Embraer E-Jet E2 family
The Embraer E-Jet E2 family are medium-range jet airliners developed by Embraer, succeeding the original E-Jet. The program was launched at the Paris Air Show in 2013. The first variant, the E190-E2, took its first flight on 23 May 2016 and was certified on February 28, 2018 before entering service with Widerøe on 24 April.
|E-Jet E2 family|
|An E190-E2 from Widerøe, its launch operator|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|First flight||23 May 2016|
|Introduction||24 April 2018 with Widerøe|
|Number built||5 E190-E2 as of 31 March 2019[update]|
|Program cost||$1.7 billion|
|Developed from||Embraer E-Jet family|
The three twinjet variants share the same four-abreast narrow-body fuselage with different lengths and three different new wings, Pratt & Whitney PW1000G turbofans in two sizes, fly-by-wire controls with new avionics, and an updated cabin.
In 2010, it appeared possible that Embraer could directly challenge the Bombardier CSeries (now A220) with a clean-sheet five-abreast design for 100 to 150 passengers. However, Airbus launched the A320neo in December 2010, including the 124-seat A319neo, and Boeing launched the re-engined 737 MAX the following year. Accordingly, Embraer continued to focus on large regional jets, and launched an extensive revamp of the E-Jet family at the November 2011 Dubai air show.
The new variants would be better positioned to compete with the CSeries and would be powered by new engines with larger diameter fans that would offer improvements in specific fuel consumption, as well as slightly taller landing gear and possibly a new aluminum or carbon fiber-based wing. Embraer named this new development "the E-jets second generation". The program was launched at the Paris Air Show in 2013.
The first E-Jet E2, an E190-E2, was rolled out on 25 February 2016 and made its maiden flight on 23 May in São José dos Campos. It flew for three hours and twenty minutes to Mach 0.82, climbed to 41,000 feet, retracted the landing gear and flaps, and engaged the fly-by-wire in normal mode. It flew earlier than the previously anticipated second half of 2016. The program had fewer challenges than expected and introduction could happen in the first quarter of 2018. The airplane is slightly below weight and the other two E190-E2 prototypes should fly within a year.
The second prototype made its maiden flight on 8 July 2016. The flight lasted 2 hr 55 min without any incidents. The first E-Jet E2 flew from Brazil to Farnborough Airshow just 45 days after its maiden flight, demonstrating maturity and confidence in the design. In April 2017, as 650 hr of flight tests have been completed and the program is on schedule, Embraer wants to guarantee a 99% schedule reliability in the first year of service.
Half of the flight testing was done by June 2017, and as aerodynamics are better than predicted and the E190-E2 hot and high performance is better than expected. The E195-E2's MTOW is increased to 61,500 kg (135,600 lb) and its range to 2,600 nmi (4,800 km). In June 2017, the four E190-E2s and the single E195-E2 - which is presented at the 2017 Paris Air Show - have made more than 900 flight-test hours, mostly by the E190-E2s. In July 2017, the five aircraft have flown 1,000 flight-test hours while the E190-E2 has accomplished 55% of its test campaign.
In January 2018, 98% of the test campaign was done with 2,000 flight hours. Fuel burn is 17.3% lower than for the E190 up from 16% predicted, range increased by 750 nmi (1,390 km) from hot-and-high or short runways: 1,600 or 2,200 nmi (3,000 or 4,100 km) from Mexico City or London City, and noise margin to Stage 4 is 3 EPNdB better than specification at 20 EPNdB.
The E190-E2 received its type certificate from the ANAC, FAA and EASA on February 28, 2018. The first production engines for the larger variant were delivered in February 2019 and should deliver a 24% reduction in per-seat fuel burn compared with the E195. The E195-E2 obtained its type certification in April 2019.
Inspired by the automotive industry, the same production line will be used to build the E190/195-E2 alongside the original E175/190/195 at a steady rate of eight aircraft per month by the end of 2018; production of the original E-Jet family should have slowed once assembly of the E175-E2 starts in 2021. This decision contrasts with Boeing's difficulties transitioning from the 747-400 to the 747-8 on a single assembly line, and its subsequent decision to introduce a new, separate assembly line for the 737 MAX.
As Embraer transitions from its current E-jets to the upgraded E2, it expects to deliver 85-95 airliners in 2018 with a negative $150 million free cash flow, less than in 2017 with 78 deliveries in the first nine months with a cash outflow of $700 million: return to profitability will take at least three years once the program investment is reduced and the production ramp up is complete.
E2s will account for 10% of Embraer airliner deliveries in 2018 before rising in 2019. Embraer think Airbus will not be able to lower the A220 supply chain costs enough to make it profitable and view it as heavy, expensive and adapted to long, thin routes exceeding the range of the E2, whose operational capabilities will win a majority of the market share as commitments should follow certification and entry into service. Embraer delivered 101 airliners in 2017, down from 162 in 2008, but targets delivering 14 E2 monthly or even 16 or 18. Hybrid stations can work on both the E1 and E2, and the production is more automated, moving to 90% automated drilling and riveting for the E2 wing.
After type certification, the first E190-E2 was delivered to launch operator Widerøe in April 2018, configured with 114-seat in single-class, followed by deliveries for Air Astana and Chinese GX Airlines. Before the aircraft were delivered, Embraer announced that some of the initial E-Jet E2s will need to be retrofitted due to the shorter life of the combustor in their Pratt & Whitney PW1900G engines. A business class is developed with a 2+2 staggered seat layout offering a seat pitch of up to 54 in (137 cm), available from mid-2019.
Embraer targets a 99% dispatch reliability after 12 months and 99.5% after four years while the E1 took 10 years to achieve its targeted reliability. On 4 April 2018, Widerøe took delivery of its first E190-E2 in Sao Jose dos Campos. It was introduced between Bergen and Tromso, Norway on April 24, 2018. By June 2018, the first three E190-E2s delivered to Wideroe accumulated 413 flight hours and 332 cycles, an average of 6.57 cycles per day and an average stage length of 1.28 hr, with a 99.35% dispatch reliability and a 97.74% schedule reliability. Widerøe had a dispatch reliability of 98.5% after its first year of operation.
Boeing-Embraer joint ventureEdit
Boeing is to take an 80% stake in Embraer's commercial aircraft division, which is to be renamed as "Boeing Brasil–Commercial", in a deal expected to close by the end of 2019. No decision has yet been announced regarding whether the aircraft will be rebranded as Boeing models.
Embraer targets 16 to 24% lower fuel burn and 15–25% lower maintenance cost per seat. In the E190-E2, of the 17.3% better fuel burn, 11% comes from the geared turbofan, 4.8% from the improved aerodynamics of the new high aspect ratio wing and 1.5% from the fly-by-wire's 15% smaller tail surfaces.
Over a 600 nmi (1,100 km) trip and with a US$72 fuel barrel, Embraer estimates a 97-seat E190-E2 trip cost is 7% lower for a 1% higher seat cost than a 106-seat A220-100, a 120-seat E195-E2 has a 2% higher trip cost but a 10% lower seat cost and 10% lower trip cost and 3% lower seat cost than a 129-seat A220-300; and while a 97-seat E190 had an 18% higher seat cost than a 150-seat A320 and a 23% lower trip cost, an E190-E2 has a 30% lower trip cost for an 8% higher seat cost than a 150-seat A320neo, while an E195-E2 has the same seat cost but 20% lower trip cost. By October, Embraer raised its E190/E195-E2 seat or trip costs claim to roughly 10% better than the A220.
Built on the first generation E-Jet, its wing is redesigned, and it introduces new pylons, landing gear, horizontal stabilizers, cabin, cabin air system, air cycle machine, bleed air system, and a new fly-by-wire system. The switch to a composite wing was not yet justified economically for a similar shape, the less draggy flaps are single-slotted instead of the more complex double-slotted on the E1, and the engine pylon is shorter. The raised, 11:1 aspect ratio gull-wing partially accommodate the 2.01m (79 in) diameter GTF, larger than the CF34 by 66 cm (26 in), while the trailing arm landing gear is taller for 23–25 cm (9.1–9.8 in) higher door sills, giving a 5 cm (2.0 in) lower nacelles than the E1.
GE Aviation, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce were all possible engine suppliers. In January 2013, Embraer selected the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G Geared Turbofan engine as the exclusive powerplant. Honeywell Primus Epic 2 was selected as the avionics package. In 2014, Alta Precision was selected to produce main landing gear components for the E190/E195 E2.[importance?]
Moog Inc was selected to supply the Primary Flight Control System. The E2 features a closed loop fly-by-wire control which reduces weight, increases fuel efficiency, enhances control and increases safety by full envelope protection in all flight phases compared to the first E-Jet. The fuel savings of the now closed loop fly-by-wire control come from the enhanced flight stability and the resulting increased lift (lower tail downward force) and weight savings and drag reductions related to the 26% reduction in the horizontal tail (tailplane) size. The wing structure was lightened by 200 kg (440 lb) thanks to FBW ailerons, also used when braking, avoiding larger wheels and brakes. A 250 ft² horizontal stabilizer is sufficient from 280 ft² on the E190/195.
Basic maintenance inspections will happen every 1,000 flight hours instead of 850 and the intermediate check interval grew to 10,000 flight-hours from 8,500. The heavy-check downtime was reduced by 15% from the E1, no out-of-phase tasks are required, and control and corrosion prevention is required every eight years with 82 tasks down from 240.
The E175-E2 (EMB 190-500) model in the 80-seat range is the smallest in the E-Jet Second Generation family. The E175-E2 will be extended by one seat row from the E175, by 0.6m and will seat up to 90 passengers. It was scheduled for first delivery in 2020 but entry into service is delayed by one year to 2021 as it will be over the scope clause weight limit as opposed to the current E175.
By April 2019, the E175-E2 first prototype was under final assembly. Roll-out is targeted for November and first flight before the end of 2019, for a 2021 entry into service if a customer is found.
The 22,000 lbf (98 kN) PW1900G has a 73 in (190 cm) fan for a 12:1 bypass ratio. The aluminum wing span increased to 33.7 m (110 ft) for the highest wing aspect ratio of any airliner, just over 11, while the larger E195-E2 has a longer wingtip and the smaller E175-E2 has a downsized wing. It was moved forward to shift the center of gravity envelope aft to reduces the horizontal stabilizer downforce, lowering fuel burn by 1.5%. The trailing link main landing gear has wheel doors to reduce fuel consumption by 1% and is 20 in (51 cm) taller to provide enough engine ground clearance. The E2 have 75% new parts, closed-loop controls fly-by-wire instead of the open-loop type in the E1 gaining improved maintenance intervals. For E1-rated pilots, the transition to the new type need 2.5 days with no full flight simulator, having similar Honeywell Primus Epic 2 avionics. The E190-E2 (EMB 190-300) is the same size as the E190, with up to 114 seats.
Embraer had it certified on February 28, 2018. Certification needed 46,000 test hours on ground and 2,200 in flight. Due to better than expected fuel burn during tests, in January 2018 Embraer increased the range to 2,880 nmi (5,330 km), and Bombardier tried to implicate it in the CSeries dumping petition by Boeing as it could attain a 2,900 nmi range. It entered service with Widerøe on 24 April 2018. On 3 December, Air Astana received its first of an order of five, to replace nine E190-E1 used on domestic and regional routes since 2011. In 2018, a newly delivered E190-E2 is worth $34 million, $3 million more than the E190, falling to $20 million in seven years, a 40% decline to be compared with 30% projected for an A320neo over the same timeframe.
The E195-E2 (EMB 190-400) will be extended by three seat rows from the E195 by 2.85 m (9.4 ft), and will accommodate up to 146 seats.
In February 2016, Embraer announced that it had decided to increase the E195-E2's wingspan by 1.4 m (4.6 ft) for greater lift, along with a MTOW increase of 2 t (4,400 lb) to extend its range by 450 nmi (830 km) at sea-level starts, and 250 nmi (460 km) in hot and high conditions.
The variant rolled out on 7 March 2017 and Azul was confirmed as its launch operator. It first flew on 29 March 2017, ahead of the previously scheduled second half of the year. Embraer showcased the prototype at the Paris Air Show in June 2017 and plan to enter service in the first half of 2019.
By January 2019, the flight-test program preliminary results shows the E195-E2 could end up being a little above specifications at introduction. It was certified on 15 April 2019, with a fuel burn 1.4% less than originally specified for 25.4% less per seat than the E195.
It competes with the Airbus A220-300. With the lowest unit costs, the E195-E2 could open up a new market and spur strong demand, moving into mainline territory. Embraer claims E195 trip costs are 22% lower than a 154-seat A320neo and 24% below a 160-seat 737-8 - but airlines install more seats, widening seat costs further apart than the 6% and 8% quoted by Embraer.
Orders and deliveriesEdit
List of Embraer's E2-Jet family deliveries and orders:
|Model||Deliveries||Firm Order Backlog|
Source: Embraer's order book as of March 31st, 2019.
The Embraer E-Jet E2 program was officially launched during the 50th International Paris Air Show held in June 2013, with SkyWest Airlines, a North American regional airline, and ILFC, a leasing company placing the first firm orders for the aircraft.
SkyWest is the launch customer of the Embraer E175-E2, with the airline placing a firm order for 100 aircraft, with purchase rights for another 100, an order valued at US$9.36 billion at list price, although airlines routinely receive deep discounts from the list price of planes.
ILFC is the launch customer for the Embraer E190-E2 and E195-E2, with the leasing company placing a firm order for 25 E190-E2 aircraft and 25 E195-E2 aircraft, with purchase rights for another 25 of each type. ILFC was purchased by AerCap in May 2014.
|Initial order||Country||Customer||E175-E2||E190-E2||E195-E2||Order total|
|17 July 2013 ||Ireland||AerCap||-||5||45||50|
|19 July 2014||China||Hainan - Tianjin Airlines||-||2||-||2|
|21 May 2015||Brazil||Azul[a]||-||-||51||51|
|15 June 2015||United States||Aircastle||-||12||13||25|
|16 January 2017||Norway||Widerøe[b]||-||3||-||3|
|26 September 2018||Switzerland||Helvetic Airways||-||12||-||12|
|13 November 2018||Spain||Binter Canarias||-||-||5||5|
|04 December 2018||Kiribati||Air Kiribati||-||2||-||2|
|03 April 2019||Nigeria||Air Peace||-||-||10||10|
|19 June 2019||Netherlands||KLM||-||-||15||15|
- E195-E2 launch customer
- E190-E2 launch operator
|Initial order||Country||Customer||E175-E2||E190-E2||E195-E2||Order total|
|17 June 2013||United States||SkyWest Airlines[a]||100||-||-||100|
|04 December 2018||Denmark||Nordic Aviation Capital||-||3||-||3|
- E175-E2 launch customer
|Flight deck crew||2 pilots|
|Seating, dual class||80 (8J @36 in +72Y @31 in)||96 (12J @38 in +84Y @31 in)||120 (12J @36 in +108Y @31 in)|
|Seating, single class||88 @31 in, 90 max @29 in||104 @31 in, 114 max @29 in||132 @31 in, 146 max @28 in|
|Seat width||18.3 in (46 cm)|
|Length||32.4 m (106.3 ft)||36.24 m (118 ft 11 in.)||41.5 m (136.2 ft)|
|Height||9.98 m (32.7 ft)||10.95 m (35 ft 11.3 in)||10.9 m (35.8 ft)|
|Wingspan||31.0 m (101.7 ft)||33.72 m (110 ft 7.6 in)||35.124 m (115 ft 2 in)|
|Wing area||103 m² (1108.7 ft²)|
|MTOW||44,800 kg (98,767 lb)||56,400 kg (124,340 lb)||61,500 kg (135,584 lb)|
|OEW||33,000 kg (72,752 lb)||35,700 kg (78,705 lb)|
|Max payload||10,600 kg (23,369 lb)||13,700 kg (30,203 lb)||16,150 kg (35,605 lb)|
|Max fuel||8,522 kg / 18,788 lb||13,500 kg / 29,760 lb||13,690 kg / 30,181 lb|
|Takeoff (MTOW, ISA, SL)||1,800 m (6,234 ft)||1,450 m (4,760 ft)||1,970 m (6,463 ft)|
|Landing (MLW, ISA, SL)||1,300 m (4,265 ft)||1,240 m (4,070 ft)||1,412 m (4,633 ft)|
|Speed||Mach 0.82 (473 kn; 876 km/h) max., Mach 0.78 (450 kn; 833 km/h) typical|
|Range (full pax)||2,017 nmi (3,735 km)||2,850 nmi (5,280 km)||2,600 nmi (4,800 km)|
|Service ceiling||41,000 ft (12,000 m)|
|Engines||2× Pratt & Whitney PW1715G||2× Pratt & Whitney PW1919G/21G/22G/23G|
|Fan diameter||56 in (142 cm)||73 in (185 cm)|
|Thrust per Engine||15,000 lbf (67 kN)||19,000–23,000 lbf (85–102 kN)|
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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