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Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions:

  • A temperature of 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F).
  • An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam.
  • A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value (1 atm) rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa.
  • An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent). The relation in electrode potential of metals in saltwater (as electrolyte) is given in the galvanic series.
  • Although many of the half cells are written for multiple-electron transfers, the tabulated potentials are for a single-electron transfer. All of the reactions should be divided by the stoichiometric coefficient for the electron to get the corresponding corrected reaction equation.
  • Divide the potentials by 0.059 V to get pe° values, which are necessary for the Nernst equation and other thermodynamic calculations.

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam; bold – water electrolysis equations.

Half-reaction (V) Ref.
Oxidant Reductant
& -9
Zz 9
Sr+ + e Sr −4.101 [1]
Ca+ + e Ca −3.8 [1]
Pr3+ + e Pr2+ −3.1 [1]
N3N2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HN3(aq) −3.09 [2][3]
Li+ + e Li(s) −3.0401 [3][4]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH −3.04 [2]
Cs+ + e Cs(s) −3.026 [3]
Ca(OH)2 + 2e Ca + 2 OH −3.02 [1]
Er3+ + e Er2+ −3.0 [1]
Ba(OH)2 + 2e Ba + 2 OH −2.99 [1]
Rb+ + e Rb(s) −2.98 [3]
K+ + e K(s) −2.931 [3]
Ba2+ + 2e Ba(s) −2.912 [3]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [3]
Fr+ + e Fr −2.9 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(s) −2.899 [3]
Sr(OH)2 + 2e Sr + 2 OH −2.88 [1]
Ca2+ + 2e Ca(s) −2.868 [3][4]
Li+ + C6(s) + e LiC6(s) −2.84 [3]
Eu2+ + 2e Eu(s) −2.812 [3]
Ra2+ + 2e Ra(s) −2.8 [3]
Ho3+ + e Ho2+ −2.8 [1]
Bk3+ + e Bk2+ −2.8 [1]
Yb2+ + 2e Yb −2.76 [1]
Na+ + e Na(s) −2.71 [3][5]
Mg+ + e Mg −2.70 [1]
Nd3+ + e Nd2+ −2.7 [1]
Mg(OH)2 + 2e Mg + 2 OH −2.690 [1]
Sm2+ + 2e Sm −2.68 [1]
Be2O32− + 3 H2O + 4e 2 Be + 6 OH −2.63 [1]
Pm3+ + e Pm2+ −2.6 [1]
Dy3+ + e Dy2+ −2.6 [1]
No2+ + 2e No −2.50 [1]
HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4e Hf + 4 OH −2.50 [1]
Th(OH)4 + 4e Th + 4 OH −2.48 [1]
Md2+ + 2e Md −2.40 [1]
Tm2+ + 2e Tm −2.4 [1]
La3+ + 3e La(s) −2.379 [3]
Y3+ + 3e Y(s) −2.372 [3]
Mg2+ + 2e Mg(s) −2.372 [3]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [3]
Pr3+ + 3e Pr −2.353 [1]
Ce3+ + 3e Ce −2.336 [1]
Er3+ + 3e Er −2.331 [1]
Ho3+ + 3e Ho −2.33 [1]
H2AlO3 + H2O + 3e Al + 4 OH −2.33 [1]
Nd3+ + 3e Nd −2.323 [1]
Tm3+ + 3e Tm −2.319 [1]
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Sm3+ + 3e Sm −2.304 [1]
Fm2+ + 2e Fm −2.30 [1]
Am3+ + e Am2+ −2.3 [1]
Dy3+ + 3e Dy −2.295 [1]
Lu3+ + 3e Lu −2.28 [1]
Tb3+ + 3e Tb −2.28 [1]
Gd3+ + 3e Gd −2.279 [1]
H2 + 2e 2H −2.23 [1]
Es2+ + 2e Es −2.23 [1]
Pm2+ + 2e Pm −2.2 [1]
Tm3+ + e Tm2+ −2.2 [1]
Dy2+ + 2e Dy −2.2 [1]
Ac3+ + 3e Ac −2.20 [1]
Yb3+ + 3e Yb −2.19 [1]
Cf2+ + 2e Cf −2.12 [1]
Nd2+ + 2e Nd −2.1 [1]
Ho2+ + 2e Ho −2.1 [1]
Sc3+ + 3e Sc(s) −2.077 [6]
AlF63− + 3e Al + 6 F −2.069 [1]
Am3+ + 3e Am −2.048 [1]
Cm3+ + 3e Cm −2.04 [1]
Pu3+ + 3e Pu −2.031 [1]
Pr2+ + 2e Pr −2.0 [1]
Er2+ + 2e Er −2.0 [1]
Eu3+ + 3e Eu −1.991 [1]
Lr3+ + 3e Lr −1.96 [1]
Cf3+ + 3e Cf −1.94 [1]
Es3+ + 3e Es −1.91 [1]
Pa4+ + e Pa3+ −1.9 [1]
Am2+ + 2e Am −1.9 [1]
Th4+ + 4e Th −1.899 [1]
Fm3+ + 3e Fm −1.89 [1]
Np3+ + 3e Np −1.856 [1]
Be2+ + 2e Be −1.847 [1]
H2PO2 + e P + 2 OH −1.82 [1]
U3+ + 3e U −1.798 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr/Hg −1.793 [1]
H2BO3 + H2O + 3e B + 4 OH −1.79 [1]
ThO2 + 4H+ + 4e Th + 2 H2O −1.789 [1]
HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4e Hf + H2O −1.724 [1]
HPO32− + 2 H2O + 3e P + 5 OH −1.71 [1]
SiO32− + H2O + 4e Si + 6 OH −1.697 [1]
Al3+ + 3e Al(s) −1.662 [1]
Ti2+ + 2e Ti(s) −1.63 [5]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Zr(s) + 2H2O −1.553 [7]
Zr4+ + 4e Zr(s) −1.45 [7]
Ti3+ + 3e Ti(s) −1.37 [8]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H2O −1.31
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2TiO(s) + H2O −1.23
Zn(OH)42− + 2e Zn(s) + 4OH −1.199 [7]
Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s) −1.185 [7]
Fe(CN)64− + 6H+ + 2 e Fe(s) + 6HCN(aq) −1.16 [9]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [10]
V2+ + 2e V(s) −1.13 [10]
Nb3+ + 3e Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH4(g) −1.07
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Si(s) + 2H2O −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e B(s) + 3H2O −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [9]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2e 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH −0.86 [9]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e Ti(s) + H2O −0.86
H2H2O + 2e H2(g) + 2OH −0.8277 [7]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH3 −0.8 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(s) −0.7618 [7]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e 2Ta(s) + 5H2O −0.75
Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s) −0.74
Ag2S(s) + 2e 2Ag(s) + S2−(aq) −0.69
Au[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) + 2CN −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
Ti2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti2O3(s) + H2O −0.56
Ga3+ + 3e Ga(s) −0.53
U4+ + e U3+ −0.52 [11]
P H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(white)[note 1] + 2H2O −0.508 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO2(aq) + H2O −0.499 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e P(red)[note 1] + 3H2O −0.454 [7]
Fe2+ + 2e Fe(s) −0.44 [5]
C2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+ + e Cr2+ −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s) −0.40 [5]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e GeO(s) + H2O −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2e 2Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(s) + SO42− −0.3588 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(Hg) + SO42− −0.3505 [7]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+ −0.35 [11]
In3+ + 3e In(s) −0.34 [10]
Tl+ + e Tl(s) −0.34 [10]
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH4(g) −0.29
Co2+ + 2e Co(s) −0.28 [7]
P H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO3(aq) + H2O −0.276 [7]
V3+ + e V2+ −0.26 [5]
Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH3(g) −0.23 [10]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I −0.15224 [7]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Mo(s) + 2H2O −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH4(g) −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e Sn(s) −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq) −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s) −0.126 [5]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e W(s) + 2H2O −0.12
P(red) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.111 [7]
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2Se(g) −0.11
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e CO(g) + H2O −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H2O −0.10
SnO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnO(s) + 2H2O −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e W(s) + 3H2O −0.09 [10]
P(white) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.063 [7]
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s) −0.04 [9]
C HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H2O −0.03
H 2H+ + 2e H2(g) 0.0000 = 0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [7]
S4O62− + 2e 2S2O32− +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e 3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085 [12]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e 2NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3 +0.10 [10]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [11]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH4+ + 4OH +0.11 [2]
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e Mo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+ + 4e Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH4(g) +0.13 [10]
C HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+ +0.159 [10]
S HSO4 + 3H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+ +0.163 [11]
S SO42− + 4H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ + H2O +0.19
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e Sb(s) + H2O +0.20
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl +0.22233 [7]
As H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e As(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H2O +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e U4+ + 2H2O +0.273 [11]
Re3+ + 3e Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e Bi(s) +0.308 [7]
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s) +0.337 [10]
VO2+ + 2H+ + e V3+ + H2O +0.34
Fe [Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4− +0.36
Fc+ + e Fc(s) +0.4 [13]
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e 4OH(aq) +0.401 [5]
Mo H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e Mo3+ + 2H2O +0.43
C CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH4(g) + H2O +0.50
S SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e S(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s) +0.520 [10]
C CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H2O +0.52
I3 + 2e 3I +0.53 [5]
I2(s) + 2e 2I +0.54 [5]
Au [AuI4] + 3e Au(s) + 4I +0.56
As H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56
Au [AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2I +0.58
MnO4 + 2H2O + 3e MnO2(s) + 4OH +1.692
S2O32 + 6H+ + 4e 2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e MoO2(s) + 2H2O +0.65
3Fe2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2 Fe3O4(s) + H2O +0.66 [14]:p.100
C 1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e Hydrochinon2.svg +0.6992 [7]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl62− + 2e PtCl42− + 2Cl +0.726 [11]
Se H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e Se(s) + 3H2O +0.74
PtCl42− + 2e Pt(s) + 4Cl +0.758 [11]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s) +0.7996 [7]
Hg22+ + 2e 2Hg(l) +0.80
N NO3(aq) + 2H+ + e NO2(g) + H2O +0.80
Fe 2FeO42− + 5H2O + 6e Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81 [9]
Au [AuBr4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Br +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e Hg(l) +0.85
Ir [IrCl6]2− + e [IrCl6]3− +0.87 [4]
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4 +0.90
Hg2Hg2+ + 2e Hg22+ +0.91 [10]
Pd2+ + 2e Pd(s) +0.915 [11]
Au [AuCl4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Cl +0.93
Fe2O3(s) + 6H+ + 2e 2Fe2+ + 3H2O +0.94 [14]:p.100
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e Mn3+ + 2H2O +0.95
NO3(aq) + 4H+ + 3e NO(g) + 2H2O(l) +0.958
Au[AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2Br +0.96
Xe[HXeO6]3− + 2H2O + 2e + [HXeO4] + 4OH +0.99 [15]
[VO2]+(aq) + 2H+ + e [VO]2+(aq) + H2O +1.0 [16]
TeH6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e TeO2(s) + 4H2O +1.02 [16]
Br2(l) + 2e 2Br +1.066 [7]
Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br +1.0873 [7]
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 2e 3Fe2+ + 4H2O +1.09 [14]:p.100
I IO3 + 5H+ + 4e HIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
Au [AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2Cl +1.15
Se HSeO4 + 3H+ + 2e H2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO3 + 2H+ + e ClO2(g) + H2O +1.18
Xe[HXeO6]3− + 5H2O + 8 e Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [15]
Pt2+ + 2e Pt(s) +1.188 [11]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq) +1.19
I 2IO3 + 12H+ + 10e I2(s) + 6H2O +1.20
ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e ClO3 + H2O +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e 2H2O +1.229 [5]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23
Xe[HXeO4] + 3H2O + 6 e Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [15]
Tl3+ + 2e Tl+ +1.25
Cr2O72− + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl +1.36 [5]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e Co3+ + 2H2O +1.42
N 2NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e N2H5+ + 2H2O +1.42 [2]
I 2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I2(s) + 2H2O +1.44
BrO3 + 5H+ + 4e HBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
PbO β-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.460 [10]
PbO α-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.468 [10]
Br 2BrO3 + 12H+ + 10e Br2(l) + 6H2O +1.48
Cl 2ClO3 + 12H+ + 10e Cl2(g) + 6H2O +1.49
Cl HClO(aq) + H+ + 2e Cl(aq) + H2O +1.49 [1]
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O +1.51
O HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3e Au(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Ni2+ + 2OH +1.59
Ce4+ + e Ce3+ +1.61
Cl 2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl2(g) + 2H2O +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e 2Ag+ + 3H2O +1.67
Cl HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+ + 2e Pb2+ +1.69 [10]
MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+ + H2O +1.77
O H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O +1.78
Co3+ + e Co2+ +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s) +1.83 [10]
BrO4 + 2H+ + 2e BrO3 + H2O +1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+ +1.98 [10]
S2O82− + 2e 2SO42− +2.010 [7]
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e O2(g) + H2O +2.075 [11]
Mn HMnO4 + 3H+ + 2e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e Xe(g) + 3H2O +2.12 [15]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e Xe(g) + 6 H2O +2.18 [15]
FeO42− + 3e + 8H+ Fe3+ + 4H2O +2.20 [17]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [15]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e XeO3(aq) + 3H2O +2.42 [15]
F2(g) + 2e 2F +2.87 [4][5][10]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HF(aq) +3.05 [10]
KrF2(aq) + 2e Kr(g) + 2F(aq) +3.27 [18]
  1. ^ a b Not specified in the indicated reference, but assumed due to the difference between the value −0.454 and that computed by (2×(−0.499) + (−0.508))/3 = −0.502, exactly matching the difference between the values for white (−0.063) and red (−0.111) phosphorus in equilibrium with PH3.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
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  13. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. (1 January 1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chemical Reviews. 96 (2): 877–910. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 
  14. ^ a b c Pang, Suh Cem; Chin, Suk Fun; Anderson, Marc A. (July 2007). "Redox equilibria of iron oxides in aqueous-based magnetite dispersions: Effect of pH and redox potential". J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311 (1): 94–101. PMID 17395194. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information.
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  17. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website.
  18. ^ http://acta.chem-soc.si/60/60-3-455.pdf.
General

See alsoEdit