Types include :
- Bioelectromagnetics, the study of how electromagnetic fields interact with and influence biological processes.
- Electrotherapy, the use of electrical or electromagnetic energy in medicine;
- Electromagnetic therapy (alternative medicine), the use of electromagnetic radiation to treat disease. Evidence of efficacy is lacking.
- Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy, or PEMF, the use of weak electromagnetic fields to initiate osteogenesis.
- Alternating electric field therapy, also known as "Tumor Treating Fields", the use of electric fields as an anti-mitotic therapy for cancer patients.
- Malmivuo, Jaakko; Robert Plonsey (1994). Bioelectromagnetism : principles and applications of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195058239.
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "The IEEE standard dictionary of electrical and electronics terms". 6th ed. New York, N.Y., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, c1997. IEEE Std 100-1996. ISBN 1-55937-833-6 [ed. Standards Coordinating Committee 10, Terms and Definitions; Jane Radatz, (chair)]
- Luben, RA (1991). "Effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and DC) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems". Health physics. 61 (1): 15–28. doi:10.1097/00004032-199107000-00002. PMID 2061045.
- Wang J, An Y, Li F, Li D, Jing D, Guo T, Luo E, Ma C. "The Effects Of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field On The Functions Of Osteoblasts On Implant Surfaces With Different Topographies". Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Military Medical University.
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