Echinochloa esculenta

Echinochloa esculenta is a species of grass in the family Poaceae family[1][2][3] It is referred to by the common names Japanese barnyard millet or Japanese millet, is a species of Echinochloa that is cultivated on a small scale in India, Japan, China and Korea, both as a food and for animal fodder. It is grown in areas where the land is unsuitable or the climate too cool for paddy rice cultivation. However, the development of rice varieties that can withstand cold has led to a sharp decline in the cultivation of Japanese barnyard millet, in favor of rice. The earliest records of the domesticated form date to 2000 BC from the Jōmon period of Japan.[citation needed]

Echinochloa esculenta
Japanese barnyard millet.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Echinochloa
Species:
E. esculenta
Binomial name
Echinochloa esculenta
(A.Braun) H.Scholz
Synonyms[1]

Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. utilis (Ohwi & Yabuno) T.Koyama
Echinochloa crus-galli var. utilis (Ohwi & Yabuno) Kit.
Echinochloa utilis Ohwi & Yabuno
Panicum esculentum A.Braun

Japanese barnyard millet was domesticated from Echinochloa crus-galli.[4][5] As is common for grain domestication, it underwent grain enlargement. That part of the process took one to two thousand years, occurring in Japan.[4]

EtymologyEdit

 
Echinochloa esculenta from the Seikei Zusetsu agricultural encyclopedia

Echinochloa is derived from Greek and means 'hedgehog-grass'.[6]

Esculenta means ‘fit to eat’, ‘edible [by humans]’, or ‘full of food'.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Echinochloa esculenta (A.Braun) H.Scholz". Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  2. ^ "Echinochloa esculenta (A.Braun) H.Scholz". World Flora Online. The World Flora Online Consortium. n.d. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  3. ^ "Echinochloa esculenta (A.Braun) H.Scholz". Global Diversity Information Facility. GBIF Secretariat. n.d. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  4. ^ a b Purugganan, Michael D.; Fuller, Dorian Q. (2009). "The nature of selection during plant domestication". Nature. Nature Research. 457 (7231): 843–848. doi:10.1038/nature07895. ISSN 0028-0836.
  5. ^ Hilu, Khidir W. (1994). "Evidence from RAPD markers in the evolution of Echinochloa millets (Poaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 189 (3): 247–257. doi:10.1007/BF00939730. S2CID 33838562.
  6. ^ a b Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). p 149, 158