Duke of York and Albany

Duke of York and Albany was a title of nobility in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was created three times during the 18th century and was usually given to the second son of British monarchs. The predecessor titles in the English and Scottish peerages were Duke of York and Duke of Albany.

Duke of York and Albany
Coat of Arms of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany.svg
AppointerMonarch of Great Britain
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as Sovereign
Inaugural holderPrince Ernest Augustus
Formation1716

HistoryEdit

The individual dukedoms of York and of Albany had previously each been created several times in the Peerages of England and Scotland respectively. Each had become a traditional title for the second son of the monarch and had become united (but separately awarded) in the House of Stuart.

During the 18th century, the double dukedom of York and Albany was created three times in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without issue.

The second creation of the Dukedom of York and Albany was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III. He also died without issue, having never married. The third and last creation of the Dukedom of York and Albany was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, and he was the original "grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He died without legitimate issues.

Each time the Dukedom of York and Albany was created, it had only one occupant, with that person dying without legitimate issue.

Queen Victoria granted the title Duke of Albany (single geographic designation) in 1881 to her fourth son, Prince Leopold, and the title Duke of York (single geographic designation) in 1892 to her eldest grandson (second but by then only living) Prince George.

Dukes of York and AlbanyEdit

First creation, 1716–1728Edit

Prince Ernest was the younger brother of King George I.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Prince Ernest Augustus
House of Hanover
1716–1728[1]
also: Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück (1715–1728), Earl of Ulster (1716)
  7 September 1674
Osnabrück
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of the Palatinate
never married 14 August 1728
Osnabrück
aged 53

Prince Ernest died without issue.

Second creation, 1760–1767Edit

Rather than the second son of the sovereign, Prince Edward was the second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the younger brother of King George III.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Prince Edward
House of Hanover
1760–1767[citation needed]also: Earl of Ulster (1760)
  25 March 1739
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
never married 17 September 1767
Prince's Palace of Monaco
aged 28

Prince Edward died without issue.

Third creation, 1784–1827Edit

Prince Frederick was the second son of King George III.

Duke Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
The Prince Frederick
House of Hanover
1784–1827[citation needed]also: Earl of Ulster (1784)
  16 August 1763
St. James's Palace
son of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
29 September 1791
No children
5 January 1827
Rutland House
aged 63

Prince Frederick died without legitimate issue, having separated from his only wife Frederica Charlotte (with whom he had no children) but was rumoured to have fathered several illegitimate children.

Family treeEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kilburn, Matthew (May 2005) [2004]. "Ernest Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1674–1728)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8839.