Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests
|Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests|
landscape at Ovacık, Tunceli
location map of the Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests
|Biome||temperate broadleaf and mixed forests|
|Area||81,628 km2 (31,517 sq mi)|
The Anatolian diagonal runs through the northern and western portion of the ecoregion. The diagonal is a biogeographic feature which marks the easternnmost limit of many Central Anatolian species, and the western limit of many eastern Anatolian species. 390 plant species are confined to the diagonal itself.
The climate is dry and continental, with extreme winter cold and heavy snowfall. Average annual precipitation ranges from 600 to 1,000 mm. The Mediterranean climate regions of the eastern Mediterranean lie to the south and southwest. The climate of the Black Sea region to the north is more humid and moderate.
Forests and woodlands are the most widespread plant communities, interspersed with steppe and shrublands. Forests typically have an open canopy and a grassy understory. The predominant trees are deciduous oaks, including Quercus brantii, Q. libani, Q. boissieri, and Q. ithaburensis ssp. macrolepis. Other forest communities include Quercus robur ssp. pedunculiflora forests and montane Pinus sylvestris forests. Platanus orientalis is predominant in valley forests. Relict forest of alder (Alnus spp.), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), maple (Acer spp.). and the shrub Lonicera caucasica are found in humid enclaves.
Other woody plant communities include wild rose shrublands dominated by Rosa pimpinellifolia and Rosa canina, and low woodlands of dwarf juniper (Juniperus communis ssp. nana) with an understory of Convolvulus calvertii.
Areas of steppe are interspersed among the forests and woodlands, and anthropogenic steppe has expanded where woodlands and forests have been degraded or destroyed. Steppe of Artemisia fragrans is common at lower elevations. Steppe of herbs and low shrubs, including Astragalus spp., Gundelia tournefortii, Noaea mucronata, Thymus spp., and Salvia cryptantha, is found in oak forest clearings. These are known as tragacanthic steppe, after tragacanth, a natural gum derived from several species of Astragalus that grow there. High mountain steppes are predominantly of herbaceous plants, like Achillea vermicularis, Ajuga chia, Helianthemum nummularium, Malcolmia africana, and Marrubium parviflorum. Other steppe types are dominated by grasses.
Native ammals include brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), ibex (Capra ibex), wild goat (Capra aegagrus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and river otter (Lutra lutra).
- "Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
- Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; et al. (June 2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014.CS1 maint: date and year (link) Supplemental material 2 table S1b.
- "Turkey - Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests". World Wildlife Federation. Retrieved October 2, 2019.