Ebrahim Raisi

Sayyid Ebrahim Raisolsadati (Persian: سید ابراهیم رئیس‌الساداتی‎; born 14 December 1960), commonly known as Ebrahim Raisi (Persian: ابراهیم رئیسی[ebɾɒːˈhiːm-e ræˈiːsiː] About this soundpronunciation), is an Iranian hardline, ultra conservative Islamist,[8] principlist politician, Muslim jurist, and the eighth and current president of Iran since 3 August 2021, having been elected to the presidency in the 2021 Iranian presidential election.[9]

Ebrahim Raisi
ابراهیم رئیسی
Ebrahim Raesi.png
8th President of Iran
Assumed office
3 August 2021
Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei
Vice PresidentMohammad Mokhber
Preceded byHassan Rouhani
Chief Justice of Iran
In office
7 March 2019 – 1 July 2021
Appointed byAli Khamenei
First ViceGholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Preceded bySadeq Larijani
Succeeded byGholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Prosecutor-General of Iran
In office
23 August 2014 – 1 April 2016
Appointed bySadeq Larijani
Preceded byGholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Succeeded byMohammad Jafar Montazeri
Member of the Assembly of Experts
Assumed office
24 May 2016
ConstituencySouth Khorasan Province
Majority325,139 (80.0%)[3]
In office
20 February 2007 – 21 May 2016
ConstituencySouth Khorasan Province
Majority200,906 (68.6%)
First Vice Chief Justice of Iran
In office
27 July 2004 – 23 August 2014
Chief JusticeMahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Sadeq Larijani
Preceded byMohammad-Hadi Marvi[4]
Succeeded byGholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Chairman of General Inspection Office
In office
22 August 1994 – 9 August 2004
Appointed byMohammad Yazdi
Preceded byMostafa Mohaghegh Damad
Succeeded byMohammad Niazi
Personal details
Born
Sayyid Ebrahim Raisol-Sadati

(1960-12-14) 14 December 1960 (age 60)
Mashhad, Imperial State of Iran
Political partyCombatant Clergy Association[5]
Other political
affiliations
Islamic Republican Party (until 1987)[5]
Spouse(s)Jamileh Alamolhoda[6]
Children2[7]
RelativesAhmad Alamolhoda (father-in-law)
Alma materShahid Motahari University[5]
Qom Seminary[5]
WebsiteGovernment website
Personal website (Persian)

Raisi has served in several positions in Iran's judicial system, such as Deputy Chief Justice (2004–2014), Attorney General (2014–2016), and Chief Justice (2019–2021). He was also Prosecutor and Deputy Prosecutor of Tehran in the 1980s and 1990s. He was Custodian and Chairman of Astan Quds Razavi, a bonyad, from 2016 until 2019.[10] He is a member of Assembly of Experts from South Khorasan Province, being elected for the first time in the 2006 election. He is the son-in-law of Mashhad Friday prayer leader and Grand Imam of Imam Reza shrine, Ahmad Alamolhoda.

Raisi ran for president in 2017[11] as the candidate of the conservative Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces,[12] losing to moderate incumbent President Hassan Rouhani, 57% to 38.3%. He was one of the four people on the prosecution committee, which was responsible for the execution of thousands of political prisoners in Iran in 1988 and is hence labeled the "death committee" by the government's opponents and some in the western media.[13][14][15][16] He is sanctioned by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control[17][18] in accordance with Executive Order 13876. He is accused of crimes against humanity by international human rights organizations and United Nations special rapporteurs.[19] Raisi successfully ran for president a second time in 2021 with 62.9% of the votes, succeeding Hassan Rouhani.[20]

Early life

 
Childhood
 
Ebrahim Raisi in 1980

Ebrahim Raisi was born on 14 December 1960 to a Persian clerical family in the Noghan district of Mashhad. His father, Seyed Haji, died when he was 5.[5][21][22]

Ancestry

Ancestrally, Ebrahim Raisi is among Husayn ibn Ali (Hussaini) Sayyids, and he is connected to Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Sayyids.[23]

Academic education

Raisi passed his primary-education in "Javadiyeh school"; then started studying in the Hawza (Islamic-seminary). In 1975, he went to "Ayatollah Boroujerdi School" in order to continue his education in Qom Seminary.[24][25] He has claimed to have received a doctorate degree in Private law from Motahari University; however, this has been disputed.[26] After the dispute, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting showed the mentioned degree image.[27]

 
Ebrahim Raisi in Iran-Iraq war era (1980s)

Clerical credentials

He began his studies at the Qom Seminary at the age of 15.[5][28] He then decided to study in the Navvab school for a short time. After that, he went to Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Mousavi Nezhad school where he studied while also teaching other students. In 1976, he went to Qom to continue his studies at the Ayatollah Borujerdi school. He was a student of Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Morteza Motahhari, Abolghasem Khazali, Hossein Noori Hamedani, Ali Meshkini and Morteza Pasandideh.[29][30] Raisi also passed his "KharejeFeqh" (external-Fiqh) to Seyyed Ali Khamenei and Mojtaba Tehrani.[31] According to Alex Vatanka of the Middle East Institute, Raisi's "exact religious qualification" is a "sore point". "For a while" prior to investigation by the Iranian media, he "referred to himself" as "Ayatollah" on his personal website. However, according to Vatanka, the media "publicized his lack of formal religious education" and credentials, after which Raisi ceased claiming to hold the aforementioned rank. After this investigation and criticism he "refer[ed] to himself as hojat-ol-eslam", a clerical rank immediately beneath that of Ayatollah.[32] Raisi subsequently again declared himself an Ayatollah shortly before the 2021 presidential election.[33] The decree by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei appointing him as President, refers to him as a hojat-ol-eslam.[34]

Judicial career

Early years

In 1981, he was appointed the prosecutor of Karaj. Later on, he was also appointed as Prosecutor of Hamadan and served both positions together. He was simultaneously active in two cities more than 300 km away from each other.[35] After four months, he was appointed as Prosecutor of Hamadan Province.[5]

Tehran deputy prosecutor

He was appointed as Deputy prosecutor of Tehran in 1985 and moved to the capital.[36] After three years and in early 1988, he was placed in the attention of Ruhollah Khomeini and received special provisions (independent from judiciary) from him to address legal issues in some provinces like Lorestan, Semnan and Kermanshah.

1988 executions

Hussein-Ali Montazeri named Raisi as one of the four persons involved in the 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners.[37] Other persons were Morteza Eshraghi (Prosecutor of Tehran), Hossein-Ali Nayeri (Judge) and Mostafa Pourmohammadi (MOI representative in Evin). Names of first two persons are mentioned in Khomeini's order. Pourmohammadi has denied his role but Raisi has not commented publicly on the matter yet.[38][39]

The 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners were a series of state-sponsored executions of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting for approximately five months.[40][41][42][43][44][45] The majority of those killed were supporters of the People's Mujahedin of Iran, although supporters of other leftist factions, including the Fedaian and the Tudeh Party of Iran (Communist Party), were executed as well.[46][47] According to Amnesty International, "thousands of political dissidents were systematically subjected to enforced disappearance in Iranian detention facilities across the country and extrajudicially executed pursuant to an order issued by the Supreme Leader of Iran and implemented across prisons in the country. Many of those killed during this time were subjected to torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in the process."[48]

The killings have been described as a political purge without precedent in modern Iranian history, both in terms of scope and coverup.[49] However, the exact number of prisoners executed remains a point of contention. Amnesty International, after interviewing dozens of relatives, puts the number in thousands;[50] and then-Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini's deputy, Hussein-Ali Montazeri put the number between 2,800 and 3,800 in his memoirs,[51] but an alternative estimation suggests that the number exceeded 30,000.[52] Because of the large number, prisoners were loaded into forklift trucks in groups of six and hanged from cranes in half-hour intervals.[53][better source needed]

Senior positions

After Khomeini's death and election of Ali Khamenei as the new Supreme Leader, Raisi was appointed as Tehran prosecutor by newly appointed Chief-Justice Mohammad Yazdi. He held the office for five years from 1989 to 1994. In 1994, he was appointed as head of General Inspection Office.

From 2004 until 2014, Raisi served as First Deputy Chief Justice of Iran, being appointed by Chief Justice Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. He kept his position in Sadeq Larijani's first term as Chief Justice. He was later appointed as Attorney-General of Iran in 2014, a position that he held until 2016, when he resigned to become Chairman of Astan Quds Razavi.[54] He has also served as Special Clerical Court prosecutor by the order of the Supreme Leader, Seyyed Ali Khamenei since 2012.[55]

Other positions

Raisi was a member of the board of trustees of Execution of Imam Khomeini's Order for ten years by order of Seyyed Ali Khamenei. He was also a member of the "Supreme Selection Board". He is the founder of "Fatemeh Al-Zahra Seminary" (in Tehran) and the first secretary of the headquarters for reviving the enjoining good and forbidding wrong in the country.[56][57] He was appointed as the prosecutor of Hamedan province, and was active there for three years since 1982 to 1984.[58]

His other executive and oversight responsibilities include the positions such as: membership in the "Supreme Council of Cyberspace", "the Monetary and Credit Council", and "the Anti-Corruption Headquarters".[59]

Astan Quds chairmanship

He became Chairman of Astan Quds Razavi on 7 March 2016 after the death of his predecessor Abbas Vaez-Tabasi.[60][61] He is the second person to serve this office from 1979. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei enumerated serving the pilgrims of the holy shrine, especially poor people and also serve nearby, especially the poor and dispossessed as two important responsibilities of Raisi in his appointment order.[62]

2017 presidential election

 
Raisi speaking at a presidential campaign rally in Tehran's Shahid Shiroudi Stadium

Raisi was named as one of the Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces (JAMNA)'s presidential candidates in February 2017.[63] His candidacy was also supported by the Front of Islamic Revolution Stability.[64][65] He officially announced his nomination in a statement published on 6 April, and called it his “religious and revolutionary responsibility to run”, citing the need for a “fundamental change in the executive management of the country” and a government that “fights poverty and corruption.”[66] He registered on 14 April 2017 at Ministry of Interior with saying it's time to perform citizenship rights, not only writing act.[67]

On 15 May 2017, conservative candidate Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf withdrew his candidacy in favor of Raisi.[68] It was speculated that Ghalibaf would be Raisi's first vice president if he was elected.[69] They also joined in a campaign rally in Tehran with each other.

Raisi has been described as "a favorite and possible successor" to Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, by several sources,[32][70][71] (at least before his electoral defeat).[72]

After election results were announced, Raisi received 15,786,449 out of 42,382,390 (38.30% of the votes). He lost to incumbent President Rouhani and ranked second. He did not congratulate Rouhani on his re-election as the president,[73] and asked the Guardian Council to look into "violations of the law" before and during the elections, with 100 pages of attached documentation.[74]

Presidency

2021 presidential election

In 2021, Raisi ran again for the presidency and won the election.[75] The election had a 48.8% turnout, and 62% went to Raisi.[citation needed]

Out of 28.9 million votes, around 3.7 million votes were not counted, likely because they were blank or otherwise invalid protest votes.[76]

Almost 600 candidates, 40 of which were female, registered in the election, of which 7 men were approved a month before the election by the 12 jurists and theologians on the Guardian Council (an unelected body that has the final decision on candidate validity based on the strength of 'the candidates' qualifications'). Three of those seven candidates were subsequently pulled out before polling day. Before he withdrew, reformist candidate Mohsen Mehralizadeh hinted that the vote would be a foregone conclusion, saying during a candidates' TV debate that the ruling clerics had aligned "sun, moon and the heavens to make one particular person the president," according to The Economist. Former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, among those barred from running, said in a video message that he would not vote, declaring: "I do not want to have a part in this sin."[77]

Tenure

Raisi was appointed as the incumbent President of Iran on 3 August 2021, through a decree issued by the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. During his inauguration speech, Raisi stated that his government would seek to lift the sanctions on Iran imposed by the United States, but added that it would not let foreigners dictate how its economy is run.[34]

He was sworn-in before the Islamic Consultative Assembly on 5 August during a ceremony attended by around 260 officials, both from Iran and other countries. In his speech, he stated that Iran was actually responsible for stabilising the Middle East, that he would resist foreign pressure on Iran but widen its external relations, especially with Iran's neighbours, promised to support any diplomatic move to lift the American sanctions and assured that Iran's nuclear programme was only meant for peaceful purposes. He also promised that he would try to improve the quality of life for Iranians and defend human rights.[78]

Raisi appointed Mohammad Mokhber, the head of the Execution of Imam Khomeini’s Order foundation, as the First Vice President of Iran on 8 August. Gholam Hossein Esmaili [fa], a former spokesman for the judiciary, was also appointed as Raisi's chief of staff. [79] On 11 August, Raisi appointed former Minister of Petroleum and Minister of Commerce Masoud Mir Kazemi as a Vice President and head of the Plan and Budget Organization.[80] He also presented nominations for his cabinet before the Islamic Consultative Assembly on the same day.[81]

Raisi's nomination of Ahmad Vahidi as Minister of Interior among his cabinet nominations was quickly strongly condemned by both Argentina and Israel, with the former having requested his arrest through a red notice of Interpol for his alleged involvement in the 1994 AMIA bombing in Buenos Aires. The Argentine foreign ministry stated that Vahidi's designation was an "affront to the Argentine justice and the victims of the terrorist attack".[82]

After the fall of Kabul to the Taliban, Raisi stated on 16 August that the withdrawal of American forces from Afghanistan offered a chance for stabilising the country, which Iran would support. He also called on all parties to form an inclusive government.[83] On 4 September, he urged that elections be held to elect a new Afghan government as soon as possible.[84] On 18 September, he stated that Iran will not allow establishment of any terrorist group, including the Islamic State, along its border with Afghanistan and use it for attacks on other nations. In addition, he called on Taliban to form an inclusive government.[85]

On 20 August, Raisi appointed former Minister of Culture Mohammad Hosseini as Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs.[86] 18 out of 19 of his cabinet picks were approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly on 25 August, except Hossein Baghgoli, whom Raisi had chosen as the Minister of Education. Many of the ministerial choices are sanctioned by the United States and several are veterans of the Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces.[87]

Raisi meanwhile appointed former IRGC commander-in-chief Mohsen Rezaee as the Vice President for Economic Affairs on 25 August. He also appointed him as the Secretary of the Supreme Council for Economic Coordination [fa], as well as the Secretary of the Iranian government's Economic Committee.[88] On 26 August, Iran had a renewed diplomatic clash with Argentina, when the latter condemned the appointment of Rezaee. Rezaee is also wanted by Argentina for alleged involvement in the AMIA bombing. Argentina "energetically" condemned his designation and added that "Iran must cooperate with the investigation" and added again that Rezaee's designation was another "affront to the Argentine justice".[89][90]

On 1 September, Raisi appointed former President of Al-Zahra University Ensieh Khazali [fa] as Vice President for Women and Family Affairs and Mohammad Dehghan as Vice President for Legal Affairs.[91] On 4 September, he stated that Iran would resume talks over its nuclear programme, which have been stalled since his election victory, but not under pressure from Western countries.[92]

On 5 September, Raisi appointed Meysam Latifi [fa], former dean of Islamic education and management at Imam Sadiq University, as a Vice President and Head of the Administrative and Recruitment Affairs Organization,[93] while Sowlat Mortazavi was appointed as Vice President for Executive Affairs and Head of the Presidential Administration.[94] In addition, former Head of Management and Planning Organization Farhad Rahbar was appointed as the President's Assistant for Economic Affairs.[95] Amir-Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi was appointed as a Vice President and the Head of the Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs on 12 September.[96]

Importation of COVID-19 vaccine meanwhile surged since Raisi took office, with over 30 million doses being imported during the Iranian month of Shahrivar, more than the vaccine imports since February 2021, while 13.4 million were imported during the month of Mordad in which Raisi was sworn-in. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced importation of 60 million more vaccines on 19 September.[97] In a pre-recorded speech before the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 September, Raisi stated that Iran wanted to resume talks over its nuclear programme. He also stated that the hegemony of the United States was being rejected across the world and criticised its sanctions on Iran as unjust.[98]

Possible successor as Supreme Leader

In 2019, Saeid Golkar of Al Jazeera called Raisi "the most likely successor of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei" as Supreme Leader of Iran.[99] In 2020, Dexter Filkins described him as "frequently mentioned" as a successor to Khamenei.[100]

Political views

Raisi supports sex segregation. He said in a 2014 interview about a planned segregation in Tehran Municipality that "I think this is a good move because the majority of women do a better job in a totally relaxed atmosphere and fit are required."[101] He is also a supporter of Islamization of universities, revision of the Internet and censorship of Western culture.[102][103][104] Raisi claims he sees economic sanctions as an opportunity.[105] Raisi said: "We will have guidance patrols, but for managers." He also said: "If the government does well, the people will do well."[106] He has said that the amputation of thieves' hands, which is based on a very strict interpretation of Sharia,[107] is one of "our honours" and that such punishments will not be limited to now and will be continued in the future.[108][109] He has said that he should be honoured and esteemed for his role in the 1988 Iranian mass executions of political prisoners.[110]

Economy

In 2017, Raisi reported "I see the activation of a resistance economy as the only way to end poverty and deprivation in the country."[111] He supports development of the agricultural sector over commercial retail, which "will eventually benefit foreign brands."[112]

In 2017, he promised to triple the monthly state benefits, currently 450,000 rials per citizen, in order to tackle corruption and create six million jobs.[113] He said (about Sanctions against Iran): "Sanctions should be seen as an opportunity for economic empowerment, and we should strengthen ourselves instead of falling short."[114]

Raisi said in regards to the issue of lifting sanctions: "every government that takes office (to be elected), should lift the oppressive sanctions, and it must be pursued seriously; and the neutralization of sanctions should be on the agenda and we should not condition the economy; Neither the corona nor the flood nor the sanctions should have an impact."[115]

In 2021, he said: Our country has many assets and the most important asset is efficient and dense manpower; With efficient manpower, we can move the country forward.[116]

Cultural

According to Ebrahim Raisi: No one has the right to violate the freedom and rights of girls and women; he said: "It is incomplete to talk about culture and economy without the role of women"; "Women's rights are God-given, and the government should not only not lose this right, but it should also create the conditions for it to flourish." He mentioned: in many spaces, women's role-playing is empty and women's talent, creativity, initiative and innovation can be used a lot.[117][118]

Raisi stated: "The intellectual of the society understands before the others and watches the threats of the society and soon warns the society with his poetry and art and saves the society from falling asleep like a muezzin"; According to him, supporting the people of culture and art should not be verbal and should lead to action.[119] He said: Teachers are the true intellectuals of society and must observe and warn of harm; Teachers are the identifiers and civilizers of society.[116]

Electoral history

Year Election Votes % Rank Notes
2006 Assembly of Experts 200,906 68.6% 1st Won[3]
2016 Assembly of Experts   325,139   80.0% 1st Won[120]
2017 President 15,835,794 38.28% 2nd Lost[121]
2021 President 18,021,945 62.90% 1st Won[122]

Personal life

 
Raisi in 2019

Raisi is married to Jamileh Alamolhoda, daughter of Mashhad Friday Prayers Imam, Ahmad Alamolhoda. She is an associate professor at Tehran's Shahid Beheshti University and also president of the university's Institute of Fundamental Studies of Science and Technology.[123] They have two daughters and two grandchildren.[7] One of their daughters studied at Sharif university and the other one at Tehran university.[7][124]

Sanctions

Raisi is one of nine Iranian officials listed in November 2019 subjected to sanctions by the United States Department of State due to alleged human rights abuses.[125]

Works

Among Raisi's works are as follows: The books of "Lectures on the rules of jurisprudence" including 3 volumes (in judicial, economic and religious sections); Erse-Bi-Wares (Inheritance without heirs); Conflict of principle and appearance in jurisprudence and law.[126][127]

References

  1. ^ "رئیسی چند کلاس سواد دارد؟". اقتصادنیوز.
  2. ^ "حجت الاسلام کیست و چه کسی آیت‌الله می‌شود؟". BBC News فارسی. 17 May 2014.
  3. ^ a b "اعلام آرای مجلس خبرگان رهبری در خراسان جنوبی" (in Persian). Alef. 27 February 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  4. ^ "از نمایندگی امام در مسجد سلیمان تا معاون اولی قوهٔ قضائیه" (in Persian). Sadegh Newsletter. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "زندگی‌نامه حجت‌الاسلام و المسلمین سیدابراهیم رئیسی" (in Persian). Official Website of Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  6. ^ "با دختر علم الهدی و همسر رئیسی آشنا شوید/عکس". 22 April 2017. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  7. ^ a b c "مشخصات شناسنامه‌ای 6کاندیدای ریاست‌جمهوری". 21 April 2017. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  8. ^ Gerecht, Reuel Marc; Takeyh, Ray (25 June 2021). "In Ebrahim Raisi, Iran's clerics have groomed and promoted their ruthless enforcer". The Washington Post.
  9. ^ Maziar Motamedi (19 June 2021). "Hardliner Ebrahim Raisi declared Iran's new president". Aljazeera English. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Ra'eesi became chairman of AQR". BBC Persian. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Hardline cleric Raisi to take on Rouhani in Iran's presidential election". Reuters. 9 April 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  12. ^ "Iran News Round Up", Critical Threats Project, 7 April 2017, archived from the original on 21 August 2018, retrieved 24 April 2017
  13. ^ "The Massacre of Political Prisoners in Iran, 1988, Report Of An Inquiry". Abdorrahman Boroumand Center. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Rouhani's former minister of justice defends the mass executions of 1980s". Iran International. 25 July 2019. Archived from the original on 17 June 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Iran Head of Judiciary's First Year Marred by Political Executions". iranhr.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  16. ^ "Khamenei defends Iran's 1980s political executions that killed thousands". Al Arabiya English. 6 June 2017. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Treasury Designates Supreme Leader of Iran's Inner Circle Responsible for Advancing Regime's Domestic and Foreign Oppression | U.S. Department of the Treasury". home.treasury.gov. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  19. ^ "Cleric accused of crimes against humanity to head Iran's justice system | Reporters without borders". RSF. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  20. ^ "And the winner is apathy". Iran Times. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  21. ^ "Birth certificate image". Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  22. ^ "مرد 54 ساله ای که دادستان کل کشور شد، کیست؟/ ابراهیم رئیسی را بیشتر بشناسید". Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  23. ^ Get to know (Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi) the new tutelage of Astan Quds Razavi better + complete records tasnimnews.com, retrieved 24 June 2021
  24. ^ "شرح زندگی | سید ابراهیم رئیسی". raisi.ir (in Persian). Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  25. ^ Get to know the new head of the judiciary better / A look at the biography and records of Hojjatoleslam Ra'isi snn.ir, Retrieved 23 June 2021
  26. ^ "مدرک تحصیلی ابراهیم رئیسی؛ 'شش کلاس' یا 'دکترا'؟". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). 8 June 2021. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  27. ^ Picture of Mr. Ra'isi's doctoral degree in jurisprudence and law iribnews.ir, retrieved 14 July 2021
  28. ^ Who is "Ayatollah Ra'isi"? tasnimnews.com Retrieved 13 July 2021
  29. ^ "Who is Ayatollah Raisi?". Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  30. ^ "Records and biography of Ebrahim Raisi".
  31. ^ What is the education of Ayatollah Raisi? snn.ir, Retrieved 21 June 2021
  32. ^ a b Vatanka, Alex (12 April 2017). "The Supreme Leader's Apprentice Is Running for President". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  33. ^ "Biography of the President-elect, Ayatollah Dr. Seyed Ibrahim Raisi". Seyed Ebrahim Raisi Information Center. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  34. ^ a b "Iran ultraconservative Raisi inaugurated as president". Agence France-Presse. The Australian. 3 August 2021.
  35. ^ ""ابراهیم رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی منصوب شد"". 8 March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  36. ^ "ابراهیم رئیسی کیست؟". 3 March 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  37. ^ "Blood-soaked secrets with Iran's 1998 Prison Massacres are ongoing crimes against humanity" (PDF). Amnesty International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  38. ^ "ابراهیم رئیسی؛ از قضاوت تا تولیت". BBC Persian. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  39. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (4 May 2017). "An Interview with Scholar and Historian Ervand Abrahamian on the Islamic Republic's "Greatest Crime"". Center for Human Rights in Iran. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  40. ^ Akhlaghi, Reza. "Canada Recognizes Iran's 1988 Massacre as Crime against Humanity". Foreign Policy Blog. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  41. ^ "Iran Italy Issues Resolution for Justice for 1988 Massacre Victims". Iran News Update. 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  42. ^ "More Than 100 Prominent Iranians Ask UN to Declare 1988 Massacre 'Crime Against Humanity'". Center for Human Rights in Iran. 7 September 2016. Archived from the original on 26 May 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  43. ^ "1988 massacre of political prisoners in Iran". National Council of Resistance of Iran. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  44. ^ Naderi, Mostafa (22 August 2013). "I was lucky to escape with my life. The massacre of Iranian political prisoners in 1988 must now be investigated". The Independent. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  45. ^ "Iran still seeks to erase the '1988 prison massacre' from memories, 25 years on". Amnesty International. 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  46. ^ "Iranian party demands end to repression". Archived from the original on 24 September 2005.
  47. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions, University of California Press, 1999, 209-228
  48. ^ "Blood-soaked secrets with Iran's 1998 Prison Massacres are ongoing crimes against humanity" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  49. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (1999). Tortured Confessions Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 210. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  50. ^ "IRAN: VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1987 - 1990". Amnesty International. 1 December 1990. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  51. ^ von Schwerin, Ulrich (2015). The Dissident Mullah: Ayatollah Montazeri and the Struggle for Reform in Revolutionary Iran. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857737748.
  52. ^ Lamb, Christina (4 February 2001). "Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  53. ^ The World's Most Notorious Dictators. Athlon Special Issue. 2017. p. 80
  54. ^ "محسنی اژه‌ای معاون اول قوه قضائیه و رئیسی دادستان کل کشور شدند". 2014. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  55. ^ Get to know the new tutelage of Astan Quds Razavi better + complete records tasnimnews.com Retrieved 25 June 2021
  56. ^ Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi tabnak.ir Retrieved 21 June 2021
  57. ^ Raisi, Seyyed Ebrahim namehnews, Retrieved 21 June 2021
  58. ^ Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi tabnak.ir, Retrieved 25 June 2021
  59. ^ Background and biography of "Hujjat al-Islam Raisi" iribnews.ir, Retrieved 14 July 2021
  60. ^ ""انتصاب حجت‌الاسلام رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی"". 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  61. ^ ""انتصاب ابراهیم رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی"". 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  62. ^ "شروع انقلابی حجت الاسلام رئیسی در آستان قدس". 10 April 2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  63. ^ Iran: Possible Conservative Presidential Candidate Emerges, Stratfor, 23 February 2017, archived from the original on 25 February 2017, retrieved 13 April 2017
  64. ^ Iran's conservatives scramble to find a presidential candidate, The Arab Weekly, 19 February 2017, archived from the original on 22 January 2018, retrieved 21 February 2017
  65. ^ Rohollah Faghihi (21 February 2017), Meet the powerful Iranian cleric looking to unseat Rouhani, Al-Monitor, archived from the original on 26 February 2019, retrieved 21 February 2017
  66. ^ Ruby Mellen (10 April 2017), Rouhani Gets a Hard-line Challenger for Iranian Presidency, Foreign Policy, archived from the original on 31 March 2019, retrieved 11 April 2017
  67. ^ "Conservative cleric Ebrahim Raisi enters Iran's presidential race". 14 April 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  68. ^ "Iran: Tehran Mayor Qalibaf Withdraws, Backs Hardliner Raisi for President". 15 May 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  69. ^ "The reason Tehran's mayor dropped out of presidential race". 16 May 2017. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  70. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (18 May 2017). "Iran Has Its Own Hard-Line Populist, and He's on the Rise". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  71. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (9 January 2017). "Ebrahim Raisi: the Iranian cleric emerging as a frontrunner for supreme leader". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  72. ^ VATANKA, ALEX (12 April 2017). "The Supreme Leader's Apprentice Is Running for President". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017. A candidate Raisi who loses in the May elections would be far less likely to later take over as supreme leader.
  73. ^ Arash Karami (21 May 2017). "In wake of Rouhani's win, conservative rivals vow to remain on scene". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  74. ^ Rohollah Faghihi (23 May 2017). "Iran's conservatives question election results". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  75. ^ Yee, Vivian (19 June 2021). "Iranian Hard-Liner Ebrahim Raisi Wins Presidential Vote". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  76. ^ Harkov, Lahav (20 June 2021). "'Butcher of Tehran' Raisi wins Iran election amid low turnout". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  77. ^ "Iran election: Hardliner Raisi will become president". BBC News. 19 June 2021.
  78. ^ Motamedi, Maziar (5 August 2021). "Ebrahim Raisi sworn in as Iran's eighth president". Al Jazeera.
  79. ^ Shahla, Arsalan (5 August 2021). "Iran's Raisi Picks Sanctioned Endowment Chief as Vice President". Bloomberg.
  80. ^ "Former minister appointed head of Plan & Budget Org of Iran". Iranian Labour News Agency. 11 August 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  81. ^ Fazeli, Yaghoub (11 August 2021). "Iran's Raisi unveils new cabinet: IRNA". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  82. ^ "Iran's pick for Interior Minister job prompts condemnation from Argentina and Israel". MercoPress English. 12 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  83. ^ Hafezi, Parisa (16 August 2021). Heritage, Timothy (ed.). "Iran says U.S. "failure" in Afghanistan a chance for durable peace". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  84. ^ "The Latest: Iran president calls for election in Afghanistan". Associated Press. 5 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  85. ^ "Iran won't allow IS presence on Afghan border: Raisi". Agence-France Presse. 18 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  86. ^ "Iran's New Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs Appointed". Tasnim News Agency. 21 August 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  87. ^ Motamedi, Maziar (25 August 2021). "Iran's parliament approves President Raisi's conservative cabinet". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  88. ^ Baghishov, Elnur (25 August 2021). "Mohsen Rezaee appointed Vice President of Iran". Trend News Agency. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  89. ^ "Another suspect in Buenos Aires bombing case appointed into Iran's government". MercoPress English. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  90. ^ "Argentina condena la designación de dos ministros de Irán reclamados por su participación en un atentado" [Argentina condemns the appointment of two Iranian ministers claimed for their participation in an attack] (in Spanish). Notimérica. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  91. ^ "President appoints VPs for Women, Family and Legal Affairs". Iran Press. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  92. ^ Holmes, David, ed. (4 September 2021). "Raisi says Iran ready for talks but not with Western 'pressure'". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  93. ^ "میثم لطیفی رئیس جدید سازمان امور استخدامی کشور کیست؟" [Who is Meysam Latifi, the new head of the employment affairs organization of the country?]. Eghtesad Online (in Persian). 7 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  94. ^ "صولت مرتضوی معاون اجرایی رئیس‌جمهور شد" [Sowlat Mortazavi was made the executive vice president]. Donya-e-Eqtesad (in Persian). 6 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  95. ^ "فرهاد رهبر دستیار اقتصادی رئیس جمهور شد" [Farhad Rahbar was appointed as the President's Economic Assistant]. Donya-e-Eqtesad (in Persian). 6 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  96. ^ "قاضی زاده هاشمی در دولت سمت گرفت" [Ghazizadeh Hashemi took office in the government]. Donya-e-Eqtesad (in Persian). 12 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  97. ^ Motamedi, Maziar (22 September 2021). "Iran eyes normalisation as COVID vaccination drive accelerates". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  98. ^ Hafezi, Parisa (21 September 2021). Reese, Chris; Adler, Leslie; Osterman, Cynthia (eds.). "Iran wants nuclear talks that lead to lifting of U.S. sanctions, president says". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  99. ^ Golkar, Saeid (5 January 2019). "Ebrahim Raisi: The cleric who could end Iranian hopes for change". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  100. ^ Filkins, Dexter (18 May 2020). "The Twilight of the Iranian Revolution". New Yorker. Archived from the original on 16 March 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  101. ^ "بانوان اولین مدافع تفکیک جنسیتی هستند". 2014. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  102. ^ "رئیسی: دانشگاهها باید اسلامی شوند". 8 May 2017. Archived from the original on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  103. ^ "ابراهیم رییسی: باید به دنبال حذف ترویج فرهنگ غربی از متن جامعه باشیم". 10 May 2017. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  104. ^ "اسلامی‌ نکردن دانشگاه‌ها کشور را با مشکل مواجه می‌کند/رشد اینترنت ما را وادار به بازنگری می‌کند". 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  105. ^ "رئیسی: تحریم یک فرصت است/باید خود را مقاوم کنیم". 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  106. ^ Raisi: We provide guidance patrols for managers mehrnews.com, Retrieved 24 June 2021
  107. ^ "Iran cuts off man's hand for stealing". the Guardian. Associated Press. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  108. ^ نیوز, اخبار روز ایران و جهان | آفتاب (۱۳۸۹/۰۸/۰۴ - ۱۱:۵۴). "رئیسی: حکم قطع دست از افتخارات بزرگ ماست". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2021-07-06. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  109. ^ "هشدار درباره 'گیوتین' برای قطع انگشتان شش نفر در زندان ارومیه". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  110. ^ "رئیسی در مورد اعدام‌های ۶۷: باید مورد تقدیر و تشویق قرار بگیرم". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  111. ^ Golnaz Esfandiari (7 April 2017), "In Iran, Emerging Hard-Liner Stakes Future On Unseating Rohani", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, archived from the original on 24 April 2017, retrieved 22 April 2017
  112. ^ Najmeh Bozorgmehr (14 April 2017), "Rouhani confirms he will seek second term in Iran elections", Financial Times, archived from the original on 23 April 2017, retrieved 22 April 2017
  113. ^ Najmeh Bozorgmehr (26 April 2017), "Iran hardliners struggle to present united front ahead of poll", Financial Times, archived from the original on 30 April 2017, retrieved 27 April 2017
  114. ^ Sanctions should be seen as an opportunity for economic empowerment isna.ir, retrieved 26 June 2021
  115. ^ Ibrahim Raisi, lifting sanctions Retrieved 26 June 2021
  116. ^ a b Raisi: Teachers' livelihoods should be taken care of / emphasis on enthusiastic participation in elections tasnimnews.com, Retrieved 10 July 2021
  117. ^ Raisi: No one has the right to violate the freedom and rights of girls and women / Diplomacy means expanding relations, not asking for electoral help from foreigners tasnimnews.com Retrieved 2 July 2021
  118. ^ Raisi: It is incomplete to talk about culture and economy without the role of women IRNA News Agency, Retrieved 2 July 2021
  119. ^ Raisi: Culture and art should not be absent in the administration of justice and the fight against corruption snn, Retrieved 2 July 2021
  120. ^ "نتایج نهائی انتخابات مجلس خبرگان رهبری در خراسان جنوبی" (in Persian). Khavarestan. 27 February 2016. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  121. ^ "Final results of presidential election by province and county" (in Persian). Ministry of Interior. 8 June 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  122. ^ "نتایج آرای انتخابات ۱۴۰۰". Tasnim News Agency (in Persian). 19 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  123. ^ "Conversation with Jamileh Alamolhoda, spouse of Ebrahim Raisi". 23 April 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  124. ^ "اعلام لیست اموال ابراهیم رئیسی /۲ دختر دارم که ازدواج کرده اند". www.khabaronline.ir (in Persian). 30 May 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  125. ^ "US puts new sanctions on Iranian supreme leader's inner circle". Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  126. ^ Unveiling of the latest writings of Hojjatoleslam Raeisi in the book fair tasnimnews.com,Retrieved 21 June 2021
  127. ^ Background and biography of Hojjat al-Islam Raisi iribnews.irT retrieved 21 June 2021

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
Chairman of General Inspection Office
1994–2004
Succeeded by
Preceded by
First Vice Chief Justice of Iran
2004–2014
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Special Prosecutor of Clergy
2012–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Prosecutor-General of Iran
2014–2016
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Chief Justice of Iran
2019–2021
Succeeded by
Assembly seats
Preceded by
Administrative Clerk of Assembly of Experts's Presidium
2009–2019
Succeeded by
Preceded by
First Deputy Chairman of the Assembly of Experts
2019–present
Incumbent
Media offices
Preceded by
Chairman of IRIB Supervisory Council
2012–2016
Succeeded by
Religious titles
Preceded by
Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi
2016–2019
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by
President of Iran
2021–present
Incumbent