Education Act 1877

The Education Act 1877 established twelve regional Education Boards in New Zealand after the provinces were abolished and the central government took control of education. The act established that education would be free, compulsory, and secular for Pākehā children aged five to thirteen.

Education Act 1877
Coat of arms of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand Parliament
Commenced1 January 1878
Repealed by
Education Acts Compilation Act 1904
Status: Repealed

HistoryEdit

Education had previously been the responsibility of provincial governments. Through the Abolition of Provinces Act 1875, the provinces ceased to exist on 1 January 1877.[1] The Canterbury education system developed by William Rolleston was used as an exemplar for the Education Act 1877, and under Rolleston's guidance, Charles Bowen helped form the legislation.[2] The act passed into law on 29 November 1877[3] and came into operation on 1 January 1878.[4]

The Education Act 1877 was repealed through the Education Acts Compilation Act 1904, also known under its short title "The Education Act, 1904", and passed into law on 4 November 1904.[5]

EffectsEdit

The act established that education would be free, compulsory, and secular for Pākehā children aged five to thirteen. Compulsory primary school education for Māori children did not become law until 1894.[3]

Compulsory education did not happen in practice. Especially in rural areas, children often helped with tasks at home rather than attend school.[3]

Education BoardsEdit

The act established a tiered administration system. At the top, the Department of Education established the curriculum and provided funding to twelve education boards (Auckland, Taranaki, Wanganui, Wellington, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, N & S Canterbury, Westland, Otago and Southland).[6] Each of the boards in turn funded a school committee responsible for individual schools.[3]

Name of Board Succeeded Founded Expelled
Auckland Education Board 1877
Hamilton Education Board 1877
Hawkes Bay Education Board 1877
Taranaki Education Board 1877
Wanganui Education Board 1877
Wellington Education Board 1877
Nelson Education Board 1877
Grey/Greymouth Education Board
(aka West Coast/Westland Education Board)
1877
Southland Education Board 1877
Westland Education Board 1877
Canterbury Education Board 1877
Otago Education Board 1877

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "New Zealand Provinces 1848–77". Rulers.org. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  2. ^ Gardner, Jim. "Rolleston, William". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "Education Act passed into law". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 18 September 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  4. ^ "Education Act 1877 (41 Victoriae 1877 No 21)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  5. ^ "Education Acts Compilation Act 1904 (4 EDW VII 1904 No 20)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Education Act 1877 (41 Victoriae 1877 No 21)". www.nzlii.org. Retrieved 6 June 2021.

External linksEdit