Durumagi (Korean두루마기; lit. closed all around), also jumagui (Korean주막의; Hanja周莫衣), juchaui (Korean주차의; Hanja周遮衣), juui (Korean주의; Hanja周衣),[1] is a variety of po, or overcoat, in hanbok, the Korean traditional garment. It is a form of outwear which is usually worn as the topmost layer of clothing; that is it worn over jeogori (jacket) and baji (pants).[2]: 120 

Durumagi
Hangul
두루마기
Hanja
周莫衣· 周遮衣· 周衣
Revised RomanizationDurumagi / Jumagui / Juchaui / Juui
McCune–ReischauerTurumagi / Chumagi / Chuch'ai / Chui

HistoryEdit

The origin of durumagi traces back to at least the Three Kingdoms of Korea, where it originated from a long coat worn by the northern Chinese to fend off cold weather in ancient times.[3][4][5][6] This form of paofu (Chinese robes) was mid-calf in length and had binding which were similar to those used in the jeogori.[3] Such form of robes looked similar to the zhiju (Chinese: 直裾) which was developed since Shang dynasty. Two unearthed examples of the zhiju can be found in Mawangdui (马王堆) BC 206–24 and Mashan chumu (马山楚墓) BC 770–476.[7][8]

Goguryeo kingdomEdit

The ancient Chinese paofu was adopted and worn by the upper class of Goguryeo (founded in 37BC) in various forms for ceremonies and rituals.[3] The modified form of this paofu was eventually introduced to the general population and became known as the durumagi.[3]

Tomb murals from Goguryeo were primarily painted in two regions, Jian (集安) and Pyeongyang, which are the second and third capitals of the Goguryeo from the middle of the 4th to the middle of the 7th centuries respectively.[9]: 15  The paintings datings from this period in the region of Jian typically shows the characteristics of the people of Goguryeo in terms of morals and customs while those in the regions of Pyeongyang would typically show the cultural influence of the Han dynasty, including figures dressed in Hanfu-style attire, as the Han dynasty had governed this geographical region for approximately 400 years.[9]: 15 

Based on the Goguryeo mural paintings found near Pyeongyang, such as the early 5th century murals from Gamsinchong (龕神塚), the ancient durumagi worn by the owner of Gamsinchong tomb was red (or purple) in colour.[9]: 16  The ancient durumagi was also worn with a waist belt and had wide sleeves.[10]

GoryeoEdit

During the Goryeo period, Mongolian influences caused the durumagi to change in appearance.[10] Not only was the waist belt changed into a goreum, the traditional po's short length and wide sleeves were lengthened and narrowed to the style of the Mongolian coat, xurumakci, of which the name durumagi is said to be derived.[11]

Joseon periodEdit

During the Joseon dynasty, the durumagi was less worn as an overcoat but more of a housecoat for the noble class, whereas it was worn outdoors by the commoners. In 1884, King Gojong promulgated the unification of clothing for all social classes through reform laws.[12] However, this law was met with much resistance and it was only until ten years later, after the Gabo Reform of 1894, that the durumagi became common as formal attire.[10]

Construction and designEdit

The durumagi is an overcoat, which is closed all around,[1] lacking side and back vents.[2]: 120  It has a straight collar with front overlapping front panels closing to the right, side gores, chest ties, neckband and narrow sleeves; its length is about under the calves and above the ankles.[2]: 120 

Different fabrics and materials are used in making durumagi: calico, wool, cotton, and various silks for winter; ramie, fine ramie and silk gauze for summer; various silks and calico for spring and autumn.[1] White, grey and navy blue are commonly used.[13]

Types of durumagiEdit

 
Blue durumagi worn by female model, white durumagi worn by male model

There are various types of which include: hotedan durumagi (Korean홑단 두루마기; lit. single-layer durumagi); gyup durumagi (Korean겹 두루마기; lit. double-layer durumagi); som durumagi (Korean솜 두루마기; lit. cotton durumagi); kkachi durumagi (Korean까치 두루마기; lit. magpie durumagi) or obangjang durumagi (Korean오방장 두루마기; lit. five-colours durumagi) for children.[14]

Modern useEdit

 
2005 APEC World leaders in colourful durumagi

The durumagi is still considered an important part of traditional attire for formal occasions,[15] but a variety of colours and designs are being used. Colourful durumagi were given as gifts to the world leaders of the 2005 APEC Summit in Busan.[16]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "두루마기" [Durumagi]. Doosan Encyclopedia (in Korean). Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  2. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Traditional Korean clothing. Vol. VI (English ed.). Seoul: National Folk Museum of Korea. 2021. ISBN 9788928902873.
  3. ^ a b c d Lee, Samuel Songhoon (2013). Hanbok: Timeless Fashion Tradition. Seoul Selection. pp. 13–14. ISBN 9781624120565. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  4. ^ Wang, Bo (961). 唐会要 新罗 TangHuiYao – Silla. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  5. ^ Wei, Shou (551–554). 魏书 百济 Book of Wei – Baekje. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  6. ^ Wang, Qinruo (1013). 冊府元龜 Cefu Yuangui-chapter 936&975. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  7. ^ "3.3.1 直裾长衣". Hunan Provincial Museum. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  8. ^ 长沙马王堆一号汉墓发掘简报. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 1 July 1972. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  9. ^ a b c National Museum of Korea Editorial Team (Spring 2009). "National Museum of Korea Vol.07". Quarterly Magazine. Vol. 7, no. 7. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  10. ^ a b c (in Korean) Durumagi Archived 10 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine at Nate Encyclopedia
  11. ^ Lee Yi Hwa (이이화), Korean History 7 – the Mongolian Invasion and the 30 Years War (한국사 이야기 7 – 몽골의 침략과 30년 항쟁), 1999, p.58 Hangilsa, Paju. ISBN 89-356-5146-X
  12. ^ (in Korean)Gapsin Clothing Reform at Doosan Encyclopedia
  13. ^ (in Korean) New hanbok, Herald Biz 2010-03-30. Retrieved 14 June 2010
  14. ^ (in Korean) Obangjang durumagi from Daum Communications and Korea Culture & Content Agency
  15. ^ (in Korean) Durumagi a must, bnt news 14 February 2010
  16. ^ (in Korean) Leaders in durumagi, Nocut News 25 November 2005

External linksEdit