Elections in Rome

All Rome residents who are at least 18 years old and hold an EU citizenship[1] are eligible to vote for the Mayor and the 48 members of the Capitoline Assembly, as well as for the President and the 30 or 40 members of the Council of the Municipality where they reside.

Since 1993 Italian mayors are elected directly. In all the cities with a population higher than 15,000 the voters express a choice for a mayor-candidate and/or for a party or civic list, not necessarily linked to the same mayor-candidate (voto disgiunto). If no mayor-candidate receives an absolute majority, the top two candidates go to a runoff election (ballottaggio) after two weeks. The City Council and Municipalities Councils elections are based on a proportional system with preferences: for each list, the candidates with the most preferences are elected proportionally to the seats assigned to the list, with the lists supporting the elected mayor being granted around 60% of the total seats to guarantee governability.

Elections are scheduled every five years, usually between 15 April and 15 June. The last election was held in June 2016.

Elections during the Italian Republic (since 1946)Edit

City Council election, 1946Edit

 
Salvatore Rebecchini, the first democratic Mayor (1946–1956)

The first democratic election after the fall of fascism took place on 10 November 1946.

After the Liberation of Rome on 4 June 1944, Independent nobleman Filippo Andrea VI Doria Pamphili had been appointed as Provisional Mayor by the National Liberation Committee under approval of the United Nations military government. When the authority of the Italian government was restored in 1946, local elections in the whole country were called.

Proportional representation and Westminster system were the principles chosen to restore municipal democracy in Italy.

No clear winner emerged from the election and no force was able to achieve the 41 seats needed for an overall majority. The unitary left-wing list formed by socialists and communists won the largest number of votes and seats but still fell 11 seats short from an absolute majority. The right-wing populist movement Common Man's Front, founded in February that year by the comedian Guglielmo Giannini, performed well and came second, surpassing for just a few votes the catholic Christian Democracy.[2]

Coalition talks began immediately but the reaction of a stable alliance failed. On 10 December 1946 the City Council elected Salvatore Rebecchini (DC) as new Mayor of Rome, but after two weeks he resigned due to the impossibility to form a stable executive board, paving the way for a snap election.

Parties Votes % Seats  
Bloc of the People
(Italian Socialist PartyItalian Communist Party)
PSI-PCI 190,183 36.2 30
Common Man's Front UQ 106,872 20.7 17
Christian Democracy DC 104,633 20.3 17
Italian Republican Party PRI 40,444 7.8 6
National Monarchist Party PNM 36,148 7.0 5
Italian Liberal Party PLI 25,911 5.0 4
Independents 12,369 2.4 1
Total 516,560 100.0 80

Sunday 10 November 1946. Sources: La Stampa , 1946–1955 Local Elections (Italian)

City Council election, 1947Edit

The snap election took place on 12 October 1947.

As for the previous municipal election, no clear winner emerged from the competition. The left-wing Bloc of the People list gained again the most seats. Differently from the 1946 election, the Common Man's Front did poorly and lost more than half of its votes, while Christian Democracy enforced its position making a net gain of 10 seats with more than 32% of votes.

As a result of the election, on 5 November 1947 the City Council re-elected Salvatore Rebecchini (DC) as Mayor. Rebecchini obtained 41 votes out of 80 and his election was made possible thanks to the support of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement. He formed a centre-right municipal executive board composed by DC, UQ and PLI.[3]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Bloc of the People
(Italian Socialist PartyItalian Communist Party)
PSI-PCI 208,566 33.4   3.4 28   2
Christian Democracy DC 204,247 32.7   12.4 27   10
Common Man's Front UQ 63,462 10.2   10.5 8   9
Italian Republican Party PRI 36,701 5.9   1.9 5   1
National Monarchist Party PNM 32,691 5.2   1.8 4   1
Italian Social Movement MSI 24,620 3.9   3.9 3   3
Socialist Party of Italian Workers PSLI 24,967 4.0   4.0 3   3
Italian Liberal Party PLI 11,683 1.9   3.1 1   3
Independents 16,223 2.6   0.2 1  
Total 623,574 100.0 80

Sunday 12 October 1947. Sources: La Stampa , 1946–1955 Local Elections (Italian)

City Council election, 1952Edit

The election took place on 25 May 1952.

National political situation had deeply changed during the previous five years. In 1951 Alcide De Gasperi's government changed the local electoral law to a block voting system, to ensure the leadership of its local administrations: two thirds of the seats would be ensured to the winning coalition, abolishing the proportional representation.

The election saw a considerable and unprecedented intervention from the Vatican to secretly influence the electoral outcome. Pope Pius XII was rather distrustful of De Gasperi and Christian Democracy, considering the party indecisive and fractious – reformist currents within it particularly, which tended to the moderate left. On the eve of the municipal election, in which again the Communist and Socialist parties threatened to win out, he used informal connections to make his views known. The pope stated that the war against communism was a holy war and excommunicated members of the Italian Communist Party. Having decided to encourage the Christian democrats to consider a political alliance with the right-wing parties as part of an anti-communist coalition, he asked the Jesuit Father Riccardo Lombardi to speak with De Gasperi and convince him to consider such an alliance – an electoral alliance with those even of monarchist and neo-fascist tendencies –including the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement. Adopting a domino theory he warned that, if "the Communists win in Rome, in Italy, it will cast a shadow on the entire world: France would become Communist, and then Spain and then all of Europe".[4] De Gasperi instead rejected the idea as politically dangerous to the long term fortunes of his party and sustained a centrist electoral alliance.

In the election the centrist coalition obtained an absolute majority. The incumbent Mayor Salvatore Rebecchini was re-elected at the head of an executive formed by DC, PSDI, PRI and PLI.[5]

Coalitions and parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Seats by party

 
Seats by coalition
Centrist Coalition 374,998 40.9 53
Christian Democracy 285,036 31.1   1.6 39   9
Italian Liberal Party 39,879 4.3   2.4 6   5
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 29,895 3.3   0.7 4   1
Italian Republican Party 20,688 2.2   3.7 4   1
Leftist Coalition 314,045 34.3 16
List of the City
(Italian Socialist PartyItalian Communist Party)
306,803 33.5   0.1 16   12
Lighthouse List
(Leftist Independents)
5,624 0.6   0.6 0  
Labour 1,618 0.2   0.2 0  
Italian Social Movement 142,825 15.6   11.7 8   5
Monarchist National Party 53,842 5.9   0.7 3   1
Independents 18,987 2.1   0.5 0   1
Total 910,657 100.0 80

Sunday 25 May 1952. Sources: La Stampa , 1946–1955 Local Elections (Italian)

City Council election, 1956Edit

The election took place on 27 May 1956.

Again the electoral system for local elections had been changed: after Alcide De Gasperi's government had retired in 1953 the 1951-electoral law based on a block voting system, the previous electoral system based on a proportional representation was restored. This election was anticipated by the effect of a new disposition which ordered a new 4 years-term legislature.

For the first time communists and socialists run separately, undermining their possibilities to won the plurality of votes, as it happened in the previous municipal elections. The centrist coalition was confirmed again as the strongest political alliance in the City Council, despite the electoral campaign had been deeply influenced by the scandal of the building speculation denounced by the prominent magazine L'espresso.[6]

On 2 July 1956 Umberto Tupini (DC) was elected Mayor at the head of a centrist executive composed by DC, PLI and PSDI.[7]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 323,881 32.1   1.0 27  
Italian Communist Party PCI 244,082 24.2 20
Italian Social Movement MSI 122,185 12.3   3.3 10   2
Italian Socialist Party PSI 108,809 10.6 9
National Monarchist Party PNM 56,421 5.6   0.3 4   1
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 45,805 4.5   1.2 3   1
Italian Liberal Party PLI 42,735 4.2   0.1 3   3
People's Monarchist Party PMP 32,691 3.2   3.2 2   2
Italian Republican Party PRI 16,436 1.6   0.6 1   3
Radical Party PR 12,259 1.2   1.2 1   1
Independents 6,172 0.6   2.0 0  
Total 1,011,123 100.0 80

Sunday 27 May 1956. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1960Edit

 
Ted Kennedy (left) and Urbano Ciocchetti (right), who served as Mayor during the 1960 Summer Olympics

The election took place on 6 November 1960.

The centrist coalition which had run the local administration during the 1960 Summer Olympics was confirmed again as the strongest political alliance in the City Council.

The incumbent mayor Urbano Ciocchetti (DC), who succeeded Tupini in 1958, was re-elected at the head of a minority centre-right executive formed by DC and PLI with the external support of PSDI and PRI. However, in July 1961 Ciocchetti resigned due to a political crisis, paving the way for another snap election.[8]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 397,069 33.9   1.8 28   1
Italian Communist Party PCI 269,838 23.0   1.2 19   1
Italian Social Movement MSI 177,932 15.2   2.9 12   2
Italian Socialist Party PSI 153,928 13.1   2.5 11   2
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 55,680 4.8   0.3 3  
Italian Liberal Party PLI 47,775 4.1   0.1 3  
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity PDIUM 31,663 2.7   2.7 2   2
Italian Republican Party PRI 17,741 1.5   0.1 1  
People's Monarchist Party PMP 15,420 1.3   1.9 1   1
Independents 3,395 0.3   0.4 0  
Total 1,170,441 100.0 80

Sunday 6 November 1960. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1962Edit

The snap election took place on 10 June 1962.

After one year of commissarial tenure resulted from the deep political crisis of the centrist coalition, the election led to the formation of the first centre-left executive in the history of the city, formed by DC, PSDI, PRI and PSI.

On 17 July 1962 Glauco Della Porta (DC) was elected Mayor by the City Council with 40 votes out of 80.[8]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 365,940 29.2   4.7 24   4
Italian Communist Party PCI 285,771 22.8   0.2 19  
Italian Social Movement MSI 198,248 15.8   0.6 13   1
Italian Socialist Party PSI 158,199 12.6   0.5 10   1
Italian Liberal Party PLI 103,606 8.3   4.2 6   3
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 78,496 6.3   1.5 5   2
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity PDIUM 35,498 2.8   0.1 2  
Italian Republican Party PRI 16,943 1.3   0.2 1  
Radical Party PR 1,608 0.1   0.1 0  
Independents 8,413 0.7   0.5 0  
Total 1,252,722 100.0 80

Sunday 10 June 1962. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1966Edit

The election took place on 12 June 1966.

Despite considerable losses for the Italian Socialist Party, the centre-left coalition in its complex won the majority of seats in the City Council (41 out of 80). However the election saw the incredible surge of the centre-right Italian Liberal Party, which obtained more than 10% of votes and managed to become for the first time the third party in a Roman municipal election. This exceptional growth of the liberals – and the contemporary defeat of the Italian Socialist Party – can be explained by the poor economic results of the first centre-left national government and by the ability of the liberal leader Giovanni Malagodi to draw some votes from the Italian Social Movement and the Monarchist Party, whose electoral base was composed also by conservatives suspicious of the socialists.[8][9]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 437,138 30.8   1.6 26   2
Italian Communist Party PCI 359,454 25.3   2.5 21   2
Italian Liberal Party PLI 151,829 10.7   2.4 9   3
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 136,164 9.6   3.3 8   3
Italian Social Movement MSI 131,971 9.3   6.5 7   6
Italian Socialist Party PSI 108,239 7.6   5.0 6   4
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity PDIUM 32,838 2.3   0.5 1   1
Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity PSIUP 29,637 2.1   2.1 1   1
Italian Republican Party PRI 24,301 1.7   0.4 1  
Independents 8,956 0.6   0.1 0  
Total 1,420,507 100.0 80

Sunday 12 June 1966. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1971Edit

 
Clelio Darida served as Mayor for nearly seven years (1969–1976)

The election took place on 13 June 1971.

The centre-left coalition obtained again the majority of seats in the City Council. However the incumbent Mayor Clelio Darida (DC) decided to dismiss the alliance and form a minority executive composed only by members of the Christian Democracy with the external support of minor parties.[8][9]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 449,286 28.3   2.5 24   2
Italian Communist Party PCI 403,119 25.4   0.1 21  
Italian Social Movement MSI 257,481 16.2   6.9 13   6
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 165,823 10.4   0.8 8  
Italian Socialist Party PSI 131,758 8.3   0.7 7   1
Italian Republican Party PRI 66,608 4.2   2.5 3   2
Italian Liberal Party PLI 61,738 3.9   6.8 3   6
Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity PSIUP 21,813 1.4   0.7 1  
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity PDIUM 17,849 1.1   1.2 0   1
Independents 11,132 0.7   0.1 0  
Total 1,586,607 100.0 80

Sunday 13 June 1971. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1976Edit

 
Giulio Carlo Argan led the first left-wing executive as Mayor (1976–1979)

The election took place on 20 June 1976.

Similarly to the previous year municipal elections which saw the unprecedented win of left-wing parties across the country, the Italian Communist Party became for the first time in history the first party with 35% of the votes. This extraordinary result led to the birth of the first red-giunta in the history of the city: the new coalition was formed by the leftist Socialist and Communist Party.[8]

On 9 August 1976 the notorious left-wing independent art historian Giulio Carlo Argan was elected Mayor.

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Italian Communist Party PCI 676,207 35.5   10.1 30   9
Christian Democracy DC 630,922 32.1   4.8 27   3
Italian Social Movement MSI 201,344 10.6   5.6 8   5
Italian Socialist Party PSI 145,793 7.6   0.7 6   1
Italian Republican Party PRI 78,384 4.1   0.1 3  
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 70,211 3.7   6.7 3   5
Radical Party PR 37,404 2.0   2.0 1   1
Italian Liberal Party PLI 32,821 1.7   2.2 1   2
Proletarian Democracy DP 31,395 1.6   1.6 1   1
Independents 1,795 0.1   0.6 0  
Total 1,906,649 100.0 80

Sunday 20 June 1976. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1981Edit

The election took place on 21 June 1981.

The left-wing coalition formed by communists and socialists won a decisive absolute majority of seats in the City Council.

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Italian Communist Party PCI 619,049 36.1   0.6 31   1
Christian Democracy DC 508,144 29.6   2.5 25   2
Italian Socialist Party PSI 173,555 10.1   2.5 8   2
Italian Social Movement MSI 148,905 8.7   1.9 7   1
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 79,213 4.6   0.9 4   1
Italian Republican Party PRI 69,503 4.1   3  
Italian Liberal Party PLI 51,402 3.0   1.3 2   1
Proletarian Democracy DP 19,069 1.1   0.5 0   1
Independents 48,145 2.8   2.7 0  
Total 1,716,985 100.0 80

Sunday 21 June 1981. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1985Edit

The election took place on 12 May 1985.

After the death of the incumbent communist Mayor Luigi Petroselli, his successor Ugo Vetere (PCI) was increasingly under the attack of Christian Democracy, which asked for his resignation in October 1984.[8][9]

The election resulted in a defeat for the left-wing coalition. On 30 July 1985 Nicola Signorello (DC) was elected new Mayor at the head of a centre-left executive formed by the members of the Pentapartito coalition.

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 629,952 33.1   3.5 28   3
Italian Communist Party PCI 586,036 30.8   5.3 26   5
Italian Socialist Party PSI 195,905 10.3   0.2 8  
Italian Social Movement MSI 177,198 9.3   0.6 7  
Italian Republican Party PRI 74,916 3.9   0.2 3  
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 67,775 3.6   1.0 3   1
Federation of Green Lists 51,291 2.7   2.7 2   2
Italian Liberal Party PLI 48,423 2.5   0.5 2  
Proletarian Democracy DP 26,705 1.4   0.3 1   1
Independents 43,764 2.3   0.5 0  
Total 1,901,965 100.0 80

Sunday 12 May 1985. Source: La Stampa

City Council election, 1989Edit

 
Franco Carraro (centre) in 1992. As first socialist Mayor, he led a centre-left executive formed by parties of Pentapartito coalition (1989–1993)

The snap election took place on 29 October 1989.

After a scandal related to the school canteens management, the incumbent Mayor Pietro Giubilo was forced to resign and, since the city Council failed to elected his successor, a snap election was called. Pentapartito alliance retained the majority of seats in the City Council and on 19 December 1989 elected the socialist sport manager Franco Carraro as new Mayor.[8][9]

Parties Votes % +/- Seats +/-  
Christian Democracy DC 570,890 33.0   0.1 29   1
Italian Communist Party PCI 476,248 26.6   4.2 23   3
Italian Socialist Party PSI 246,322 13.8   3.5 11   3
Federation of Green Lists 124,710 7.0   4.3 5   3
Italian Social Movement MSI 122,628 6.7   2.6 5   2
Italian Republican Party PRI 63,866 3.6   0.3 3  
Italian Democratic Socialist Party PSDI 53,942 3.0   0.6 2   1
Italian Liberal Party PLI 33,750 1.9   0.6 1   1
Antiprohibitionists on Drugs 32,311 1.8   1.8 1   1
Proletarian Democracy DP 10,121 0.6   0.8 0   0
Independents 55,637 2.9   0.3 0  
Total 1,791,328 100.0 80

Sunday 29 October 1989. Source: La Stampa

Mayoral and City Council election, 1993Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 1997Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2001Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2006Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2008Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2013Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2016Edit

Mayoral and City Council election, 2021Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Cittadini comunitari alle urne". Ministero dell‘Interno (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  2. ^ Bull, Martin J.; Newell, James L. (2005), Italian Politics, Polity Press, p. 84
  3. ^ Berardi, Giandfranco (1976), Storia del malgoverno democristiano a Roma, L'Unità (Italian)
  4. ^ Ventresca, Robert, Soldier of Christ, p.246
  5. ^ "Salvatore Rebecchini". treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  6. ^ Insolera, Italo (1971), Roma Moderna, Einaudi, p. 212 (Italian)
  7. ^ "Umberto Tupini". treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Roma". treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  9. ^ a b c d "Storia amministrativa di Roma". carteinregola.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-12.