Effective altruism

Effective altruism (EA) is a philosophical and social movement that advocates "using evidence and reason to figure out how to benefit others as much as possible, and taking action on that basis".[1][2] People who pursue the goals of effective altruism are labeled effective altruists.[3]

Common practices of effective altruists include significant charitable donation and choosing careers based on the amount of good that the career achieves, which may include the strategy of earning to give. Popular cause priorities within effective altruism include global health and development, animal welfare, and risks to the survival of humanity over the long-term future.

The philosophy of effective altruism emphasizes impartiality, with broad applications to the prioritization of scientific projects, entrepreneurial ventures, and policy initiatives estimated to save the most lives or reduce the most suffering.[4]: 179–195  Whether or not effective altruists should consider difficult-to-measure but potentially high-impact interventions such as institutional or structural change remains controversial.

The movement developed during the 2000s, and the name effective altruism was coined in 2011.[5] Prominent philosophers influential to the movement include Peter Singer, Toby Ord, and William MacAskill. Several books and many articles about the movement have since been published, and the Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013. By 2022, EA had become a billion-dollar movement.[6][7]

HistoryEdit

Peter Singer and William MacAskill are among several philosophers who have helped popularize effective altruism

The economist Yew-Kwang Ng has been identified as anticipating many of the ideas of effective altruism in his research on welfare economics and moral philosophy.[8]

Starting in the late 2000s, several communities centered around aspects of effective altruism started to converge, such as:[5][9]

In 2011, Giving What We Can and 80,000 Hours decided to incorporate into an umbrella organization and held a vote for their new name; the "Centre for Effective Altruism" was selected.[5][19]: 18 [20] The "Effective Altruists" Facebook group was set-up in November 2012.[5] As the movement formed, it attracted individuals who were not part of a specific community, but who had been following the Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer's work on applied ethics, particularly "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" (1972), Animal Liberation (1975), and The Life You Can Save (2009). Singer himself used the term in 2013, in a TED talk titled "The Why and How of Effective Altruism".[5]

The Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013.[21][22] In 2015, Singer published The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically.[23] In the same year, the Scottish philosopher and ethicist William MacAskill published Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference.[24][25][26] In 2018, American news website Vox launched its Future Perfect section, led by journalist Dylan Matthews, which publishes articles and podcasts on "Finding the best ways to do good",[27][28][29] including topics such as effective philanthropy,[30] high-impact career choice,[31] poverty reduction through women's empowerment,[32] improving children's learning efficiently through improving environmental health,[33] animal welfare improvements,[34] and ways to reduce global catastrophic risks.[35]

In 2019, Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues was published, which collected the thoughts of a number of writers on effective altruism, and was edited by Hilary Greaves and Theron Pummer.[36] In 2020, the Australian moral philosopher Toby Ord published The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity.[37] In 2021, a researcher estimated that approximately $46 billion has been committed to effective altruism.[38] William MacAskill published What We Owe the Future, in 2022.[39]

PhilosophyEdit

Effective altruists have pondered philosophical questions about the most effective ways to benefit others.[40][41] Such philosophical questions shift the starting point of reasoning from "what to do" to "why?" and "how?"[42] Effective altruists have yet to reach consensus on the answers to all such questions. Some effective altruists believe that they should do the most good they possibly can,[43] while others try do the most good they can within a defined budget.[41]: 15 

Effective altruism can be compatible with a wide variety of views about morality and meta-ethics,[1][40] such as the normative ethical theories of consequentialism, egalitarianism, prioritarianism, utilitarianism, contractualism, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, as well as traditional religious teachings on altruism such as in Christianity.[1][40][44] Effective altruism can also be in tension with religion insofar as religion emphasizes spending resources on worship and evangelism instead of causes that do the most good.[1]: 4 

Other than Peter Singer and William MacAskill, philosophers associated with effective altruism include Nick Bostrom,[45] Toby Ord,[46] Hilary Greaves,[47] and Derek Parfit.[48]

ImpartialityEdit

Effective altruism emphasizes impartial reasoning in that everyone's well-being counts equally.[19]: 85–95 [40][41]: 17–19  Singer, in his 1972 essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality",[49] wrote:

It makes no moral difference whether the person I can help is a neighbor's child ten yards away from me or a Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away... The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society.[50]: 231–232 

An important consideration for moral impartiality is the question of which beings are moral patients, or beings deserving of moral consideration. Some effective altruists consider the well-being of non-human animals in addition to humans, and thus advocate for animal welfare issues such as ending factory farming.[51][52][53] Those who subscribe to longtermism include future generations as possible beneficiaries and try to improve the moral value of the long-term future by, for example, reducing existential risks.[19]: 165–178 [54][55]

William Schambra has criticized the impartial logic of effective altruism, arguing that benevolence arising from reciprocity and face-to-face interactions is stronger and more prevalent than charity based on impartial, detached altruism. Such community-based charitable giving, he writes, is foundational to civil society and, in turn, democracy.[56]

Cause prioritizationEdit

A key component of effective altruism is cause prioritization. Cause prioritization is based on the principle of cause neutrality, the idea that resources should be distributed to causes based on what will do the most good, irrespective of the identity of the beneficiary and the way in which they are helped.[40] By contrast, many non-profits emphasize effectiveness and evidence with respect to a single cause such as education or climate change.[56]

Effective altruist organizations prioritize cause areas by following the importance, tractability, and neglectedness framework. Importance is the amount of value that would be created if a problem were solved, tractability is the fraction of a problem that would be solved if additional resources were devoted to it, and neglectedness is the quantity of resources already committed to a cause. These three criteria help estimate the marginal benefit of allocating more resources, such as money or people, toward addressing an issue.[57] This framework has been built upon by 80,000 Hours, into the scale, neglectedness, solvability and personal fit framework.[58]

The information required for cause prioritization may involve data analysis, comparing possible outcomes with what would have happened under other conditions (counterfactual reasoning), and identifying uncertainty.[40][59] The difficulty of these tasks has led to the creation of organizations that specialize in researching the relative prioritization of causes.[40][60][61]

This practice of "weighing causes and beneficiaries against one another" has been criticized by Ken Berger and Robert Penna of Charity Navigator for being "moralistic, in the worst sense of the word".[62] William MacAskill responded to Berger and Penna, defending the rationale for comparing one beneficiary's interests against another and concluding that such comparison is difficult and sometimes impossible but often necessary.[63]

Cost-effectivenessEdit

Some charities are considered to be far more effective than others, as charities may spend different amounts of money to achieve the same goal, and some charities may not achieve the goal at all.[64][65] Effective altruists seek to identify charities that are highly cost-effective.[26] Non-profits which undertake health interventions are selected based on their impact as measured by lives extended per dollar, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) added per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years (DALY) reduced per dollar.[4]: 34 

Some effective altruist organizations prefer randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence,[26][66] as they are commonly considered the highest level of evidence in healthcare research.[67] Others have argued that requiring this stringent level of evidence unnecessarily narrows the focus to issues where the evidence can be developed,[68] and that historically many effective interventions have proceeded without this level of evidence.[69] Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry and others have warned about the "measurement problem",[68][70] with issues such as medical research or government reform worked on "one grinding step at a time", and results being hard to measure with controlled experiments. Gobry also argues that such interventions risk being undervalued by the effective altruism movement.[70]

Counterfactual reasoningEdit

Counterfactual reasoning involves considering the possible outcomes of alternative choices. It has been employed by effective altruists in a number of contexts, including career choice. Many people assume that the best way to help others is through direct methods, such as working for a charity or providing social services.[71] However, since there is a high supply of candidates for such positions, it makes sense to compare the amount of good one candidate does to how much good the next-best candidate would do. According to this reasoning, the marginal impact of a career is likely to be smaller than the gross impact.[72][73]

Cause prioritiesEdit

Effective altruism is in principle open to furthering any cause that allows people to do the most good, while taking into account cause neutrality.[42] Many people in the effective altruist movement have prioritized global health and development, animal welfare, and mitigating risks that threaten the future of humanity.[60][66][74][75]

Global health and developmentEdit

The alleviation of global poverty and neglected tropical diseases has been a focus of some of the earliest and most prominent organizations associated with effective altruism. Charity evaluator GiveWell was founded by Holden Karnofsky and Elie Hassenfeld in 2007 to address poverty,[76][77] where they believe additional donations to be the most impactful.[65][78] GiveWell's leading recommendations include: malaria prevention charities Against Malaria Foundation and Malaria Consortium, deworming charities Schistosomiasis Control Initiative and Deworm the World Initiative, and GiveDirectly for direct cash transfers to beneficiaries.[79][80] The organization The Life You Can Save, which originated from Singer's book of the same name,[81] works to alleviate global poverty by promoting evidence-backed charities, conducting philanthropy education, and changing the culture of giving in affluent countries.[82][83]

Animal welfareEdit

Improving animal welfare has been a focus of many effective altruists.[84][85][86] Singer and Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE) have argued that effective animal welfare altruists should prioritize changes to factory farming over pet welfare.[23][53] 60 billion land animals are slaughtered and between 1 and 2.7 trillion individual fish are killed each year for human consumption.[87][88][89]

A number of non-profit organizations have been established that adopt an effective altruist approach toward animal welfare. ACE evaluates animal charities based on their cost-effectiveness and transparency, particularly those tackling factory farming.[19]: 139 [34][90] Other animal initiatives affiliated with effective altruism include Animal Ethics' and Wild Animal Initiative's work on wild animal suffering,[91][92] addressing farm animal suffering with cultured meat,[93][94] and expanding the circle of concern so that people care more about all kinds of animals.[95][96][97] Faunalytics focuses on animal welfare research.[98][99] The Sentience Institute is a think tank founded to expand the moral circle to other species.[100][101]

Long-term future and global catastrophic risksEdit

Some effective altruists subscribe to longtermism, an ethical stance that emphasizes the importance of positively influencing the long-term future.[54][102][103] Longtermists believe that the welfare of future individuals is just as important as the welfare of currently existing individuals.[104][105] Longtermist Toby Ord stated that he came to think that future risks are even more neglected than present suffering and that "the people of the future may be even more powerless to protect themselves from the risks we impose than the dispossessed of our own time."[106]: 8 

In particular, the importance of addressing existential risks such as dangers associated with biotechnology and advanced artificial intelligence is often highlighted and the subject of active research.[107]

Organizations that work actively on research and advocacy for improving the long-term future, and have connections with the effective altruism community, are the Future of Humanity Institute at the University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at the University of Cambridge, and the Future of Life Institute.[108] In addition, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute is focused on the more narrow mission of managing advanced artificial intelligence.[109][110]

ApproachesEdit

Effective altruists pursue different approaches to doing good, such as donating to effective charitable organizations, using their career to make more money for donations or directly contributing their labor, and starting new non-profit or for-profit ventures.

DonationEdit

Many effective altruists engage in significant charitable donation. Some believe it is a moral duty to alleviate suffering through donations if other possible uses of those funds do not offer comparable benefits to oneself.[50] Some even lead a frugal lifestyle in order to donate more.[111]

Giving What We Can (GWWC) is an organization whose members pledge to donate at least 10% of their future income to the causes that they believe are the most effective. GWWC was founded in 2009 by Toby Ord, who lives on £18,000 ($27,000) per year and donates the balance of his income.[112] In 2020, Ord said that people had donated over $100 million to date through the GWWC pledge.[113]

Founders Pledge is a similar initiative, founded out of the non-profit Founders Forum for Good, whereby entrepreneurs make a legally binding commitment to donate a percentage of their personal proceeds to charity in the event that they sell their business.[114][115] As of February 2022, roughly 1,700 entrepreneurs had pledged over $7 billion and over $500 million had been donated.[116][117]

An estimated $416 million was donated to effective charities identified by the movement in 2019,[118] representing a 37% annual growth rate since 2015.[38] Two of the largest donors in the effective altruist community, Dustin Moskovitz, who had become wealthy through co-founding Facebook, and his wife Cari Tuna, hope to donate most of their net worth of over $11 billion for effective altruism causes through the private foundation Good Ventures.[74] Other prominent philanthropists influenced by effective altruism include Sam Bankman-Fried,[119] as well as professional poker players Dan Smith[44] and Liv Boeree.[44] 80,000 Hours co-founder Benjamin Todd estimated in 2021 that roughly $46 billion has been committed to effective altruism.[38][clarification needed]

Career choiceEdit

Effective altruists often consider using their career to do good,[120] both by direct service and indirectly through their consumption, investment, and donation decisions.[121] 80,000 Hours is an organization that conducts research and gives advice on which careers have the largest positive impact.[31][122]

Earning to giveEdit

Earning to give is a prominent approach to career choice among effective altruists. It involves choosing to work in high-paying careers with the explicit goal of donating large sums of money to charity.[123][124] Earning to give has been a subject of debate: High profile individuals and institutions within the movement have disagreed on when it is appropriate to work in morally controversial jobs. William MacAskill argued in 2014 that sufficient donations might justify an otherwise morally controversial career, since the impact of taking an unethical job is small if someone else would have taken it regardless, while the impact of the donations could be large.[121] In 2017, 80,000 Hours recommended that it is better to avoid careers that do significant direct harm, even if it seems like the negative consequences could be outweighed by donations. This is because the harms from such careers may be hidden or otherwise hard to measure.[125]

An example of someone earning to give is Sam Bankman-Fried, who founded the cryptocurrency exchange FTX with the explicit goal of amassing a fortune (currently more than $20 billion) and then donating most of his wealth to charity.[126][127]

Earning to give has faced criticism: In 2013, David Brooks published an article in The New York Times, writing that most people who work in finance and other high-paying industries value money for selfish reasons and that working among such people will cause effective altruists to become less altruistic.[128] He called the practice "unsettling":[70]

The implication seems to be that taking a high-paying job selling fraudulent mortgage-backed securities is more praiseworthy than taking a low-paying job at the local homeless shelter, so long as one buys enough anti-malarial bed nets.

Peter Singer responded to these criticisms in his book The Most Good You Can Do by giving examples of people who have been earning to give for years without losing their altruism.[129] Singer has also said that even those who take a job complicit in causing harm can, for example, lobby the organization to change its harmful practices, which may be easier to do from their position inside the organization, or quit and blow the whistle on the organization, which might not be possible without gaining information while on the job.[19]: 50–54 

Founding effective organizationsEdit

Some effective altruists start non-profit or for-profit organizations to implement cost-effective ways of doing good. On the non-profit side, for example, Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster conducted randomized controlled trials in Kenya to find out the best way to improve students' test scores. They tried new textbooks and flip charts, as well as smaller class sizes, but found that the only intervention that raised school attendance was treating intestinal worms in children.[26] Based on their findings, they started the Deworm the World Initiative, which is rated by GiveWell as one of the best charities in the world for cost-effectiveness.[26] The Happier Lives Institute conducts research on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in developing countries;[130] Canopie develops an app that provides cognitive behavioural therapy to women who are expecting or postpartum;[131] Giving Green analyzes and ranks climate interventions for effectiveness;[132][133] the Fish Welfare Initiative works on improving animal welfare in fishing and aquaculture;[95] and the Lead Exposure Elimination Project works on reducing lead poisoning in developing countries.[134]

Incremental versus systemic changeEdit

While much of the initial focus of effective altruism was on direct strategies such as health interventions and cash transfers, more systematic social, economic, and political reforms have also attracted attention.[135] Philosopher Amia Srinivasan criticizes the effective altruism movement, as represented by William MacAskill's book Doing Good Better, for largely taking the world as it is and merely addressing symptoms of the world's problems, rather than addressing their structural causes, such as global inequality and oppression. She notes, however, that effective altruism is in principle open to whichever means of doing good is most effective, including political advocacy aimed at systemic change.[136]

In a piece for Jacobin, Mathew Snow criticized EA for being biased against systemic change: "Effective Altruism ... implores individuals to use their money to procure necessities for those who desperately need them, but says nothing about the system that determines how those necessities are produced and distributed in the first place."[137] Others[who?] argue that movements focused on systemic or institutional change are compatible with effective altruism.[138][139][140] Philosopher Elizabeth Ashford posits that people are obligated to both donate to effective aid charities and to reform the structures that are responsible for poverty.[141] Open Philanthropy has given grants for progressive advocacy work in areas such as criminal justice,[142][143][144] economic stabilization,[142] and housing reform,[145][146] despite pegging the success of political reform as being "highly uncertain".[142]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d MacAskill, William (January 2017). "Effective altruism: introduction". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): eP1580:1–5. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1580. ISSN 1526-0569. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  2. ^ The quoted definition is endorsed by a number of organizations at: "CEA's Guiding Principles". Centre For Effective Altruism. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  3. ^ The term effective altruists is used to refer to people who embrace effective altruism in many published sources such as Oliver (2014), Singer (2015), and MacAskill (2017), though as Pummer & MacAskill (2020) noted, calling people "effective altruists" just means minimally that they are engaged in the project of "using evidence and reason to try to find out how to do the most good, and on this basis trying to do the most good", not that they are perfectly effective nor even that they necessarily participate in the effective altruism community.
  4. ^ a b MacAskill, William (2016) [2015]. Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Help Others, Do Work that Matters, and Make Smarter Choices about Giving Back. New York: Avery. ISBN 9781592409662. OCLC 932001639.
  5. ^ a b c d e f MacAskill, William (March 10, 2014). "The history of the term 'effective altruism'". Effective Altruism Forum. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  6. ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (August 8, 2022). "The Reluctant Prophet of Effective Altruism". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Matthews, Dylan (August 8, 2022). "How effective altruism went from a niche movement to a billion-dollar force". Vox. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  8. ^ Wiblin, Robert; Harris, Keiran (July 26, 2018). "Prof Yew-Kwang Ng on ethics and how to create a much happier world". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  9. ^ Anthis, Jayce Reese (May 15, 2022). "Some Early History of Effective Altruism". Jacy Reese Anthis. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  10. ^ "About the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence". www.singinst.org. Archived from the original on July 4, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  11. ^ Chivers, Tom (2019). "The Effective Altruists". The AI Does Not Hate You: The Rationalists and Their Quest to Save the World. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-4746-0877-0.
  12. ^ Strom, Stephanie (December 20, 2007). "2 Young Hedge-Fund Veterans Stir Up the World of Philanthropy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  13. ^ Tuna, Cari (June 25, 2012). "Our Vision, Mission & Initial Approach to Giving". Good Ventures. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  14. ^ Matthews, Dylan (April 24, 2015). "You have $8 billion. You want to do as much good as possible. What do you do?". Vox. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  15. ^ Cha, Ariana Eunjung (December 26, 2014). "Cari Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz: Young Silicon Valley billionaires pioneer new approach to philanthropy - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  16. ^ "Our History". Giving What We Can. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  17. ^ "About us: what do we do, and how can we help?". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  18. ^ MacAskill, William (May 20, 2013). "Getting inspired by cost-effective giving". The Life You Can Save. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Singer, Peter (2015). The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. Castle lectures in ethics, politics, and economics. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300180275. OCLC 890614537.
  20. ^ Ram, Aliya (December 4, 2015). "The power and efficacy of effective altruism". Financial Times. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  21. ^ Pitney, Nico (July 16, 2015). "Elon Musk To Address 'Nerd Altruists' At Google HQ". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
  22. ^ "Jaan Tallinn's Keynote - Effective Altruism Summit 2013". Exponential Times. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  23. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (April 4, 2015). "The Trader Who Donates Half His Pay". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  24. ^ Shariatmadari, David (August 20, 2015). "Doing Good Better by William MacAskill review – if you read this book, you'll change the charities you donate to". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  25. ^ Cowen, Tyler (August 14, 2015). "Effective Altruism: Where Charity and Rationality Meet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d e Thompson, Derek (June 15, 2015). "The Greatest Good". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  27. ^ Schmidt, Christine (October 15, 2018). "Will Vox's new section on effective altruism... well, do any good?". Nieman Journalism Lab. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  28. ^ Matthews, Dylan (October 15, 2018). "Future Perfect, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  29. ^ "Future Perfect". Vox. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  30. ^ Matthews, Dylan (December 17, 2019). "These are the charities where your money will do the most good". Vox. Archived from the original on August 29, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  31. ^ a b Matthews, Dylan (November 28, 2018). "How to pick a career that counts". Vox. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  32. ^ Illing, Sean (March 8, 2019). "Want less poverty in the world? Empower women". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  33. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (January 8, 2020). "Installing air filters in classrooms has surprisingly large educational benefits: $1,000 can raise a class's test scores by as much as cutting class size by a third". Vox. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  34. ^ a b Piper, Kelsey (November 27, 2018). "Where will your donations do the most for animals?". Vox. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  35. ^ Piper, Kelsey (November 19, 2018). "How technological progress is making it likelier than ever that humans will destroy ourselves". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  36. ^ Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron, eds. (November 15, 2019). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging Philosophy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-884136-4.
  37. ^ Pummer, Theron (August 2, 2020). "The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  38. ^ a b c Todd, Benjamin (July 28, 2021). "Is effective altruism growing? An update on the stock of funding vs. people". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
  39. ^ MacAskill, William (2022). "What We Owe the Future". Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-5416-1862-6. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Pummer, Theron; MacAskill, William (June 2020). "Effective altruism". In LaFollette, Hugh (ed.). International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781444367072.wbiee883. ISBN 9781444367072. OCLC 829259960. S2CID 241220220.
  41. ^ a b c MacAskill, William (2019a). "The definition of effective altruism". In Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron (eds.). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 10–28. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198841364.003.0001. ISBN 9780198841364. OCLC 1101772304.
  42. ^ a b Crouch, Will (May 30, 2013). "What is effective altruism?". Practical Ethics Blog. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  43. ^ Singer (2015) expressed a clearly normative view: "Effective altruism is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. Obeying the usual rules about not stealing, cheating, hurting, and killing is not enough, or at least not enough for those of us who have the great good fortune to live in material comfort, who can feed, house, and clothe ourselves and our families and still have money or time to spare. Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can." (p. vii)
  44. ^ a b c Pincus-Roth, Zachary (September 23, 2020). "The Rise of the Rational Do-Gooders". The Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  45. ^ Matthews, Dylan (August 10, 2015). "I spent a weekend at Google talking with nerds about charity. I came away … worried". Vox. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  46. ^ Bajekal, Naina (August 10, 2022). "Want to Do More Good? This Movement Might Have the Answer". Time. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  47. ^ "Hilary Greaves". Faculty of Philosophy. University of Oxford. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  48. ^ O'Grady, Jane (January 12, 2017). "Derek Parfit obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  49. ^ On the influence of Singer's essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" see, for example: Snow 2015, Singer 2015, pp. 13–20, and Lichtenberg, Judith (November 30, 2015). "Peter Singer's extremely altruistic heirs: Forty years after it was written, 'Famine, Affluence, and Morality' has spawned a radical new movement". The New Republic. Singer's arguments for impartiality were later repeated in other books by him (such as Singer 2009, Singer 2015).
  50. ^ a b Singer, Peter (Spring 1972). "Famine, Affluence, and Morality". Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1 (3): 229–243. JSTOR 2265052. The essay was republished in book form in 2016 with a new preface and two extra essays by Singer: Singer, Peter (2016). Famine, Affluence, and Morality. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190219208. OCLC 907446001.
  51. ^ Fisher, Andrew (January 2017). "Theory-neutral arguments for 'effective animal advocacy'". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): eP1578:1–14. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1578. ISSN 1526-0569. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  52. ^ Broad, Garrett M. (December 2018). "Effective animal advocacy: effective altruism, the social economy, and the animal protection movement". Agriculture and Human Values. 35 (4): 777–789. doi:10.1007/s10460-018-9873-5. S2CID 158634567.
  53. ^ a b "Why Farmed Animals?". Animal Charity Evaluators. November 2016. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
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