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Elijah Jefferson Bond (January 23, 1847 in Bel Air, Maryland - April 14, 1921 in Baltimore, Maryland) was an American lawyer and inventor.[1][2]



Although he invented and patented items, including a steam boiler, he is best remembered for patenting what became known as the ouija board. He filed for a United States patent on May 28, 1890. Charles W. Kennard and William H. A. Maupin were listed as assignees. The patent was granted on February 10, 1891.[3]

By 1907 Bond had relocated to West Virginia where he registered a trademark on the word "Nirvana" on June 18, 1907. The mark incorporated a swastika as its logo and the company which produced these boards was named The Swastika Novelty Company.[4]


Bond died at age 74, and is buried in Baltimore, Maryland's Green Mount Cemetery, beneath a marker that resembles an Ouija board.[5]


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Elijah Bond's Official Biography". Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  3. ^ Mitch Horowitz. "Ouija! How this American Anomaly Became More than Just Fun and Games". Esopus Fall 2006 Edition. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
  4. ^ "Image of Nirvana board with description". Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
  5. ^


  • Gruss, Edmund (1994), The Ouija Board: Horror of Reality, New York: P&R Publishing, pp. 13–15


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