The Elisabethpol Governorate (pre-reform Russian: Елисаветпо́льская губе́рнія, tr. Yelisavetpólskaya gubérniya; Azerbaijani: Yelizavetpol quberniyası; Armenian: Ելիզավետպոլի նահանգ), also known as the Ganja Governorate (Azerbaijani: Gəncə quberniyası) after 1918, was a guberniya ("governorate") of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its capital in Elisabethpol (Ganja). The area of the governorate stretched 44,136 sq. kilometres and included 878,415 inhabitants by 1897. The Elisabethpol Governorate bordered the Erivan Governorate to the west, the Tiflis Governorate and Zakatal Okrug to the north, the Dagestan Oblast to the northeast, the Baku Governorate to the east, and Persia to the south.
|• Total||44,296.15 km2 (17,102.84 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||4,466 m (14,652 ft)|
|• Density||29/km2 (75/sq mi)|
The area of the governorate includes the southern slope of the main Caucasus range in the northeast, where Mount Bazardüzü and other peaks rise above the snow-line; the arid steppes beside the Kura river, reaching 1000 ft. of altitude in the west and sinking to 100–200 ft. in the east, where irrigation is necessary; and the northern slopes of the Transcaucasian escarpment and portions of the Armenian Highlands, which is intersected towards its western boundary, near Lake Sevan, by chains of mountains consisting of trachytes and various crystalline rocks.
Elsewhere the country has the character of a plateau, 7,000 to 8,000 ft. high, deeply trenched by tributaries of the Aras. All varieties of climate are found in the snowclad peaks, Alpine meadows, and stony deserts of the high levels, to that of the hill slopes and of the arid Caspian steppes.
Elisabethpol Governorate was created by the decree "On the transformation of the administration of the Caucasian and Transcaucasian region" dated December 9, 1867. The province included the Elisabethpol Uyezd of the Tiflis Governorate, the Nukha and Shusha uyezds of the Baku Governorate and part of the abolished Ordubad uyezd. By the same decree, the Kazakh and Zangezur uyezds were formed as part of the province. In 1873, due to the disaggregation of the uyezd, three new uyezds were formed in the Governorate - Aresh, Jebrail and Jevanshir. The governorate included lands of the former Ganja Khanate, Shaki Khanate, and Karabakh Khanate. It bordered with Baku Governorate, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, Dagestan Oblast, and Persia.
From 1905, there were attempts by Armenian intelligentsia of the Russian Empire to separate the highland areas (commonly known as Mountainous Karabakh) from the rest of Elisabethpol into a zemstvo (self-governing rural community) province.
On the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in May 1918, the Elisabethpol Governorate was renamed to the Ganja Governorate in an effort to de-Russify the region. The neighboring Democratic Republic of Armenia claimed the entirety of the western highland sections of the governorate which as a whole formed a small Armenian majority, however, Armenian control did not exceed the western parts of Zangezur, Kazakh and Karabakh. In 1919, the entirety of Karabakh south of the Murov Range with British support was separated into the Karabakh General Governorship, following the subjugation of the Karabakh Armenian Council.
The governorate provincial system was abolished in the early 1920s after the Sovietization of Azerbaijan. In early 1921—after the Sovietization of Armenia—a Dashnak Armenian revolt that spawned in Yerevan spread to the Zangezur Uyezd, becoming known as the Republic of Mountainous Armenia. The rebels led by Garegin Nzhdeh finally departed Zangezur in the summer of 1921 after receiving guarantees the district would remain part of Soviet Armenia.
|1897||1916||sq. vst.||sq. km.|
|Aresh||Арешскій уѣздъ||Aresh (Agdash)||67,277||99,400||2,318.16||2,638.21|
|Jevanshir||Джеванширскій уѣздъ||Terter (Tartar)||72,719||75,730||4,654.06||5,296.61|
|Elisabethpol||Елисаветпольскій уѣздъ||Elisabethpol (Ganja)||162,788||272,477||8,726.00||9,930.73|
|Zangezur||Зангезурскій уѣздъ||Gerusy (Goris)||137,871||226,398||6,742.92||7,673.86|
|Kazakh||Казахскій уѣздъ||Kazakh (Qazax)||112,074||137,049||5,096.52||5,800.16|
|Karyagino (Jebrail)||Карягинскій уѣздъ||Karyagino (Fuzuli)||66,360||89,584||3,276.81||3,729.21|
|Nukha||Нухинскій уѣздъ||Nukha (Shaki)||120,555||185,748||3,685.03||4,193.79|
The 1886 population estimate was 728,943, living in 3 cities (Elisabethpol, Nukha, and Shusha) and 1521 villages. According to 1886 statistics reported in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, the Orthodox Christians constituted 0.21% of the Governorate's population, and various sektanty ("sectarians") around 1% (~7,300 people). This means that most of the ethnic Russians in the governorate at the time (1.11% of the Governorate's 728,943 population in 1886) were members of various sectarian communities such as Doukhobors and Molokans.
Russian Empire census (1897)Edit
According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the Elisabethpol Governorate had a population of 878,415, including 34,776 men and 22,702 women. The majority of the population indicated Tatar (later known as Azerbaijani) to be their mother tongue, with a significant Armenian speaking minority.
|Other Christian denomination||1||2||3||0.00|
|Other non-Christian denomination||4||0||4||0.00|
Caucasian Calendar (1917)Edit
According to the 1917 publication of the Caucasian Calendar, the Elisabethpol Governorate had 1,275,131 residents in 1916, including 676,377 men and 598,754 women, 1,213,626 of whom were the permanent population, and 61,505 were temporary residents.
- Fokion Bulatov, 1868–1876
- Alexander Nakashidze, 1880–1897
- Ivan Kireyev, 1897–1900
- Nikolai Lutsau, 1900–1905
- Yegor Baranovsky, 1905 (acting)
- Alexander Kalachev, 1905–1907
- Samkalov, 1907–1908
- Georgi Kovalev, 1908–1916
- Mikhail Poyarkov, 1916–1917
- Later known as Azerbaijani.
- (in Russian) Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedia[permanent dead link]: Elisabethpol Governorate
- (in Russian) Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedia[permanent dead link]: Elisabethpol Governorate – additional information to the article
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elisavetpol". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 280. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- Полное собрание законов Российской империи. Собр. 2-е. Т. XLII. Ч. 2. Ст. 45259.
- Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti Ensiklopediyası: I cild. pp. 420–423.
- Мильман А. Ш. (1966). Политический строй Азербайджана в XIX — начале XX веков (административный аппарат и суд, формы и методы колониального управления). Баку: Азернешр. p. 157.
- Кавказский календарь на 1917 год [Caucasian calendar for 1917] (in Russian) (72nd ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1917. pp. 190–197. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021.
- Елизаветпольская губерния (Elizavetpol Governorate) in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian)
- "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-05-18.
- "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
- Lands of Ganja Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine