Square Enix Europe

  (Redirected from Eidos Interactive)

Square Enix Limited (trading as Square Enix Europe;[a][5] formerly Domark Limited and Eidos Interactive Limited) is a British video game publisher, acting as the European subsidiary of Japanese video game company Square Enix group. It manages Square Enix's Western studios, contains Square Enix's Western external publishing division, Square Enix External Studios and indie initiative, Square Enix Collective. Square Enix Ltd.'s area of activity are Europe and other PAL territories,[6] while Square Enix, Inc.'s (Square Enix America, based in Los Angeles) area of activity are the Americas,[7] though both share "Phil" Rogers as CEO and other executives.

Square Enix Limited
Square Enix Europe
  • Domark Limited (1984–1990)[1]
  • Domark Group Limited (1990–1996)[1]
  • Eidos Interactive Limited (1996–2009)[1]
IndustryVideo games
Founded1984; 37 years ago (1984) in Putney, London, England
  • Mark Strachan
  • Dominic Wheatley
Key people
  • Philip Timo "Phil" Rogers (CEO Americas and Europe)
  • John Heinecke (CMO Americas and Europe)[3]
SubsidiariesSee § Studios

The company was founded as Domark in 1984 by Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley. In 1995, the company was acquired by Eidos and was merged with two other studios and renamed Eidos Interactive the following year. Eidos was in turn acquired by SCi in 2005, and Eidos Interactive was sold to Square Enix in 2009. On 9 November 2009, Square Enix completed the merger of its existing European branch with Eidos Interactive, renaming the resulting company Square Enix Europe. With the consolidation of Square Enix's Western divisions around 2015,[8] Square Enix Ltd. and Square Enix Inc. are collectively referred to as Square Enix West.[9]

Square Enix Europe's headquarter is in Southwark, London (Square Enix London), it has office in Paris, France (Square Enix France) and Hamburg, Germany (Square Enix Germany).[10][11][12] Intellectual properties owned by Square Enix Ltd. include Tomb Raider, Deus Ex, Just Cause and Life Is Strange, among others.


Foundation as Domark (1984–1995)Edit

Former Domark logo (1984–1996)

In 1984, Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley founded Domark as a video game publisher.[13][14][15] Its first title was 1984's Eureka!, written by Ian Livingstone.[16] Livingstone would go on to become deputy chairman of the company a few years later,[17] and would stay in various roles at the company,[18] until his departure from the company in 2013.[19][20] Located within London's Putney district, the company held its own development team, The Kremlin, in the publisher's headquarters basement.[21] Domark was primarily remembered as the publisher for Championship Manager and Hard Drivin'.[22]

Transformation into Eidos Interactive (1995–2005)Edit

Former Eidos Interactive logo (2003–2009)

On 25 September 1995, Eidos plc acquired Domark, alongside Simis and Big Red Software, for a total of GB£12.9 million;[23] and on 31 May 1996, Simis and Big Red Software were merged into Domark to create Eidos Interactive as an Eidos plc subsidiary.[24]

Eidos Interactive acquired CentreGold in April 1996 for GB£17.6 million. CentreGold consisted of distributor CentreSoft and publisher U.S. Gold, which also included developers Core Design and Silicon Dreams Studio,[25][26] though the latter would be re-acquired by its founder, Geoff Brown, through his newly founded Geoff Brown Holdings, on 16 December that year.[27] The Eidos Interactive acquisition was months prior to the release of Tomb Raider by Core Design, which CentreGold had acquired two years prior.[28]

Acquisition by SCi (2005–2009)Edit

In March 2005, Eidos admitted that cash reserves had dwindled to GB£11.9 million during the second half of 2004, and pre-tax losses had grown to GB£29 million.

On 21 March 2005, Eidos received a takeover bid from Elevation Partners, the private equity firm owned by former Electronic Arts president John Riccitiello and with a number of notable partners, including U2's lead singer Bono. This takeover valued the company at GB£71 million, and would inject GB£23 million in order to keep the company from bankruptcy in the short term.[29]

The following day, Eidos received a second takeover bid from the British games manufacturer SCi. The company offered GB£74 million, and tabled a restructuring plan to cut GB£14 million from annual costs. To fund this takeover, SCi proposed to sell GB£60 million worth of stock. Eventually, in late April, Elevation Partners formally withdrew its offer, leaving the way clear for SCi. The takeover was finalized on 16 May 2005, with SCi merging itself into Eidos Interactive's parent, renaming it SCi Entertainment Group Limited.

In May 2006, Eidos announced that independent developer Rebellion Developments had acquired Core Designs' assets and staff, while the Core brand and intellectual property, including Tomb Raider, remained in Eidos' possession. In December 2006, Warner Bros. license classic properties to SCi, while investing for 10.3% of SCi shares.[30]

Since the SCi purchase, the vast majority of the old Eidos Interactive management were let go. SCi left its Battersea Office and moved into the old Eidos Interactive office on the second floor of Wimbledon Bridge House, 1 Hartfield Road, Wimbledon. Eidos Interactive announced on 15 February 2007 that it would open a new studio in Montreal, Quebec, Canada responsible for "new undisclosed next-generation projects". Eidos-Montréal started developing a new game in the Deus Ex franchise.[31][32]

In February 2007, Eidos Interactive acquired Rockpool Games, along with its two sister companies Ironstone Partners and SoGoPlay, and proceeded to close Rockpool Games (Manchester studio[33]) in 2009.[34]

On 4 September 2007, the board of SCi Entertainment confirmed recent speculation that the company has been approached with a view to making an offer.[35] On 10 January 2008, SCi announced take over and/or merger talks had been halted.[36][37] As a result, the share price dropped by over 50%. Major investors called for the resignation of key personnel, including chief executive officer (CEO) Jane Cavanagh, over this issue as well as delays to key titles.[38] On 18 January 2008, Jane Cavanagh, Bill Ennis and Rob Murphy left the company.[39]

When SCi revealed its 2008 financial report, losses were at GB£100 million, but new CEO Phil Rogers claimed this was only due to the reconstructing plans.[40] On 19 September 2008, Eidos Interactive opened a Shanghai-based studio, Eidos Shanghai, consisting of a small team to build up relations in Asia.[41] Also in 2008, Eidos set up an entity, which later became Square Enix London Studios in their Wimbledon headquarters.[42][43]

Takeover by Square Enix (2009–present)Edit

In February 2009, Square Enix reached an agreement to purchase Eidos Interactive for GB£84.3 million, pending shareholder approval,[44] with an initial aim of fully buying Eidos Interactive on 6 May 2009.[45] The date was brought forward, and Square Enix officially took over Eidos Interactive on 22 April 2009.[46]

Square Enix initially stated that it would let Eidos Interactive remain structured as it was at the time of its takeover.[47] It subsequently announced in July 2009 that it would merge Eidos with its own pre-existing European subsidiary, Square Enix Limited (itself established in December 1998).[48][49] The merger would create a new entity, tentatively titled Square Enix Europe.[50][51] The merger was completed on 9 November 2009 with the Square Enix Europe name being permanently retained as the resulting company name.[52] The Eidos name was however retained for the development studios Eidos Montreal and Eidos Shanghai.

With the 2013 restructuring of Square Enix,[53] layoffs followed[54] and Phil Rogers became CEO of Americas and Europe.[55][56]

In 2014, Square Enix Collective launched, an indie developer service provider headed by Phil Elliot.[57] In September 2018, COO Mike Sherlock died, with Square Enix's executive team assuming his immediate responsibilities.[58] In 2019, Square Enix branded their external publishing division Square Enix External Studios,[59][60] which is headed by Jon Brooke and Lee Singleton.[61] In June 2020, Square Enix donated $2.4 million to charities around their Western studios and offices, which were partially raised from sales of its discounted Square Enix Eidos Anthology bundle.[62][63] A new mobile studio called Square Enix London Mobile, working on Tomb Raider Reloaded and an unannounced title based on Avatar: The Last Airbender with Navigator Games, was announced on 20 October 2021.[64]



Games publishedEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Square's former British subsidiary was named Square Europe Ltd. from its incorporation in 1998 to 2003. After the Square and Enix merger, it was renamed to Square Enix Europe Ltd. and in 2004 to its current legal name, Square Enix (2009) Limited.[4]


  1. ^ a b c "SQUARE ENIX LIMITED - Overview". beta.companieshouse.gov.uk. Companies House. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  2. ^ "A Look Inside Square Enix's Stylish London Office". Officelovin'. 21 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Square Enix announces John Heinecke as new CMO". MCV/DEVELOP. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  4. ^ Fahey, Rob (2 July 2004). "Square Enix announces European reorganisation". GamesIndustry.biz.
  5. ^ "Ukie Member". ukie.org.uk. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  6. ^ "SQUARE ENIX TERMS OF SERVICE". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  7. ^ "SQUARE ENIX - Documents". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  8. ^ "Hip to be Square: US and EU boss Phil Rogers on the publisher's huge line-up". MCV/DEVELOP. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2020. The industry changes and one of the big things over the last couple of the years has been the European team working hand-in-hand with the American team, and since March this year we’ve had them working officially across LA and London
  9. ^ "Square Enix West Material Usage Policy". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020. this Policy applies only to games developed and published by Square Enix’s western division, not to games developed or published by Square Enix’s Japanese affiliates (including Square Enix’s Japanese office, Luminous Productions, and Taito Corporation).
  10. ^ "Square Enix | Jobs & Career Opportunities". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Businesses|SQUARE ENIX HOLDINGS CO., LTD". www.hd.square-enix.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  12. ^ "SQUARE ENIX - Modern Slavery Act Transparency In Supply Chain Statement". square-enix-games.com. 17 March 2020. Corporate Structure: i. USA – Eidos Inc. and Crystal Dynamics Inc. ii. Canada – Eidos Interactive Corp. iii. UK – SCi Games Ltd, Eidos Ltd, Centregold Ltd and SCi Entertainment Group Ltd. iv. France – Square Enix SARL. v. Germany – Square Enix GmbH. vi. Denmark – IO Interactive Holdings A/S. vii. China – Eidos Creative Software (Shanghai) Co. Ltd.
  13. ^ Arena, Paul (27 June 2005). "In2Games appoints Mark Strachan as Non-Executive Director". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  14. ^ Martin, Matt (21 December 2006). "iDVD will broaden videogame market, says Tomb Raider boss". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  15. ^ Weber, Rachel (27 June 2012). "New CEO and commercial director for Kuju". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  16. ^ Gibson, Ellie (3 January 2006). "Ian Livingstone receives OBE for services to industry". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  17. ^ Remo, Chris (23 April 2010). "Eidos Life President Ian Livingstone Granted British Inspiration Award". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  18. ^ Gibson, Ellie (30 September 2005). "Livingstone takes on new role at Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  19. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (30 September 2013). "Eidos President and CEO Ian Livingstone departs after 20 years". Polygon. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  20. ^ Martin, Matt (30 September 2013). "Ian Livingstone leaves Eidos". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  21. ^ Stuart, Keith (19 November 2016). "The Ant Man: my year in development hell". Eurogamer. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  22. ^ Fahey, Rob (27 April 2009). "Square and Eidos: The History". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  23. ^ "EIDOS ACQUIRES THREE COMPANIES, UNVEILS PLACING". Telecompaper. 25 September 1995. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  24. ^ Sherman, Christopher (April 1996). "Four Way Merger Between Domark, Big Red, Simis, and Eidos". Next Generation. No. 16. Imagine Media. p. 23.
  25. ^ Publishing (25 July 2008). "Deals that shook the industry: 5/10". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  26. ^ IGN Staff (15 July 2003). "Core Founder Steps Down". IGN. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  27. ^ "SILICON DREAMS TO BE 75% ACQUIRED BY NEW FIRM". Telecompaper. 16 December 1996. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  28. ^ Moss, Richard (31 March 2015). ""It felt like robbery": Tomb Raider and the fall of Core Design". Ars Technica. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  29. ^ Maragos, Nich; Carless, Simon (21 March 2005). "Elevation Partners Purchases Eidos". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  30. ^ Dobson, Jason; Boyer, Brandon (15 December 2006). "Warner Bros, SCi Sign Investment, Licensing Agreement". Gamasutra.com. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  31. ^ Alexander, Leigh (26 November 2007). "Eidos Announces Deus Ex 3, Talks New Montreal Studio". Gamasutra. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  32. ^ Thorsen, Tor (26 November 2007). "Eidos resurrecting Deus Ex?". GameSpot. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  33. ^ Martin, Matt (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes Manchester studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  34. ^ Sliwinski, Alexander (23 January 2009). "Eidos closes mobile developer Rockpool Games". Engadget. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  35. ^ Elliott, Phil (4 September 2007). "SCi confirms approach has been made". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  36. ^ "Lara Croft firm scraps bid talks". BBC. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Takeover talk at Tomb Raider firm". BBC. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  38. ^ Armitstead, Louise (13 January 2008). "Game Over for Tomb Raider boss". The Times. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
  39. ^ Gage, Terence (18 January 2008). "Eidos management quit due to pressure from shareholders". Thunderbolt. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  40. ^ Publishing (15 September 2008). "SCi results reaction". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  41. ^ Publishing (19 September 2008). "Eidos opens Shanghai base". MCV. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  42. ^ Nutt, Christian (1 August 2011). "Square Enix Nabs Rights To True Crime: Hong Kong From Activision". www.gamasutra.com.
  43. ^ "Enix rising". MCV/DEVELOP. 14 April 2010.
  44. ^ Plunkett, Luke (12 February 2009). "Square Enix Trying To Buy Tomb Raider". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  45. ^ Fahey, Mike (4 March 2009). "Eidos Pencils In Square Enix Takeover For May". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  47. ^ Fahey, Mike (27 March 2009). "Square Enix Lets Eidos Be Eidos". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  48. ^ "SQUARE ENIX (2009) LIMITED - Overview (free company information from Companies House)". find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk.
  49. ^ "Square Enix Annual Report for 2004" (PDF). Square Enix. 2004. p. 67. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  50. ^ Elliott, Phil (7 July 2009). "Square Enix revamps Europe operation". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  51. ^ Plunkett, Luke (8 July 2009). "Goodbye Eidos, Hello Square Enix Europe". Kotaku. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  52. ^ Elliott, Phil (10 November 2009). "Square Enix confirms European identity". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  53. ^ "The Square Enix reboot". MCV/DEVELOP. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  54. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (29 April 2013). "Square Enix Europe hit with layoffs as company-wide restructuring continues". Polygon. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  55. ^ Rogers, Phil. "A note from Phil Rogers, CEO". square-enix-games.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  56. ^ Weber, Rachel. "Square Roots: The man in charge of Square Enix's Western future". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  57. ^ Weber, Rachel. "Square Enix Collective launches". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  58. ^ Kerr, Chris. "Obituary: Square Enix America and Europe COO Mike Sherlock". www.gamasutra.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  59. ^ "Businesses|SQUARE ENIX HOLDINGS CO., LTD". www.hd.square-enix.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020. UK: Square Enix Ltd.; Square Enix External Studios
  60. ^ "SQUARE ENIX UNVEILS OUTRIDERS". www.gamasutra.com. Retrieved 15 August 2020. Square Enix External Studios is a London based development and publishing group that works with top development studios across the world, establishing new intellectual properties and developing new franchises within the umbrella of the Square Enix group of companies.
  61. ^ McCaffrey, Ryan. "Outriders Bosses Discuss Working on Hitman, Just Cause, Sleeping Dogs, and More – IGN Unfiltered #52 - IGN". IGN. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  62. ^ Reed, Chris (11 May 2020). "Square Enix Eidos Anthology: Get 54 Games for $39, for Charity". IGN.
  63. ^ Kratky, Otto (18 June 2020). "Square Enix Raises $2.4 Million With Stay Home & Play Campaign". DualShockers. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  64. ^ Batchelor, James (20 October 2021). "Square Enix opens London mobile studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  65. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (13 August 2018). "Crystal Dynamics opening Washington studio". GamesIndustry.biz.
  66. ^ Knoop, Joseph (26 May 2021). "Crystal Dynamics Opens Southwest Studio Led by Industry Vets". IGN.
  67. ^ Dealessandri, Marie (16 June 2020). "Square Enix announces new Eidos-Sherbrooke studio". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved 16 June 2020.

External linksEdit