Early Modern Japanese
Early Modern Japanese (近世日本語, kinsei nihongo) is a stage of the Japanese language following Middle Japanese and preceding Modern Japanese. It is a period of transition in which the language sheds many of its medieval characteristics and becomes closer to its modern form.
|Early Modern Japanese|
|Era||Evolved into Modern Japanese in the mid-19th century|
|Hiragana, Katakana, and Han|
The period spanned roughly 250 years extending from the 17th century through half of the 19th century. Politically, this generally corresponds with the Edo period.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the center of government moved to Edo from Kamigata under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate. Until the early Edo period, the Kamigata dialect, the ancestor of the modern Kansai dialect, was the most influential dialect. However, since the late Edo period, the Edo dialect, the ancestor of the modern Tokyo dialect, became the most influential dialect, during the time in which the country closed its borders to foreigners. Compared to the previous centuries, the Tokugawa rule brought about much stability. The newfound stability made the importance of the warrior class gradually fall, to be replaced by the merchant class. There was much economic growth, and new forms of artistic developments appeared such as Ukiyo-e, Kabuki, and Bunraku. This included new literary genres such as Ukiyozōshi, Sharebon (pleasure districts), Kokkeibon (commoners), and Ninjōbon developed. Major authors included Ihara Saikaku, Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Matsuo Bashō, Shikitei Sanba, and Santō Kyōden.
There were five vowels: /i, e, a, o, u/.
- /i/: [i]
- /e/: [e]
- /a/: [a]
- /o/: [o]
- /u/: [ɯ]
During Middle Japanese, word-initial /e/ and /o/ were realized with the semivowels [j] and [w] preceding the vowel, respectively[dubious ]. Both were realized as simple vowels by the middle of the 18th century.
- Diego Collado Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Lingvae (1632) gives word final examples: gozàru > gozàr, fitòtçu > fitòtç, and àxi no fàra > àx no fàra.
- E. Kaempfer's Geschichte und Beschreibung von Japan (1777–1779) and C. P. Thunberg's Resa uti Europa, Africa, Asia (1788–1793) list word-medial examples: kurosaki > krosaki, atsuka > atska.
Middle Japanese had two types of long o: [ɔː] and [oː]. During this period, both of these merged into [oː] by first half of the 17th century. During the transition, instances of ɔː temporarily had a tendency to become short in the Kamigata dialect.
- nomɔː > nomo "drink"
- hayɔː > hayo "quickly"
In addition, each of the other vowels could be lengthened because of various contractions in Edo dialect. Most continue to be used in Modern Japanese of both Tokyo and the rest of the Kanto region but are not part of Standard Japanese.
- /ai/ > [eː]: sekai > sekeː "world", saigo > seːgo "last"
- /ae/ > [eː]: kaeru > keːru "frog", namae > nameː "name"
- /oi/ > [eː]: omoɕiroi > omoɕireː
- /ie/ > [eː]: oɕieru > oɕeːru "teach"
- /ui/ > [iː]: warui > wariː
- /i wa/ > [jaː]: kiki wa > kikjaː "listening"
- /o wa/ > [aː]: nanzo wa > nanzaː (grammar)
The long /uː/ was developed during Middle Japanese and remains unchanged.
Middle Japanese had the following consonant inventory:
|Stop||p b||t d||k ɡ|
|Affricate||t͡s d͡z||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ|
- t → t͡ʃ / __i
- t → t͡s / __ɯ
- z → d͡ʒ / __i
- z → d͡z / __ɯ
- h → ç / __i
- h → ɸ / __ɯ
Several major developments occurred:
- /zi, di/ and /zu, du/, respectively, no longer contrast
- /h/ partially develops from [ɸ] into [h, ç]
- /se/ loses its palatalization and becomes [se]
Middle Japanese had a syllable final -t. This is gradually replaced with the open syllable /tu/.
The labial /kwa, gwa/ merge with their non-labial counterparts into [ka, ga].
The consonants /s, z/, /t/, /n/, /h, b/, /p/, /m/, and /r/ could be palatalized.
Depalatalization may also be seen in the Edo dialect:
- hyakunin issyu > hyakunisi
- /teisyu/ > /teisi/ "lord"
- /zyumyoː/ > /zimyoː/ "life"
Early Modern Japanese has five verbal conjugations:
|Upper Monograde(上一段)||-i||-i||-iru||-iru||-ire||-i(yo, ro)|
|Lower Monograde (下一段)||-e||-e||-eru||-eru||-ere||-e(yo, ro)|
|S-irregular (サ変)||-e, -a, -i||-i||-uru||-uru||-ure||-ei, -iro|
As already had already begun during Middle Japanese, the verbal morphology system continues to evolve. The total number of verb classes is reduced from nine to five. Specifically, the r-irregular and n-irregular regularize as quadrigrade, and the upper and lower bigrade classes merge with their respective monograde. This leaves the quadrigrade, upper monograde, lower monograde, k-irregular, s-irregular.
Historically the adjective was sub-classified into two types: those where the adverbial form ends in -ku and those that end in –siku. That distinction is lost during this stage.
Historically the adjectival noun was sub-classified into two categories: -nar and -tar. During this stage, -tar vanishes leaving only -na.
- Shibatani (1990: 119)
- Nakata (1972: 238-239)
- Nakata (1972: 239-241)
- Nakata (1972: 256)
- Nakata (1972: 262-263)
- Yamaguchi (1997:116-117)
- Nakata (1972: 260-262)
- Yamaguchi (1997: 150-151)
- Yamamoto (1997: 147-148)
- Yamaguchi (1997:129)
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- Martin, Samuel E. (1987). The Japanese Language Through Time. Yale University. ISBN 0-300-03729-5.
- Matsumura, Akira (1971). Nihon Bunpō Daijiten (in Japanese). Meiji Shoin. ISBN 4-6254-0055-4.
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- Nakata, Norio (1972). Kōza Kokugoshi: Dai 2 kan: On'inshi, Mojishi (in Japanese). Taishūkan Shoten.
- Shibatani, Masayoshi (1990). The Languages of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36918-5.
- Yamaguchi, Akiho; Hideo Suzuki; Ryūzō Sakanashi; Masayuki Tsukimoto (1997). Nihongo no Rekishi (in Japanese). Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai. ISBN 4-13-082004-4.