The ERDL pattern, also known as the Leaf pattern, is a camouflage pattern developed by the United States Army at its Engineer Research & Development Laboratories (ERDL) in 1948. It was not used until the Vietnam War, when it was issued to elite reconnaissance and special operations units until early 1967.
The two variants of the ERDL pattern: Green-dominant "lowland" (left) and brown-dominant "highland" (right)
|Type||Military camouflage pattern|
|Place of origin||United States of America|
|In service||1948–1988 (U.S. military service)|
|Used by||U.S. Marine Corps (former)|
U.S. Air Force (former)
U.S. Army (former)
See Users (for other non-U.S. users)
Syrian Civil War
|Designer||United States Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratory under Alvin O Ramsley|
The pattern consists of four colors printed in an interlocking pattern.
The pattern was initially produced in a lime-dominant colorway, consisting of large organic shapes in mid green and brown, black ‘branches’, and light green ‘leaf highlights’. Shortly thereafter a brown-dominant scheme (with the light green replaced by light tan) was manufactured. The two patterns are also unofficially known as "Lowland" and "Highland" ERDL, respectively.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC) adopted the green "Lowland" version as standard issue in South Vietnam from 1968, and later the U.S. Army introduced it on a wide scale in Southeast Asia. A third variation, unofficially known as "Delta" from an alleged use in the Mekong Delta area of South Vietnam, was issued in the early 1970s. It was simply a color variation and not specifically developed for the Delta region. It was common for Marines to wear mixes of ERDL and OG-107 jungle fatigues, which was authorized owing to periodic shortages. Australian and New Zealand SAS members were also issued U.S.-spec tropical combat uniforms in ERDL during their time in the Vietnam War. By the end of the Vietnam War, U.S. servicemen wore camouflage combat dress as the norm. "Delta" ERDL is the same as "Highland" pattern, but the black "branches" appear thicker and less detailed. The ERDL-pattern combat uniform was identical in cut to the OG-107 jungle fatigues it was issued alongside.
Following the withdrawal of the U.S. military from South Vietnam in 1973, the U.S. Army no longer routinely issued camouflage clothing. The 1st Battalion, 13th Infantry Regiment wore the ERDL-leaf pattern as an experiment in the early 1970s from January 1973 to 1974in Baumholder, Germany. Soldiers in the 1st and 2d Ranger Battalions (1/75 & 2/75 Ranger [Airborne]) received ERDL jungle fatigues of all three varieties as organizational issue, and during this same period the 82d Airborne Division and 36th Airborne Brigade (Texas National Guard) were issued the ERDL jungle fatigues until replaced by BDUs. 1st Battalion (mechanized), 41st Infantry, wore ERDL unfiforms in 1974 and 1975. This unit was the "tip of the spear" for the Second Armored Division with assignments at Ft. Hood, Texas and Hohenfels, West Germany. In 1976, the Marines obtained the leftover Vietnam War-era ERDL pattern uniforms which became general issue, replacing the solid OG "sateen" utility/fatigue uniform. As there was never an ERDL pattern Marine-style utility cap, the Marines continued to wear the solid OG utility hat until the adoption of the BDU pattern. It was to be used to equip the United States Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) while on tropical missions. Photographs during the 1979 Iranian hostage crisis show U.S. marines guarding the U.S. embassy wearing the RDF version ERDL uniforms when they were taken hostage by Iranian revolutionaries.
It was not until 1981 that the Army approved another camouflaged uniform. That year it officially introduced the battle dress uniform (BDU) in Woodland pattern, an enlarged and slightly altered version of ERDL-leaf, to supply all arms of the U.S. military. The last batches of the ERDL-patterned fatigues saw service into the 1980s, notably during Operation Eagle Claw, peacekeeping operations in Beirut, and the invasion of Grenada.
Samples of the ERDL pattern were shipped to the USSR, where it used as the basis for making the TTsKO camouflage pattern based on sample uniforms acquired during the Vietnam War.
Garment types, designs, and use in Southeast Asia (1967–72)Edit
The ERDL pattern was used on official and unofficial U.S. military garments in Southeast Asia (SEA), in both ground and aviation garment versions, from 1967 to the war's end.
On official ground combat garments, the ERDL pattern was first applied to the Tropical Combat Uniform (third model) around 1967, and was printed onto a lightweight cotton poplin textile material. This poplin uniform was very short-lived, but it did see combat use in SEA by various U.S. special operations and some other units. Soon afterwards, the ERDL pattern was again applied to the Tropical Combat Uniform (third model), but was printed onto the standard rip-stop cotton textile material. This ERDL rip-stop cotton Tropical Combat Uniform version thus saw wide use in SEA after 1968, with Special Operations units and also regular units, especially as ground combat operations continued throughout the war up to late 1972.
On official aviation combat garments, the ERDL pattern was used on the USAF Type K-2B Flying Coveralls, in a cotton poplin textile version. The USAF ERDL Coveralls saw some use in SEA from 1967–69, until replaced by the USAF Nomex Coveralls in 1970. The Navy also produced an official ERDL aviation garment in their Flying Coverall 'MIL-C-5390G' pattern, produced in a cotton twill textile. This Navy ERDL Coveralls saw very limited SEA use from 1967–68, as their Nomex Coveralls were already in use.
On unofficial and commercial garments, the ERDL pattern was copied and used by U.S. commercial textile manufacturers in the late 1960s, and applied to various commercial camouflage garments for hunting or unofficial military use. Some commercial ERDL garment examples were made using cotton poplin material, and others were made in the standard rip-stop cotton material. Many commercial ERDL garment examples of the time were made in the pattern mirroring the U.S. Military OG-107 Fatigue Uniform, with a standard tucked-in shirt, and conventional trousers design.
These commercial ERDL OG-107 Fatigue-style garments did see some combat use in SEA, such as with U.S. Navy tactical jet aviators in the 1968 timeframe.
Some USAF aviators also purchased local/in-country tailor made ERDL garments and Coveralls, for combat and off-duty use.
Additionally, some Tropical Combat Uniforms were made by local/in-country tailors in the ERDL rip-stop material, which were particularly useful when a classified mission required the use of 'sanitized' or 'sterile' apparel, and equipment.
- Czech Republic: The Czech Armed Forces use a modified version of the ERDL pattern, known as Woodland pattern vz.95.
- Syria: Clones made for the Syrian military.
- Australia: Some used by the Australian military in the Vietnam War.
- Singapore: Formerly used by the Singaporean military.
- South Vietnam: Formerly used by the South Vietnamese army, consisting of regular and "invisible" ERDL-type camo.
- Taiwan: Formerly used by Taiwanese military.
- Thailand: Formerly used by the Thai military.
- United States: Formerly used by the U.S. military when it was phased out by 2005.
- Blechman/Newman, Hardy/Alex (2004). DPM: Disruptive Pattern Material. Department of Publications, Maharishi. ISBN 0-9543404-0-X.
- Tom Vanderbilt, "The Army's new camouflage", Slate Magazine
- Mark's Asian Camo Uniforms
- Newark, Tim (2007). Camouflage. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51347-7.
- Vietnam - Equipment and Uniform
- "1st Bn 13th Inf Stands Out as Div Unit", The Arrow (19 November 1973), p. VI
- Christine O. Hardyman, ed. (1988). "Chapter 7: Support Services". Department of the Army Historical Summary FY 1981. United States Army Center of Military History.
- Woodland pattern vz.95
- Camouflage Facts Archived 2006-05-24 at the Wayback Machine, Delta Gear, Inc.
- Stanton, Shelby (1989). US Army Uniforms of the Vietnam War. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books.
- Media related to ERDL pattern at Wikimedia Commons