Open main menu

Geddington, Northamptonshire, the best-preserved of the original crosses, and the only triangular one.
Sites of the Eleanor crosses

The Eleanor crosses were a series of twelve tall and lavishly decorated stone monuments topped with crosses in a line down part of the east of England. King Edward I had them erected between 1291 and about 1295 in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile, who died in November 1290, marking the nightly resting-places along the route taken when her body was transported to London. The crosses stood at Lincoln, Grantham, Stamford, Geddington, Hardingstone (outside Northampton), Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St Albans, Waltham (now Waltham Cross), Cheapside (in London) and Charing (now Charing Cross, in Westminster). Three – those at Geddington, Hardingstone and Waltham Cross – survive more or less intact, but the other nine are lost.

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Procession and burialsEdit

 
Eleanor of Castile, Queen Consort of England 1272–90
 
A cross similar to the Eleanor crosses in the early 14th-century Luttrell Psalter

Following her death on 28 November 1290 at Harby, Nottinghamshire, the body of Queen Eleanor was carried to Lincoln, a few miles away, where she was embalmed – probably either at the Gilbertine priory of St Catherine in the south of the city, or at the priory of the Dominicans.[1] Her viscera, less her heart, were buried in the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral. Eleanor's other remains were carried to London, a journey lasting 12 days. Her heart was buried in the abbey church at the London Dominicans' priory at Blackfriars (a house that she and Edward had heavily patronised), along with that of her young son Alphonso, Earl of Chester, who had died in 1284; while her body went on to Westminster Abbey, where she was buried at the feet of her father-in-law King Henry III.

CommemorationEdit

Tomb monumentsEdit

Both the burial of Eleanor's body at Westminster and her visceral burial at Lincoln were subsequently marked by ornate effigial monuments, both with similar life-sized gilt bronze effigies cast by the goldsmith William Torell.[2][3] Her heart burial at the Blackfriars was marked by another elaborate monument, but probably not with a life-sized effigy.[4][5] The Westminster Abbey monument survives. The Lincoln monument was destroyed in the 17th century, but was replaced in 1891 with a reconstruction, not on the site of the original.[6][7][8] The Blackfriars monument was lost at the priory's dissolution in 1538.[4][5]

CrossesEdit

The twelve crosses were erected to mark the places where Eleanor's funeral procession had stopped overnight. Their construction is documented in the surviving executors' account rolls, which run from 1291 to March 1294, but not thereafter. By the end of that period, the crosses at Lincoln, Hardingstone, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St Albans and Waltham were complete or nearly so, and those at Cheapside and Charing in progress; but those at Grantham, Stamford and Geddington apparently not yet begun. It is assumed that these last three were erected in 1294 or 1295, and that they were certainly finished before the financial crisis of 1297 which brought a halt to royal building works.[9] A number of artists worked on the crosses, as the account rolls show, with a distinction generally drawn between the main structures, made locally under the direction of master masons appointed by the King, and the sculptural figures, brought from London. Master masons included Richard of Crundale, Roger of Crundale (probably Richard's brother), Michael of Canterbury, Richard of Stow, John of Battle and Nicholas Dymenge.[9] Sculptors included Alexander of Abingdon and William of Ireland, both of whom had worked at Westminster Abbey, and Ralph of Chichester: they were paid £3 6s. 8d. per figure.[10][11]

Purpose and parallelsEdit

Eleanor's crosses appear to have been intended in part as cenotaphs to encourage prayers for her soul from travellers; and in part as expressions of royal power.[12][13][14]

It was not unknown for memorial crosses to be constructed in the middle ages, although they were normally isolated instances and relatively simple in design. A cross in the Strand, near London, was said to have been erected by William II in memory of his mother, Queen Matilda (d. 1083). Henry III erected one at Merton, Surrey, for his cousin the Earl of Surrey (d. 1240). Another was erected at Reading for Edward I's sister Beatrice (d. 1275). Yet another, almost contemporary with the Eleanor crosses, was erected near Windsor for Edward's mother, Eleanor of Provence (d.1291).[15][16][17]

However, the closest precedent for the Eleanor crosses, and almost certainly their model, was the series of crosses known as montjoies erected along the funeral route of King Louis IX of France in 1271. These were elaborate structures incorporating sculptural representations of the King, and were erected in part to promote his canonisation. Eleanor's crosses did not aspire to this last purpose, but in design were even larger and more ornate than the montjoies, being of three rather than two storeys.[18][15][19]

The twelve crossesEdit

The three crosses still standing are those at Geddington, Hardingstone and Waltham Cross, although a few fragments of some of the others survive elsewhere.

 
The surviving fragment of the St Catherine's, Lincoln, cross

LincolnEdit

(53°12′51″N 00°32′47″W / 53.21417°N 0.54639°W / 53.21417; -0.54639)
Eleanor's viscera were buried in Lincoln Cathedral on 3 December 1290. The Lincoln cross was built between 1291 and 1293 by Richard of Stow at a total recorded cost of over £120, with sculptures by William of Ireland.[20][21] John Leland, in the early 1540s, noted that "a litle without Barre [gate] is a very fair crosse and large".[22] It is thought to have stood at St Catherine's, an area at the end of Lincoln's High Street, but had disappeared by the early 18th century. The only surviving piece is a fragmentary statue, rediscovered in the 19th century and now in the grounds of Lincoln Castle.[23]

GranthamEdit

 
2015 plaque in Grantham

(52°54′37″N 00°38′25″W / 52.91028°N 0.64028°W / 52.91028; -0.64028)
Eleanor's bier spent the night of 4 December 1290 in Grantham, Lincolnshire.[24][25] The master mason for the cross here is not known: it was probably constructed in 1294 or 1295. It stood at the upper end of the High Street. It was pulled down during the Civil War, but in February 1647 Grantham Corporation ordered that any stones that could be traced should be recovered for public use. No part is known to survive, but it is conceivable that the substantial steps of the standing Market Cross comprise stones that originally belonged to the Eleanor Cross. A letter from the 18th-century antiquary William Stukeley (now untraceable) is alleged to have stated that he had one of the lions from Eleanor's coats of arms in his garden.[26]

A modern relief stone plaque to Eleanor was installed at the Grantham Guildhall in 2015.[27]

StamfordEdit

(52°39′22″N 00°29′37″W / 52.65611°N 0.49361°W / 52.65611; -0.49361)
Eleanor's bier spent the night of 5 December 1290, and possibly also that of 6 December, in Stamford, Lincolnshire.[24][25] The master mason for the cross here is not known: it was probably constructed in 1294 or 1295. There has been some debate about its precise location, but it appears to have stood just outside the town on the Great North Road (modern Casterton Road, the B1081), in what is now the Foxdale area.[28]

The cross was in decay by the early 17th century, and in 1621 the town council ordered some restoration work, although it is unclear whether this was carried out.[29] Richard Symonds reported in 1645: "In the hill before ye come into the towne, stands a lofty large crosse built by Edward III, in memory of Elianor his queene, whose corps rested there coming from the North."[30] It may have been further damaged during the Civil War; and in 1717 Richard Butcher, the Town Clerk, described it as "so defaced, that only the Ruins appeare to my eye".[31][28] It had probably disappeared by 1730.[32]

In the 1740s, William Stukeley attempted to excavate the remains of the cross, and succeeded in recovering several fragments. His sketch of the top portion, which seems to have stylistically resembled the Geddington Cross, is found in his diaries in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.[33][28] A single small fragment, a carved marble rose was rediscovered in 1993.[28][34] Following the closure of Stamford Museum in 2011, this fragment is now displayed in the Discover Stamford area at the town's library.

A modern monument was erected in Stamford in 2009 in commemoration of Eleanor: see Replicas and imitations below.

GeddingtonEdit

 
The Geddington cross

(52°26′15″N 00°41′07″W / 52.43750°N 0.68528°W / 52.43750; -0.68528)
Eleanor's bier spent the night of either 6 or 7 December 1290, or possibly both, in Geddington, Northamptonshire.[24][25] The master mason for the cross here is not known: it was probably constructed in 1294 or 1295. It was recorded by William Camden in 1607;[35] and still stands in the centre of the village, the best-preserved of the three survivors.[36] It is unique among the three in having a triangular plan, and a taller and more slender profile with a lower tier entirely covered with rosette diapering, instead of the arch-and-gable motif with tracery which appears on both the others; and canopied statues surmounted by a slender hexagonal pinnacle.[37] It is possible that the other northern crosses (Lincoln, Grantham and Stamford) were in a similar style, and that the crosses became progressively larger and more ornate as the sequence proceeded south.[38]

An engraving of the Geddington cross (drawn by Jacob Schnebbelie and engraved by James Basire) was published by the Society of Antiquaries in its Vetusta Monumenta series in 1791.[39][40] It was "discreetly" restored in 1892.[37]

Hardingstone, NorthamptonEdit

 
The Hardingstone cross

(52°13′02″N 00°53′50″W / 52.21722°N 0.89722°W / 52.21722; -0.89722)
Eleanor's bier spent the night of 8 December 1290, and perhaps also that of 7 December, at Hardingstone, on the outskirts of Northampton.[24][25] The cross here was constructed between 1291 and 1292 by John of Battle, at a total recorded cost of over £100.[20] William of Ireland and Ralph of Chichester carved the statues.[41][42] The cross is still standing, close to Delapré Abbey, on the side of the A508 leading out of Northampton, and just north of the junction with the A45. The King stayed nearby at Northampton Castle.

The monument is octagonal in shape and set on steps: the present steps are replacements. It is built in three tiers, and originally had a crowning terminal, presumably a cross.[43] The terminal appears to have gone by 1460: there is mention of a "headless cross" at the site from which Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, watched Margaret of Anjou's flight following the Battle of Northampton.[44] The monument was restored in 1713, to mark the Peace of Utrecht and the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, and this work included the fitting of a new terminal in the form of a Maltese cross.[45] Further repairs were undertaken in 1762.[46] At a later restoration in 1840, under the direction of Edward Blore, the Maltese cross was replaced by the picturesque broken shaft which is seen today.[47] Later, less intrusive restorations were undertaken in 1877 and 1986.[48][42]

The bottom tier of the monument features open books. These probably included painted inscriptions of Eleanor's biography and of prayers for her soul to be said by viewers, now lost.

 
Plaque recording the history of the Hardingstone Cross

John Leland, in the early 1540s, recorded it as "a right goodly crosse, caullid, as I remembre, the Quenes Crosse", although he seems to have associated it with the 1460 Battle of Northampton.[49] It is also referred to by Daniel Defoe in his Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, in reporting the Great Fire of Northampton in 1675: "... a townsman being at Queen's Cross upon a hill on the south side of the town, about two miles (3.2 km) off, saw the fire at one end of the town then newly begun, and that before he could get to the town it was burning at the remotest end, opposite where he first saw it."

Celia Fiennes in 1697 describes it as "a Cross, a mile off the town call'd High-Cross – it stands just in the middle of England – its all stone 12 stepps which runs round it, above that is the stone carv'd finely and there are 4 large Nitches about the middle, in each is the statue of some queen at length which encompasses it with other carvings as garnish, and so it rises less and less to the top like a tower or Piramidy."[50][51]

An engraving of the Hardingstone cross (drawn by Jacob Schnebbelie and engraved by James Basire) was published by the Society of Antiquaries in its Vetusta Monumenta series in 1791.[52][40]

 
Plaque in Stony Stratford

Stony StratfordEdit

(plaque at 52°03′32″N 00°51′24″W / 52.05889°N 0.85667°W / 52.05889; -0.85667)

Eleanor's bier spent the night of 9 December 1290 at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire.[24][25] The cross here was built between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a total recorded cost of over £100.[20] It stood at the lower end of the town, towards the River Ouse, on Watling Street (now the High Street), although its exact location is debated. It is said to have been of a tall elegant design (perhaps similar to that at Geddington). It was described by William Camden in 1607 as minus elegantem ("none of the fairest"), suggesting that it was by this date in a state of decay.[53] It is said to have been demolished in about 1643. In 1735, William Hartley, a man of nearly 80, could remember only the base still standing.[54][55] Any trace has now vanished.

The cross is commemorated by a brass plaque on the wall of 157 High Street.[56]

WoburnEdit

(approximately at 51°59′20″N 00°37′10″W / 51.98889°N 0.61944°W / 51.98889; -0.61944)

Eleanor's bier spent the night of 10 December 1290 at Woburn, Bedfordshire.[24][25] Work on the cross here started in 1292, later than some of the others, and was completed in the spring of 1293. It was built by John of Battle, at a total recorded cost of over £100;[20] with statues supplied by Ralph of Chichester.[54][57] No part survives. The precise location, and its fate, are unknown.

DunstableEdit

(51°53′10″N 00°31′16″W / 51.88611°N 0.52111°W / 51.88611; -0.52111)

Eleanor's bier spent the night of 11 December 1290 at Dunstable, Bedfordshire.[24][25] It was guarded by Canons in Dunstable Priory, while local people mourned at the crossroads. The cross was built between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a total recorded cost of over £100.[20] The statues were supplied by Ralph of Chichester.[54] It is thought to have been located in the middle of the town, probably in the market place, and was reported by William Camden as still standing in 1586.[58] It is said to have been demolished in 1643 by troops under the Earl of Essex. No part survives, although some of the foundations are reported to have been discovered during roadworks at the beginning of the 20th century.[59][60]

The Eleanor's Cross Shopping Precinct in High Street North contains a modern statue of Eleanor, erected in 1985.[61]

St AlbansEdit

(51°45′04″N 00°20′26″W / 51.75111°N 0.34056°W / 51.75111; -0.34056)

Eleanor's bier spent the night of 12 December 1290 at St Albans, Hertfordshire.[24][25] The cross here was built between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a total recorded cost of over £100,[20] with some of the sculpture supplied by Ralph of Chichester.[62][63] It was erected at the south end of the Market Place, and for many years stood in front of the fifteenth-century Clock Tower in the High Street, opposite the Waxhouse Gateway entrance to the Abbey.

In 1596, it was described as "verie stately".[63] However, having fallen into decay, and having probably been further damaged during the Civil War, it was eventually demolished in 1701–02, to be replaced by a market cross. This was demolished in turn in 1810, although the town pump it contained survived a little longer. A drinking fountain was erected on the site by philanthropist Isabella Worley in 1874: this was relocated to Victoria Square nearby in the late 20th century.[62][64][65]

A late 19th-century ceramic plaque on the Clock Tower commemorates the Eleanor cross.

Waltham (now Waltham Cross)Edit

 
The Waltham cross

(51°41′09″N 00°01′59″W / 51.68583°N 0.03306°W / 51.68583; -0.03306)
Eleanor's bier spent the night of 13 December 1290 at Waltham (now Waltham Cross), Hertfordshire.[24][25] The cross here was built in about 1291 by Roger of Crundale and Nicholas Dymenge at a total recorded cost of over £110.[20] The sculpture was supplied by Alexander of Abingdon.[66][67] It was located outside the village of Waltham, but as the village grew into a town in the 17th and 18th centuries, it began to suffer damage from passing traffic. In 1721, at the instigation of William Stukeley and at the expense of the Society of Antiquaries, two oak bollards were erected "to secure Waltham Cross from injury by carriages".[68][69] The bollards were subsequently removed by the turnpike commissioners, and in 1757 Stukeley arranged for a protective brick plinth to be erected instead, at the expense of Lord Monson.[70][71] The cross is still standing, but has been restored on several occasions, in 1832–34, 1885–92, 1950–53, and 1989–90.[72][73][74]

The Society of Antiquaries published an engraving of the cross based on a drawing by Stukeley in its Vetusta Monumenta series in 1721; and another, drawn by Jacob Schnebbelie and engraved by James Basire, in the same series in 1791.[75][76][70]

The original statues of Eleanor, which were extremely weathered, were replaced by replicas at the 1950s restoration.[77] The originals were kept for some years at Cheshunt Public Library; but they were removed, possibly in the 1980s, and are now held by the Victoria & Albert Museum.[70] A photograph formerly on the Lowewood Museum website[78] shows one of the original statues in front of a staircase at the library.

Westcheap (now Cheapside)Edit

 
The coronation procession of Edward VI passing the Cheapside cross in 1547: a 19th-century wood engraving based on a lost mural at Cowdray House, Sussex

(51°30′51″N 00°05′41″W / 51.51417°N 0.09472°W / 51.51417; -0.09472)

Eleanor's bier reached the City of London on 14 December 1290, and a site for the cross was selected in Westcheap (now Cheapside).[24][25] Her heart was buried in the Blackfriars priory on 15 December. The Cheapside cross was built from 1291 onwards by Michael of Canterbury at a total recorded cost of £226 13s. 4d.[20][79]

It was extensively restored or rebuilt in 1484–86, under a licence granted by Henry VI in 1441.[80] It was subsequently regilded several times in the 16th century on the occasion of coronations and royal visits to the City.[81][82] John Stow included a detailed account of the cross and its history in his Survay of London of 1598, updating it in 1603.[82]

Although a number of images of the cross and its eventual destruction survive, these all postdate its various refurbishments, and so provide no certain guide to its original appearance.[79] However, the chronicler Walter of Guisborough refers to this and Charing Cross as being fashioned of "marble"; and it is likely that it was similar to the Hardingstone and Waltham Crosses, but even more ornate and boasting some Purbeck marble facings.[79][83]

The cross came to be regarded as something of a public hazard, both as a traffic obstruction and because of concerns about fragments falling off; while some of its Catholic imagery aroused resentment in the post-Reformation period, and elements were defaced in 1581, 1599 and 1600–01.[81][82][84] Matters came to a head during the years leading up to the Civil War. To puritanical reformers, it was identified with Dagon, the ancient god of the Philistines, and was seen as the embodiment of royal and Catholic tradition. At least one riot was fought in its shadow, as opponents of the cross descended upon it to pull it down, and supporters rallied to stop them. After Charles I had fled London to raise an army, the destruction of the cross was almost the first order of business for the Parliamentary Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry, led by Sir Robert Harley, and it was demolished on 2 May 1643.[85][86] The downfall of the Cheapside Cross is an important episode of iconoclasm in English history.

Two Purbeck marble fragments of the original cross, displaying shields bearing the royal arms of England and of Castile and León, were recovered in 1838 during reconstruction of the sewer in Cheapside. They are now held by the Museum of London.[87]

Charing (now Charing Cross)Edit

 
The original Eleanor Cross at what became known as Charing Cross, London

(51°30′26″N 00°07′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750)

 
Charing Cross shown on John Norden's map of Westminster, 1593. North-west is to the top.

Eleanor's bier spent the final night of its journey, 16 December 1290, in the Royal Mews at Charing (now Charing Cross), Westminster, a short distance from Westminster Abbey.[24][25] The cross here was the most expensive of the twelve, built of Purbeck marble from 1291 onwards by Richard of Crundale, the senior royal mason, with the sculptures supplied by Alexander of Abingdon. Richard died in the autumn of 1293, and the work was completed by Roger of Crundale, probably his brother. The total recorded cost was over £700.[20][88][89]

The cross stood outside the Royal Mews, at the top of what is now Whitehall, and on the south side of what is now Trafalgar Square (laid out in 1837–44). John Norden in about 1590 described it as the "most stately" of the series, but now so "defaced by antiquity" as to have become "an old weather-beaten monument".[90] It was also noted by William Camden in 1607.[91]

It was ordered to be taken down by Parliament in 1643, and was eventually demolished in 1647.[92][93] Following the demolition, a contemporary ballad ran:[94]

Undone! undone! the lawyers cry,
They ramble up and down;
We know not the way to Westminster
Now Charing-Cross is down.

After the Restoration of Charles II, an equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur was erected on the site of the cross in 1675, and this still stands. The location is still known as Charing Cross, and since the early 19th century this point has been regarded as the official centre of London, in legislation and when measuring distances from London.[95]

A new Eleanor cross was erected in 1865 outside Charing Cross railway station, several hundred yards from the original site: see Replicas and imitations below.

A 100-metre-long mural by David Gentleman on the platform walls of Charing Cross underground station, commissioned by London Transport in 1978, depicts, in the form of wood engravings, the story of the building of the medieval cross by stonemasons and sculptors.[96]

Folk etymology holds that the name Charing derives from French chère reine (dear queen);[97] but the name in fact pre-dates Eleanor's death and probably comes from the Anglo-Saxon word ċerring, meaning a bend, as it stands on the outside of a sharp bend in the River Thames (compare Charing in Kent).

Replicas and imitationsEdit

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries several replica Eleanor crosses, or monuments more loosely inspired by them, were erected.

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 32–34.
  2. ^ Colvin 1963, pp. 481–82.
  3. ^ Alexander and Binski 1987, pp. 364–66.
  4. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 482–83.
  5. ^ a b Galloway 1914, pp. 79–80.
  6. ^ Kendrick, A. F. (1917). The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: a history and description of its fabric and a list of the bishops. London: G. Bell and Sons. pp. 130–31.
  7. ^ Parsons 1995, p. 208.
  8. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 68–69 (gives the erroneous date of 1901).
  9. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 483–4.
  10. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 65.
  11. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 357.
  12. ^ Chronicle of St Albans.
  13. ^ Colvin 1963, p. 485.
  14. ^ Cockerill 2014, pp. 351–52.
  15. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 484–85.
  16. ^ Parsons 1991, pp. 18, 60.
  17. ^ Parsons 1995, p. 209.
  18. ^ Evans, Joan (1949). "A prototype of the Eleanor crosses". Burlington Magazine. 91: 96–97.
  19. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 351.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Colvin 1963, p. 483.
  21. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 68.
  22. ^ Toulmin Smith, Lucy, ed. (1907). The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535–1543. 1. London: George Bell and Sons. p. 30.
  23. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 65–67.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Powrie 1990, p. 194.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cockerill 2014, p. 345.
  26. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 80–81.
  27. ^ "Plaque harking back to Queen Eleanor memorial cross to be unveiled at Grantham's Guildhall". Grantham Journal. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  28. ^ a b c d "Stamford Eleanor Cross". Lincs To The Past. Lincolnshire Archives. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  29. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 83.
  30. ^ Symonds, Richard (1859). Long, Charles Edward (ed.). Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army during the Great Civil War. Camden Society. Westminster: Camden Society. p. 230.
  31. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 69.
  32. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 82–84.
  33. ^ Cockerill 2014, pp. 355, 367, plate 46.
  34. ^ Smith, John F. H. (1994). "A fragment of the Stamford Eleanor Cross". Antiquaries Journal. 94: 301–311.
  35. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 377.
  36. ^ Powrie 1990, 105–6.
  37. ^ a b Historic England. "Queen Eleanor's Cross  (Grade I) (1286992)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  38. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 357.
  39. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. 3. 1791. p. 14.
  40. ^ a b Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 362.
  41. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 72–73.
  42. ^ a b Powrie 1990, pp. 124–26.
  43. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus; Cherry, Bridget. Northamptonshire. Buildings of England (2nd ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 353–54. ISBN 0-300-09632-1.
  44. ^ Page, William, ed. (1930). "The Borough of Northampton". A History of the County of Northampton. 3. London. p. 3.
  45. ^ Warrington 2018, pp. 110–12.
  46. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 72.
  47. ^ Salzman, L. F., ed. (1937). "Hardingstone". A History of the County of Northampton. 4. London. p. 253.
  48. ^ Historic England. "The Eleanor Cross  (Grade I) (1039797)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  49. ^ Toulmin Smith, Lucy, ed. (1907). The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535–1543. 1. London: George Bell and Sons. p. 8.
  50. ^ Morris, Christopher, ed. (1949). The Journeys of Celia Fiennes (2nd ed.). London: Cresset Press. pp. 118–19.
  51. ^ Fiennes, Celia. "1697 Tour: Coventry to London". A Vision of Britain through Time. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  52. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. 3. 1791. p. 12.
  53. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 280.
  54. ^ a b c Galloway 1914, p. 73.
  55. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 129–30.
  56. ^ "Stony Stratford: Queen Eleanor's Cross". Milton Keynes Heritage Association. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  57. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 130.
  58. ^ Camden, William (1607) [1586]. Britannia. London. p. 286.
  59. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 73–74.
  60. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 135–36.
  61. ^ Dunstable cross Archived 15 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine on the Bedfordshire website.]
  62. ^ a b Powrie 1990, p. 141.
  63. ^ a b Galloway 1914, p. 74.
  64. ^ Kitton, F. G. (1901). "The Clock Tower, St Albans: its origin and history" (PDF). St Albans and Hertfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society Transactions. n.s. 1: 298–319 (308).
  65. ^ Page, William, ed. (1908). "The City of St Albans: Introduction". A History of the County of Hertford. 2. London. p. 470.
  66. ^ Image of the cross at Waltham.
  67. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 148–49.
  68. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 149–50.
  69. ^ Boulting, Nikolaus (1976). "The law's delays: conservationist legislation in the British Isles". In Fawcett, Jane (ed.). The Future of the Past: attitudes to conservation, 1174–1974. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8230-7184-5.
  70. ^ a b c Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 363.
  71. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 75.
  72. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 151–52.
  73. ^ Historic England. "Eleanor Cross  (Grade I) (1173222)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  74. ^ Historic England. "Eleanor Cross, Waltham Cross (1017471)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  75. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. 1. 1747. p. 7.
  76. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. 3. 1791. p. 16.
  77. ^ [1] Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  78. ^ [2] Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ a b c Powrie 1990, p. 165.
  80. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 166.
  81. ^ a b Powrie 1990, pp. 165–66.
  82. ^ a b c Stow, John (1908) [1603]. Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge (ed.). A Survey of London. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 265–67.
  83. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 356.
  84. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 76–77.
  85. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 368.
  86. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 77.
  87. ^ Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 364.
  88. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 177–78.
  89. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 77–78.
  90. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 78.
  91. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 311.
  92. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 177–79.
  93. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 79.
  94. ^ Mackay, Charles, ed. (1863). "The lawyers' lamentation for the loss of Charing-Cross". The Cavalier Songs and Ballads of England from 1642 to 1684. London: Griffin Bohn & Co. p. 55.
  95. ^ Where is the centre of London? BBC
  96. ^ Gentleman 1979.
  97. ^ "The Eleanor Crosses". Eleanor of Castille. Museum of London. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  98. ^ Ilam photograph
  99. ^ "Charing Cross". Network Rail. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  100. ^ "Renovated Eleanor's Cross in Charing Cross unveiled". News London. BBC. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  101. ^ Scott, George Gilbert (1873). The National Memorial to His Royal Highness the Prince Consort. London: John Murray. pp. 16, 35–36.
  102. ^ "Eleanor Cross, 2009, Stamford, U.K." www.wolfgangbuttress.com. Retrieved 14 June 2009.

Further readingEdit

  • Alexander, Jonathan; Binski, Paul, eds. (1987). "The Eleanor crosses". Age of Chivalry: art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400. London: Royal Academy of Arts. pp. 361–66.
  • Cockerill, Sara (2014). Eleanor of Castile: the shadow queen. Stroud: Amberley. pp. 342–59. ISBN 9781445635897.
  • Colvin, H. M. (1963). "Royal tombs and monuments, 1066–1485". In Colvin, H. M. (ed.). The History of the King's Works. 1. London: HMSO. pp. 477–90 (479–85).
  • Crook, David (1990). "The last days of Eleanor of Castile: the death of a queen in Nottinghamshire, November 1290". Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire. 94: 17–28.
  • Galloway, James (1914). Historical Sketches of Old Charing: The Hospital and Chapel of Saint Mary Roncevall: Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England, and the Monuments Erected in her Memory. London: John Bale, Sons & Danielsson. pp. 51–82.
  • Gentleman, David (1979). A Cross for Queen Eleanor: the story of the building of the mediaeval Charing Cross, the subject of the decorations of the Northern Line platforms of the new Charing Cross Underground Station. London: London Transport. ISBN 0-85329-101-2.
  • Hunter, Joseph (1842). "On the death of Eleanor of Castile, consort of King Edward the First, and the honours paid to her memory". Archaeologia. 29: 167–91.
  • Parsons, David, ed. (1991). Eleanor of Castile 1290–1990: essays to commemorate the 700th anniversary of her death. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1871615984.
  • Parsons, John Carmi (1995). Eleanor of Castile: queen and society in thirteenth-century England. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 0333619706.
  • Powrie, Jean (1990). Eleanor of Castile. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 0947731792.
  • Warrington, Decca (2018). The Eleanor Crosses: the story of King Edward I's lost queen and her architectural legacy. Oxford: Signal Books. ISBN 978-1-909930-65-0.

External linksEdit