Emilian is a group of dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the area historically called Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region in Italy.

Emilian
Emiliano  (Italian)
Emigliân  (Emilian)
Native toItaly
Region
Ethnicity3.3 million (2008)[1]
Native speakers
ca. 1.3 million (2006)[2]
DialectsBolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Reggiano, Parmigiano, Piacentino
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3egl
Glottologemil1241[3]
Linguasphere51-AAA-oka ... -okh
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There is no standardised version of Emilian.

The default word order is subject–verb–object. There are two genders as well as a distinction between plural and singular. Emilian has a strong T–V distinction to distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity or insult. Its alphabet uses a considerable number of diacritics.

ClassificationEdit

Emilian is a dialect of the Emilian-Romagnol language, one of the Gallo-Italic languages. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between the various varieties of Emilian and the other dialect, Romagnol. The Gallo-Italic family has Emilian-Romagnol, Piedmontese, Ligurian and Lombard.

DialectsEdit

Linguasphere Observatory recognises the following dialects:[4]

Other definitions include the following:[citation needed]

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants in the Bolongese dialect
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f θ s
voiced v ð z
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Rhotic r
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø ə o
ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Open æ a

Vowel sounds may vary upon dialects.

Vowel length is also distinguished for the following vowels [eː aː oː].[5][6]

Writing systemEdit

Emilian is written using a Latin script that has never been standardised. As a result, spelling varies widely across the dialects. The dialects are largely oral and rarely written.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ ISO change request
  2. ^ La lingua italiana, i dialetti e le lingue straniere Anno 2006
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Emiliano". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "51-AAA-ok. emiliano + romagnolo". Linguasphere.
  5. ^ Foresti, Fabio (2009). Profilo linguistico dell'Emilia-Romagna. Roma: Laterza.
  6. ^ Lepri, Luigi; Vitali, Daniele (2009). Dizionario bolognese-italiano, italiano bolognese. Bologna: Pendragon.

BibliographyEdit

  • Colombini, F. 2007. La negazione nei dialetti emiliani: microvariazione nell’area modenese. University of Padua, MA Thesis.

Further readingEdit

  • Pietro Mainoldi, Manuale dell'odierno dialetto bolognese, Suoni e segni, Grammatica - Vocabolario, Bologna, Società tipografica Mareggiani 1950 (Rist. anast.: Sala Bolognese, A. Forni 2000)
  • Fabio Foresti, Bibliografia dialettale dell'Emilia-Romagna e della Repubblica di San Marino (BDER), Bologna, IBACN Emilia-Romagna / Compositori 1997
  • E. F. Tuttle, Nasalization in Northern Italy: Syllabic Constraints and Strength Scales as Developmental Parameters, Rivista di Linguistica, III: 23-92 (1991)
  • Luigi Lepri e Daniele Vitali, Dizionario Bolognese-Italiano Italiano-Bolognese, ed. Pendragon 2007

External linksEdit