Eibar (Basque: Eibar, Spanish: Éibar) is a city and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. It is the head town of Debabarrena, one of the eskualde / comarca of Gipuzkoa.
|Autonomous community||Basque Country|
|• Mayor||Miguel de los Toyos (PSE-EE)|
|• Total||24.56 km2 (9.48 sq mi)|
|Elevation||121 m (397 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
Eibar has 27,138 inhabitants (Eustat, 2018). Its chief industry is metal manufacturing, and has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments, particularly finely engraved small arms. It was also the home of Serveta scooters.
Eibar lies at an altitude of 121m above sea level, in the west of the province of Gipuzkoa, right next to Biscay. Eibar has an oceanic climate. The town lies in a narrow valley in a mountainous area, the highest mountains are between 700 and 800 metres high. Eibar is traversed by river Ego, which is a tributary of the Deba.
Apart from the urban area, the municipality consists of five rural neighbourhoods: Otaola-Kinarraga, Aginaga, Arrate, Mandiola and Gorosta.
The feudal families that dominated the territory engaged in the War of the Bands. Eibar, like the rest of settlements in the valley, had an industry based on finery forges and the manufacture of arms. In 1766, Eibar got engaged in a social revolt known as the Machinada, and years later, in 1794, it was attacked by the French, who destroyed the town.
In the 19th century, industrialisation transformed the production systems in the city and was accompanied by an important social movement. In the Carlist Wars, Eibar sided with the Liberals. Labour movement and socialism became particularly strong in Eibar. In 1931, Eibar was the first city in Spain to proclaim the Second Spanish Republic; in recognition it was given the title of "Very Exemplary City".
In the Spanish Civil War, Eibar was practically destroyed. The rebuilding brought important industrial development and a demographic increase, as Eibar reached nearly 40,000 inhabitants in a few years.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Eibar's economy is based on industry and services.
- Church of San Andrés, built during the 16th and 17th centuries, it has a Gothic style with Renaissance and Baroque elements.
- Sanctuary of the Virgin of Arrate, from the beginning of the 17th century.
- Hermitage of Azitain, it contains an odd 17th-century beardless Christ.
- Palace of Unzueta, from the 17th century.
- Palace of Aldatze, from the 17th century.
- Palace of Markeskua, from the 16th century.
- City Hall, built in concrete over the river Ego, designed by architect Ramón Cortázar and inaugurated on 14 September 1901.
- Coliseo Theatre, inaugurated in 1947 and refurbished in 2007.
Eibar is traversed by the AP-8 motorway connecting Bilbao and the French border, and the N-634 road running pararell to it. The AP-1 motorway connects Eibar and Vitoria-Gasteiz. AP-8 and AP-1 meet at the Maltzaga motorway junction located in the east of Eibar.
Regular and frequent bus services under Lurraldebus connect Eibar to neighbouring towns, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao Airport. BizkaiBus provides regular and frequent bus services to and from Bilbao. ALSA runs a daily service to and from Madrid-Barajas Airport and Madrid.
Eibar also has an urban bus service called Udalbus.
Eibar is located on the Bilbao-San Sebastián narrow gauge railway line. Trains operated by Euskotren run frequently and regularly to Bilbao-Matiko station and Donostia-Amara station. Services are more frequent in the Ermua-Eibar-Elgoibar section.
- Basque pelota
The Astelena fronton, nicknamed the Cathedral of Basque Hand-pelota, is a regular venue of the hand-pelota professional circuit competitions the Bare-handed Pelota First League, the Bare-handed Pelota First League Doubles and the Cuatro y Medio Euskadi Championship.
Since 2009, the city hosts an annual stage finish in the Tour of Basque Country, usually after the riders have climbed the Alto de Arrate. Before 2009, this was a traditional finish in the Euskal Bizikleta, which originated in Eibar as Bicicleta Eibarresa. The Arrate-finish has also been included in the Vuelta a España in 1972, 1974 and 2012.
- Francisco de Ibarra (1539–1575), explorer and conqueror
- Martín Ignacio de Loyola (1550–1606), missionary and navigator
- Ignacio de Soroeta (?–17??), Governor of Paraguay
- Juan Antonio Mogel (1745–1804), writer
- Ignacio Zuloaga (1870–1945), painter
- Ciriaco Errasti (1904–1984), footballer
- Baltasar Albéniz (1905–1978), football manager
- Roberto Etxebarria Arruti (1908–1981), footballer
- Miguel Gallastegui (1918–2019), Basque pelotari
- Alberto Ormaetxea (1939–2005), footballer and football manager
- Luis Aranberri (1945–), politician and journalist
- Javier Aguirresarobe (1948–), cinematographer
- Koldo Zuazo (1956–), linguist
- Enrique Zuazua (1961–), mathematician
- Maite Zúñiga (1964–), athlete
- Pedro Horrillo (1974–), cyclist
- Markel Susaeta (1987–), footballer
- Jon Errasti (1988–), footballer
- Markel Alberdi (1991–), swimmer
- Mikel Oyarzabal (1997–), footballer
- "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "Eibar". Basque Statistics Office. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- "Eibar". Foral Council of Gipuzkoa (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Eibar". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Baserriak eta auzoak". Egoibarra (in Basque). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Historia de Eibar". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Año 1346". Cronología Histórica (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Eibar, el orgullo republicano". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Habitantes de Eibar". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ""La inmigración llegada a Eibar contribuyó a la construcción de una ciudad mejor"". El Diario Vasco (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- Eibarko ahozko ondarea, from Ahotsak.com website.
- Ahotsak.com. Youtube (January 2014). Eibarko ahozko ondarea. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6P7TxE8OLY
- "Parroquia San Andrés". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Santuario de Arrate". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "El Cristo imberbe, uno de los pocos que hay en el mundo". El Correo (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Casa-Torre de Unzueta". Basque Country Tourism Department (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Palacio Iñarra (Aldatze)". Egoibarra (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Palacio de los Isasi (Markeskua)". Basque Country Tourism Department (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Casa Consistorial de Eibar". Basque Country Tourism Department (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Teatro Coliseo". Eibar City Council (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Carreteras". Foral Council of Gipuzkoa (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Líneas y Horarios". Lurraldebus (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Bizkaibus". Foral Council of Biscay (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Se pone en marcha el nuevo servicio de autobús desde Eibar hasta Madrid". El Diario Vasco (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Servicio Udalbus Eibar". City Council of Eibar (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "El campus de Eibar". University of the Basque Country (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- Zubía y otros, Rafael (1989). Escuela de Armería de Éibar Eibarko Armeria Eskola 75 urteurrena. CIUDAD: Eibar EDITORIAL: Escuela de Armería. BI 1171/89.
- "Euskal Bizikleta: una carrera con base histórica". Juanjo Sebastian (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "El Santuario de Arrate, final de etapa de la Vuelta Ciclista a España" (in Spanish). SER. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
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