Dutch general election, 2017
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Strongest political party by municipality
This was the first election called because of completion of the previous government's four-year term (rather than the resignation of the cabinet) since 2002. The 2012 elections had resulted in a ruling coalition of Prime Minister Mark Rutte's People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Labour Party (PvdA). Because the second Rutte cabinet lacked a majority in the Senate, it relied on the support of the Democrats 66 (D66), Christian Union (CU) and Reformed Political Party (SGP).
Preliminary results and exit polls for the 2017 election showed that the VVD lost some seats, but retained their position as largest party, while the PvdA saw a massive loss in vote share and seats, failing to win a single municipality for the first time in the party's history. The Party for Freedom (PVV) made gains to reach second place, with the CDA, D66 and GroenLinks also increasing their number of seats. At least four partners will be needed for a coalition with a parliamentary majority. The official election results were certified and published on 21 March. Elected MPs will take their seats on 23 March.
Electoral system and organisationEdit
The House of Representatives, or Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer) is composed of 150 seats elected by proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency, with a legal threshold of 1 full seat (0.67%), and residuals assigned by the D'Hondt method. Electronic voting has been banned since 2007 and votes must be cast with a red pencil.
Following reports from the General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) that Russian hacking groups Fancy Bear and Cozy Bear had made several attempts to hack into Dutch ministries, including the Ministry of General Affairs, to gain access to secret government documents, Dutch Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Ronald Plasterk announced that votes for the election would be processed by hand, although that decision was later reversed. Preliminary results were published on 15 March, and the official result was announced at 16:00 CET on 21 March. The polling firm Ipsos released an exit poll as soon as polls closed, which indicated that the VVD won 31 seats, the CDA, D66, and PVV each won 19 seats, GroenLinks won 16, SP won 14, PvdA won 9, CU won 6, PvdD won 5, 50PLUS won 4, DENK and SGP each won 3, and FvD won 2.
The 2017 Dutch-Turkish diplomatic incident happened less than a week before the elections, with speculation that this benefited the prime minister's party (VVD), as Rutte's response to the incident was well-received.
|Dutch general election debates, 2017|
|Date||Organisers||Venue||P Present NI Non-invitee A Absent invitee||Notes|
|26 February||RTL Nieuws||De Rode Hoed||P||NI||NI||P||P||P||A||NI||P||A|||
|5 March||BNR Nieuwsradio / RTL Nieuws / Elsevier||Carré Theatre||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||A||P||A|||
|13 March||EenVandaag||Erasmus University||NI||NI||NI||NI||NI||NI||P||NI||NI||P|||
|14 March||NOS||House of Representatives||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P|||
Polls showed a precipitous collapse for both the VVD and PvdA following their decision to form a coalition government together after the 2012 elections, with support for the latter splitting among other left-wing or liberal parties. As with other right-wing populist parties, the Party for Freedom (PVV) rose in polls during the European migrant crisis, with the party topping polls from September 2015 through to late February 2017. However, in the relative absence of Geert Wilders during the campaign – notably refusing to participate in both RTL debates – support for the PVV collapsed, and the VVD secured a narrow lead in the final weeks before the election.
|2012–2017 polling graphs|
The seat projections in the graphs below are continuous from September 2012 (the last general election) up to the current date. Each colored line specifies a political party; numbers on the vertical axis represent numbers of seats. These seat estimates are derived from estimates by Peilingwijzer ("polling indicator") by Tom Louwerse, a professor of political science at Leiden University; they are not strictly polling averages, but the results of a model calculating a "trajectory" for each party based on changes in support over time in between polls conducted by I&O Research, Ipsos, TNS NIPO, LISS panel, Peil, and De Stemming, and adjusting for the house effects of each individual pollster.
|People's Party for Freedom and Democracy||VVD||Mark Rutte||2,238,351||21.3||–5.3||33||–8|
|Party for Freedom||PVV||Geert Wilders||1,372,941||13.1||+3.0||20||+5|
|Christian Democratic Appeal||CDA||Sybrand Buma||1,301,796||12.4||+3.9||19||+6|
|Democrats 66||D66||Alexander Pechtold||1,285,819||12.2||+4.2||19||+7|
|Socialist Party||SP||Emile Roemer||955,633||9.1||–0.6||14||–1|
|Labour Party||PvdA||Lodewijk Asscher||599,699||5.7||–19.1||9||–29|
|Christian Union||CU||Gert-Jan Segers||356,271||3.4||+0.3||5||–|
|Party for the Animals||PvdD||Marianne Thieme||335,214||3.2||+1.3||5||+3|
|Reformed Political Party||SGP||Kees van der Staaij||218,950||2.1||+0.0||3||–|
|Forum for Democracy||FvD||Thierry Baudet||187,162||1.8||–||2||+2|
|Pirate Party||PP||Ancilla van de Leest||35,478||0.3||+0.0||0||–|
|Artikel 1||A1||Sylvana Simons||28,700||0.3||–||0||–|
|Nieuwe Wegen||NiWe||Jacques Monasch||14,362||0.1||–||0||–|
|Lokaal in de Kamer||LidK||Jan Heijman||6,858||0.1||–||0||–|
|Niet Stemmers||NS||Peter Plasman||6,025||0.1||–||0||–|
|De Burger Beweging||DBB||Ad Vlems||5,221||0.1||–||0||–|
|Jezus Leeft||JL||Florens van der Spek||3,099||0.0||–||0||–|
|Vrijzinnige Partij||VP||Norbert Klein||2,938||0.0||–||0||–|
|Libertarian Party||LP||Robert Valentine||1,492||0.0||+0.0||0||–|
|Party for Human and Spirit||MenS–BIP||Tara-Joëlle Fonk||726||0.0||–||0||–|
|StemNL||SNL||Mario van den Eijnde||527||0.0||–||0||–|
|Vrije Democratische Partij||VDP||Burhan Gökalp||177||0.0||–||0||–|
|Total valid votes||10,516,041||100||–||150||–|
At least four parties will be required to form a coalition government that commands a majority (76 seats). Media sources speculated that incumbent Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the VVD would seek to form a government with the support of the centre-right CDA and liberal D66. CU was thought to be the most likely candidate to be the fourth member of the coalition. Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport, Edith Schippers, was selected by the VVD to serve as the party's informateur on 16 March, seeking to determine whether Jesse Klaver of GroenLinks solely desired a left-wing government, or instead simply viewed the VVD as an unlikely coalition partner. Similarly, talks with Emile Roemer of the Socialist Party (SP), who repeatedly stated during the campaign that his party would not govern with the VVD, remain a possibility.
The leaders of the D66, CDA, PvdA, VVD, SP, GroenLinks, and CU have stated that they would not enter a coalition with the PVV, and Roemer has also said that the SP will not join a coalition with the VVD.
- "Verkiezingskalender". Kiesraad. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Mehreen Khan (16 March 2017). "Dutch election: everything you need to know as tricky coalition talks loom". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "PvdA in geen enkele gemeente de grootste". Financieele Dagblad. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Kerngegevens Tweede Kamerverkiezingen 2017". Kiesraad. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "Tweede Kamerverkiezingen 2017". Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Act of 28 September 1989 containing new provisions governing the franchise and elections (Elections Act)" (PDF). Government of the Netherlands. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Andeweg, Rudy (2005). "The Netherlands: The Sanctity of Proportionality". In Gallagher, Michael; Mitchell, Paul. The Politics of Electoral Systems. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925756-6.
- Huib Modderkolk (4 February 2017). "Russen faalden bij hackpogingen ambtenaren op Nederlandse ministeries". Volkskrant. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Peter Cluskey (3 February 2017). "Dutch opt for manual count after reports of Russian hacking". The Irish Times. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Huib Modderkolk (3 March 2017). "Plasterk draait: tóch stemsoftware bij verkiezingen". de Volkskrant.
- "TK2017 – de exitpoll". Ipsos Nederland. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "NOS Uitslagen verkiezingen 2017". NOS. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Verkiezingen Caribische graadmeter". Telegraaf. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "28 partijen nemen deel aan Tweede Kamerverkiezing". Kiesraad. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Persberichten van Lokaal in de Kamer". Lokaal in de Kamer. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Tobias den Hartog (14 March 2017). "PVV zakt flink weg in peilingen, VVD profiteert". Algemeen Dagblad. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Rode Hoed Debat scoort ondanks Boer Zoekt Vrouw". Mediacourant. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Carré-debat – De enige politieke arena zonder theater". Carré-debat. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Confrontatie Rutte en Wilders in EenVandaag-debat". EenVandaag. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Loting NOS-verkiezingsdebatten verricht". NOS. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Tom Louwerse. "Peilingwijzer: Methode". Peilingwijzer. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Dutch election: Wilders defeat celebrated by PM Rutte". BBC News. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Nederland Kiest: 'formatie wordt moeilijk, moeilijk, moeilijk'". NOS. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Wilders: liever een coalitie dan een revolte". NOS. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Buma weigert regeren met PVV nog steeds". Telegraaf. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "PvdA-voorzitter Spekman: Henk en Mark, zeg nee tegen de PVV". NOS. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Rutte: kans op regering VVD met PVV is nul". NOS. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Sasha Kester (14 January 2017). "Roemer sluit samenwerking met VVD uit en roept PvdA op hetzelfde te doen". Volkskrant. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Klaver sluit VVD niet uit, PVV wel". Telegraaf. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "ChristenUnie sluit samenwerking met PVV uit". Groot Nieuws Radio. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Edwin van der Aa; Hans van Soest (14 January 2017). "Emile Roemer sluit VVD uit". Algemeen Dagblad. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dutch general elections 2017.|