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Durio graveolens, sometimes called the red-fleshed durian,[5] orange-fleshed durian, or yellow durian,[6] is a species of tree in the family Malvaceae.[7] It is one of six species of durian named by Italian naturalist Odoardo Beccari.[8] The specific epithet graveolens ('strong smelling' or 'rank')[9] is due to the odor. Although most species of Durio (most notably Durio dulcis) have a strong scent, the red-fleshed type of D. graveolens has a mild scent.[10][11] It is native to Southeast Asia.

Durio graveolens
Durio graveolens 'Suluy Z' at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami
Durio graveolens 'Suluy Z' at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Durio
Species:
D. graveolens
Binomial name
Durio graveolens
Becc., 1889[2]
Fruit and leaves of D. graveolens
Fruit and leaves of D. graveolens
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy152 kcal (640 kJ)
Dietary fiber21.5 g
6.2 g
Saturated1.9 g
Trans0.9 g
Monounsaturated2.5 g
Polyunsaturated1.8 g
1.8 g
2.6 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin C
13%
10.4 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
10 mg
Copper
35%
0.7 mg
Iron
5%
0.6 mg
Magnesium
8%
27 mg
Manganese
19%
0.4 mg
Phosphorus
6%
43 mg
Potassium
11%
529 mg
Zinc
6%
0.59 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water66.7%
Cholesterol0 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: (Hoe & Siong 1999)[3] (Nasaruddin, Noor, & Mamat 2013)[4]

D. graveolens is an edible durian,[12][13] perhaps the most popular 'wild' species of durian, and it is sold commercially regionally.[14] However, its congener Durio zibethinus is the typical species eaten and dominates sales worldwide.[citation needed]

NamesEdit

This species should not be confused with the popular durian clones from Malaysia known as 'Red Flesh' (D164) and 'Red Prawn' (D175), as both of those belong to D. zibethinus.[15]

However, D. graveolens does have one registered variety, 'DQ2 nyekak (DK8)'.[15] The color of the fruit's flesh denotes other varieties–an orange-fleshed, a red-fleshed one, and yellow-fleshed. These varieties may be different species, but currently there is no consensus.[10][14] The yellow-fleshed kind is sometimes called durian simpor.[10][6][5]

In the scientific name Durio graveolens, graveolens means 'strong smelling',[16][9] although it has been described as having a "mild"[10] or "slight"[11] odor or even, in a book published by the US National Research Council, as "odorless".[11]

In Malay, the fruit is called durian burong, durian burung[5] (literally "bird durian"), durian rimba ("jungle durian"),[13] durian kuning[5][17][10] ("yellow durian"),[4] durian merah ("red durian"),[5][14][10][12] or durian otak udang galah[17][10] ("crayfish brain durian").[6] In Iban, it is durian isu.[6] The Bidayuh call it durian umot.[6] Among the Kenyah and Dayak peoples, it is known as durian anggang ("hornbill durian"),[13] durian ajan, pesang,[13] tabela or ta-bela,[13] tabelak,[10][5] taula,[13][10] tuala, tuwala.[6] On Sumatra, the Batak call it tinambela.[13][10][6] In Karo it is called meraan.[18] In Southern Thailand, it is referred to as ทุเรียน-ริะกกะ' (thureīyn-rakka).[6][10] In Aceh Tamiang Regency, it can be called durian batu ("stone durian"), and elsewhere in Sumatra, it known as durian adjan.[13][10] Other regional names include durian dalit[14][10][19] (but this can apply also to Durio oxleyanus[20]) alau, dujen, durian alau, durian daun dungoh, durian hutan[10] ("forest durian"), durian pipit, lai bengang, merang kunyit, pasang, and tongkai.[6]

A natural hybrid of D. graveolens and D. zibethinus is called durian siunggong or durian suluk.[5][6][10] It has the texture and flavour of the popular D. zibethinus and the burnt caramel overtones of D. graveolens.[6][5]

After its initial description in 1889 by Odoardo Beccari, in 1924, Dutch botanist Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen Van Den Brink reduced it to a synonym of D. conicus. British botanist John Wyatt-Smith combined it all under D. dulcis in 1953. Indonesian botanists André Joseph Guillaume Henri Kostermans and Wertit Soegeng-Reksodihardjo separated D. graveolens back to its own species in 1958.[21]

DistributionEdit

Wild D. graveolens grows in Peninsular Malaysia[6][13][5][12] (states of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Penang, Perak, Selangor, and Terengganu), Borneo,[6][13][5][12] Sumatra,[13][12][5][6] Palawan,[5] and Southern Thailand.[22] It is cultivated in Brunei,[5] Sarawak, Sabah,[6] and the Northern Territory of Australia.[12] In Brunei its popularity outshines D. zibethinus,[17] which is not cultivated in the country.[23]

It is occasionally grown outside the tropics. In Florida, it has been seen to survive two consecutive nights at 0 °C (32 °F), albeit shrouded in cloth.[24]

DescriptionEdit

 
Durio graveolens trunk

D. graveolens is a large tree, sharing many features with D. dulcis.[2] It inhabits the upper canopy, growing up to 50 m (160 ft) tall.[6][13] The trunk is 85–100 cm (33–39 in) in diameter and can have no branches until about 25 m (82 ft) high.[6] The trunk will be smooth or flaky, grey/mauve to ruddy brown with steep buttress roots.[6] The buttresses reach 3 m (9.8 ft) and extend out 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in).[13]

 
Durio graveolens leaves

The oblong leaves are 10–26 cm (3.9–10.2 in) long without the petiole (leaf stalk), and 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) wide.[2][6] They are perfectly rounded on both ends, rigid, and slightly coriaceous (leather-like in feel or texture).[6][2] On the top, they are glabrous (smooth and hairless) and crisp,[6] almost vernicose (varnished).[2] Underneath, the leaves are copper-brown and lepidote (scaly),[6] with large scales of up to 2 mm (0.079 in) in diameter, which are not very noticeable, at least when dry.[2] The leaf scales are peltate (shield-shaped), ciliate-radiated (fringed), and deeply-lobed in three to five parts.[2] In addition to the scales, long strands of stellate hairs and other trichomes of varying size form a soft tomentose (fuzzy) surface.[2] The leaf midrib is very prominent on the underside and forms a crease on top.[2] The leaf stipules are caducous (drop early).[6] Leaves have 10-12 lateral veins per side (with some smaller ones intermixed), which are tiny and superficial above and more distinct, but still barely visible.[2] The petiole is very large, 15–18 mm (0.59–0.71 in) long, and tumescent (swollen) from the middle up.[2]

Flowers grow on the branches[2][25] on short cymes and a thin calyx.[6] The base is sac-like with three to five connate lobes.[6][25] It has white,[25] spatulate (spoon-shaped) petals that are 25–35 millimetres (0.98–1.38 in) long.[6] Inside are five separate bundles of staminodes and stamens,[6] fused for less than half of their length.[25] The anther has small clusters of four or five elongated pollen locules that open with longitudinal slits.[25] Ovaries are ovoid to globose (roughly spherical) and possess a yellow capitate (shaped like a pinhead) stigma and white to greenish style[6] about 48 mm (1.9 in).[26] The pollen is psilate (relatively smooth), spheroidal, and 54 μm (0.0021 in) in diameter.[26] The surface of the pollen includes three colporate apertures, meaning the apertures have a combined colpus (or furrow) and pore.[26] The pollen grains are monad, and do not cluster.[26]

The fruits are up to 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in) in diameter,[2][6][12][27][25] and weigh about 757.5 grams (26.72 oz).[28] The greenish- to orange-yellow outside is densely covered with long (1 cm (0.39 in)) and thin angular-subulate spines which are straight or slightly curved, and prickly[2][6][12] yet slightly soft.[25] The fruit easily breaks into five fibrous-coriaceous valves (sections)[6][12][27] with 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) thick walls.[2] Typically the fruit opens on the tree,[6][12] but some varieties do not until they are on the ground or harvested. There are 2 bulbous or chestnut-shaped seeds per section, each completely enveloped by fleshy aril.[2][12][25] These glossy brown seeds are 2 cm × 4 cm (0.79 in × 1.57 in).[6][12][27] The pungent aril is the part consumed as food,[2] though some sources note the odor is sometimes very mild.[12][25][13] It ranges in color from light yellow[2] to orange to lipstick red.[6][5][12][25]

TaxonomyEdit

D. graveolens is in the core clade Palatadurio of the genus Durio.[25] It is most closely related to Durio kutejensis.[25]

Palatadurio

D. lanceolatus

D. carinatus

D. graveolens

D. kutejensis

D. dulcis

D. oxleyanus

D. lowianus

D. zibethinus

EcologyEdit

 
Foliage of Durio graveolens

D. graveolens is a tropical plant species that needs high heat and humidity.[6] Typically, it is found on clay-rich soils in wet lowland dipterocarp forests, frequently along riverbanks and swamps.[6] Because of its tolerance for wet habitats,[13] it is possibly resistant to infection by the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora.[12][17] It can also be found on hillsides and shale ridges up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in elevation.[6]

It is pollinated by bats.[26] As it is one of the only species to naturally hybridize with D. zibethinus,[5][6][29] they are thought to share a pollinator, likely the cave nectar bat (Eonycteris spelaea).[30][21] Pollen from both of these durian species has been found in cave nectar bat feces, and possibly in that of the long-tongued fruit bat (Macroglossus sobrinus).[31]

After harvest, fruit can be set upon by fungi such as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Glomerella cingulata, Geotrichum candidum, Calonectria kyotensis, and occasionally Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium.[17] Secondary or opportunistic fungal infection can be from species such as Aspergillus niger and other Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Gibberella intricans, and Penicillium spp.[17]

The fruit is fed on by Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus),[18] Prevost's squirrels (Callosciurus prevostii), crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis), black hornbills (Anthracoceros malayanus), possibly viverrids[27] and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).[32] Black hornbills are also effective seed dispersers for the tree,[27] and this is referenced in a few of the regional names for the tree (see § Names).

BiochemistryEdit

The fatty acids in the fruit are 30% saturated and 70% unsaturated.[4] The saturated fats include myristic acid (14.49%), arachidic acid (7.08%), pentadecanoic acid (3.61%), heptadecanoic acid (2.2%), decanoic acid (1.62%), and lauric acid (1.31%).[4] Unsaturated fats include oleic acid (22.18%), palmitoleic acid (13.55%), linolelaidic acid (12.39%), γ-linolenic acid (12.23%), linoleic acid (4.95%), elaidic acid (2.50%), and myristoleic acid (1.89%).[4]

UsesEdit

The fruit's pulp is typically eaten raw and has the fragrance of roasted almonds[6][5][17] or burnt caramel.[6][5] The taste is described as sweet and cheesy[17] or similar to eating an avocado or pimento cheese.[10] Sometimes, it is it is fermented into the condiment tempoyak.[14] The red-fleshed type is used with freshwater fish to make a type of sayur (a traditional Indonesian vegetables stew).[6]

The seeds can also be ground into flour (tepung biji durian dalit), which then can be used to make, for example, fish crackers.[19]

The tree is also harvested for lumber in Sarawak.[6] The Iban people there also bathe day-old infants (especially for preterm birth) in a tisane of mature bark, as they believe it strengthens the skin.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Durio graveolens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2017. This taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List, but is in the Catalogue of Life: Durio graveolens Becc.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Beccari, Odoardo (1889). Malesia: raccolta di osservazioni botaniche intorno alle piante dell'arcipelago Indo-Malese e Papuano pubblicata da Odoardo Beccari, destinata principalmente a descrivere ed illustrare le piante da esso raccolte in quelle regioni durante i viaggi eseguiti dall'anno 1865 all'anno 1878 [Malaysia: collection of botanical observations about the plants of the Indo-Malay and Papuan archipelago published by Odoardo Beccari, mainly intended to describe and illustrate the plants he collected in those regions during travels carried out from the years 1865 to 1878] (PDF) (in Italian). 3. Florence & Rome, Italy: Tipografia del R. Instituto sordo-muti. pp. 242–3. ASIN B000MTM2A0. OCLC 880509632. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  3. ^ Hoe, Voon Boon; Siong, Kueh Hong (March 1999). "The nutritional value of indigenous fruits and vegetables in Sarawak" (PDF). Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 8 (1): 24–31. doi:10.1046/j.1440-6047.1999.00046.x. ISSN 1440-6047. OCLC 5534067161. PMID 24393732. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e Nasaruddin, Mohd hanif; Noor, Noor Qhairul Izzreen Mohd; Mamat, Hasmadi (2013). "Komposisi Proksimat dan Komponen Asid Lemak Durian Kuning (Durio graveolens) Sabah" [Proximate and Fatty Acid Composition of Sabah Yellow Durian (Durio graveolens)] (PDF). Sains Malaysiana (in Malay). 42 (9): 1283–1288. ISSN 0126-6039. OCLC 857479186. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q O'Gara, E.; Guest, D. I.; Hassan, N. M. (2004). "Occurrence, Distribution and Utilisation of Durian Germplasm" (PDF). In Drenth, A.; Guest, D. I. (eds.). Diversity and Management of Phytophthora in Southeast Asia ACIAR Monograph No. 114. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). pp. 187–193. ISBN 978-1-86320-405-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Lim, Tong Kwee (29 September 2011). "Durio graveolens". Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 552–555. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8661-7_74. ISBN 978-90-481-8661-7. OCLC 988813302.
  7. ^ "Durio graveolens". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2017. Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Malvales; Malvaceae; Helicteroideae; Durio
  8. ^ "Durio". The Plant List. 1.1. England: The Plant List. 23 March 2012. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b Griffith, Chuck (2005). "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets". Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. graveolens graveolens graveolens strong smelling graveolens graveolent adj strong smelling; rank Ruta graveolens L.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Gasik, Lindsay (May 2013). "Durio graveolens". Year of the Durian. yearofthedurian.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b c National Research Council (1975). Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value (2002 ed.). New York; Hong Kong: The Minerva Group. p. 65. ISBN 9780894991868. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lim, Tong Kwee; Luders, L. (July 1997). Boosting Durian Productivity (PDF). RIRDC Project DNT - 13A. Barton, ACT: Rural Industries Research Development Corporation (RIRDC). ISBN 9780724530151. ISSN 1440-6845. OCLC 38412745. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kostermans, André Joseph Guillaume Henri (December 1958). Dilmy, A.; Van Steens, C. G. G. J. (eds.). "The Genus Durio Adans. (Bombac.)" (PDF). Reinwardtia. 4 (3): 91–95. doi:10.14203/reinwardtia.v4i3.1008 (inactive 2019-09-12). ISSN 2337-8824. OCLC 4142407. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Wild durians of Borneo". Daily Express. Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia: Sabah Publishing House Sdn. Bhd. 5 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  15. ^ a b "Varieties Registered For National Crop List". Plant Variety Protection Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. pp. 15–6, 52. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017. D164 Durian Durio zibethinus Linn. D175 Durian Durio zibethinus Linn. DQ2 Durian Sarawak Durio graveolens Becc Nyekak (DK8)
  16. ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Sivapalan, A.; Metussin, Rosidah; Harndan, Fuziah; Zain, Rokiah Mohd (December 1998). "Fungi associated with postharvest fruit rots of Durio graveolens and D. kutejensis in Brunei Darussalam". Australasian Plant Pathology. 27 (4): 274–277. doi:10.1071/AP98033. ISSN 1448-6032. OCLC 204773204.
  18. ^ a b Mackinnon, John (February 1974). "The behaviour and ecology of wild orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus)". Animal Behaviour. 22 (1): 3–74. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(74)80054-0. ISSN 0003-3472.
  19. ^ a b Yong, Yen Cze (2015). Aplikasi Tepung Biji Durian Dalit (Durio graveolens) Dalam Keropok Ikan [Application of Durian Dalit (Durio graveolens) Seed Flour in Fish Crackers] (in Malay). Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Malaysia Sabah. OCLC 973237888.
  20. ^ Ng, Murphy (19 December 2012). "Red and Orange Durians of Sabah". MySabah.com. Sabah, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2017. Durian Dalit (Orange-flesh Durian), Species: Durio oxleyanus The husk of Durian Dalit is green color, with long and thick thorns outside. Durian Sukang (Red-flesh Durian), Species: Durio graveolens When ripe, the husk of Durian Sukang turns yellow, with short and sharp spines.
  21. ^ a b Brown, Michael J. (1997). Arora, R.K.; Ramanatha Rao, V.; Rao, A.N. (eds.). Durio, a Bibliographic Review. New Delhi, India: International Plant Genetic Resource Institute. p. 13. ISBN 9789290433187. OCLC 38754437. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Durio graveolens Beccari, 1889". Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000. Retrieved 29 September 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ Osman, M. B.; Mohamed, Z. A.; Idris, S.; Aman, R. (1995). Tropical fruit production and genetic resources in Southeast Asia: Identifying the priority fruit species (PDF). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). ISBN 978-92-9043-249-4. OCLC 723476105. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30. Retrieved 10 November 2017. In Brunei Darussalam, D. zibethinus does not occur locally. The people in Brunei prefer the other species, such as D. graveolens, D. kutejensis and D. oxyleyanus. These species are quite commonly distributed in the country and together with other species like D. testudinarium and D. dulcis, represent rich genetic diversity.
  24. ^ Whitman, William F. (November 1990). Cockshutt, Nicholas (ed.). "Ultra Tropicals vs. Freezing Point". Tropical Fruit World. 1 (5): 147–148. ISSN 1053-850X. OCLC 22610361.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nyffeler, Reto; Baum, David A. (2001). "Systematics and character evolution in Durio s. lat. (Malvaceae/Helicteroideae/Durioneae or Bombacaceae-Durioneae)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 1 (3): 165–178. doi:10.1078/1439-6092-00015. ISSN 1439-6092. OCLC 199110722.
  26. ^ a b c d e Stroo, A (March 2000). "Pollen morphological evolution in bat pollinated plants". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 222 (1–4): 225–242. doi:10.1007/BF00984104. ISSN 1615-6110. OCLC 197044000.
  27. ^ a b c d e Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Lagan, Peter; Kitayama, Kanehiro (March 2008). "A Study of Fruit–Frugivore Interactions in Two Species of Durian (Durio, Bombacaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia". Biotropica. 40 (2): 255–258. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2007.00335.x. ISSN 1744-7429. OCLC 5155811169.
  28. ^ Yumoto, Takakazu (August 2000). "Bird-Pollination of Three Durio Species (Bombacaceae) in a Tropical Rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 87 (8): 1185. ISSN 1537-2197. Retrieved 14 November 2017. Wet masses of fruits recorded in Lambir Hills National Park were as follows: D. graveolens, 757. 5 g;... (T. Yumoto, unpublished data)
  29. ^ Hambali, GG; Yatazawa, M; Sunarto, AT (1989). Siemonsma, J.S.; Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N. (eds.). Wild Durio Germplasm for improving fruit quality and performance of Durio zibethinus (PDF). Plant Resources of South-East Asia Proceedings of the First PROSEA International Symposium May 22–25, 1989, Jakarta, Indonesia. p. 261. ISBN 978-90-220-0999-4. OCLC 956468165. Retrieved 12 November 2017. Four hybrid seedlings were obtained in the crosses between D. zibethinus and D. graveolens, whereas no fruit set was observed in the crosses between D. zibethinus and D. oxleyanus, and between D. oxleyanus and D. graveolens.
  30. ^ Soepadmo, Engkik; Eow, BK (31 August 1977). Mabberley, DJ; Lan, Chang Kiaw (eds.). "The Reproductive Biology of Durio zibethinus Murr" (pdf). The Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore. 29: 25–33. ISSN 2382-5812. OCLC 918436212. Archived from the original on 31 December 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  31. ^ Start, A.N.; Marshall, A.G. (1976). "Nectarivorous Bats as Pollinators of Trees in West Malaysia". In Burley, J.; Styles, B.T. (eds.). Tropical Trees: Variation, Breeding and Conservation. Linnean Society Symposium Series. 2. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 141–159. ISBN 978-0121451509. OCLC 476102040.
  32. ^ Fredriksson, Gabriella M.; Wich, Serge A.; Trisno (1 November 2006). "Frugivory in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) is linked to El Niño-related fluctuations in fruiting phenology, East Kalimantan, Indonesia" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 89 (3): 489–508. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00688.x. ISSN 1095-8312. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 February 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Durio graveolens Bombacaceae S fr Tree

External linksEdit