Emil Doepler

Emil Doepler "the Younger" (29 October 1855 in Munich – 21 December 1922 in Berlin) was a German Art Nouveau illustrator, decorative artist, and art teacher.[1][2] He was son of artist Carl Emil Doepler.[1]

A portrait of Emil Doepler by C. W. Allers (1877).

WorksEdit

Reichspräsident Friedrich Ebert declared Doepler's design to be the official German coat of arms as of 11 November 1919, following a decision of the Reich's government.[3]

 
German eagle, Doepler's design, 1919–1928 crest of Weimar Republic, afterwards – till 1935 – used as Reich's and since 1949 as Federal German escutcheon.

Since 1928 the new Reichswappen (Reich's coat of arms), designed by Tobias Schwab (1887–1967), replaced it.[4][5][6] Doepler's design then became the Reichsschild (Reich's escutcheon) with restricted use such as pennant for government vehicles. In 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) adopted Doepler's design as Bundesschild for the same purposes.[6]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Simek (2007:62).
  2. ^ Aynsley (2000:70).
  3. ^ Jana Leichsenring, "Staatssymbole: Der Bundesadler", in: Aktueller Begriff, Deutscher Bundestag – Wissenschaftliche Dienste (ed.), No. 83/08 (12 December 2008), p. 1.
  4. ^ Cf. Reichswappen as depicted in the table: "Deutsches Reich: Wappen I" in: Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 vols., Leipzig: Brockhaus, 151928–1935; vol. 4 "Chi–Dob" (1929), p. 648.
  5. ^ Jürgen Hartmann, "Der Bundesadler", in: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (No. 03/2008), Institut für Zeitgeschichte (ed.), pp. 495-509, here p. 501.
  6. ^ a b Jana Leichsenring, "Staatssymbole: Der Bundesadler", in: Aktueller Begriff, Deutscher Bundestag – Wissenschaftliche Dienste (ed.), No. 83/08 (12 December 2008), p. 2

SourcesEdit

  • Aynsley, Jeremy (2000). Graphic Design in Germany: 1890-1945. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22796-4
  • Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer ISBN 0-85991-513-1

External linksEdit