Counts and dukes of Aumale

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The County of Aumale, later elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy. It was disputed between England and France during parts of the Hundred Years' War.

Aumale in Norman nobilityEdit

Aumale was a medieval fief in the Duchy of Normandy and, after 1066, of the King of England. According to Chisholm, the fief of Aumale was granted by the archbishop of Rouen to Odo, brother-in-law of William the Conqueror, who erected it into a countship.[1] However, Thompson tells us Aumale was given to Adelaide, William's half-sister, as a dower by her first husband Enguerrand; it then passed jure uxoris to her second and third husbands, Lambert and Odo.[2] In the Domesday Book of 1086, Adelaide is recorded as the Countess of Aumale, with holdings in Suffolk and Essex.[3] In 1087 Odo received the Lordship of Holderness, and at some time before 1090 Adelaide's holdings were passed to their son, Stephen. In 1102 the fief, with Odo's lands in Holderness, passed to their son, Stephen.

Lords of AumaleEdit

Norman Counts:

Counts of AumaleEdit

 
Coat of arms of the Counts of Aumale, adopted late 12th century, at start of age of heraldry

Anglo-Norman Counts:

Aumale in the French nobilityEdit

In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale, and granted the title of "Count of Aumale" to Renaud de Dammartin. It was later was held by the houses of Castile, Harcourt, and Lorraine. After several extinctions the title was re-created in 1547 for Francis, then styled Count of Aumale by courtesy. On his accession as Duke of Guise, he ceded it to his brother Claude, Duke of Aumale. It was later used as a title by Henri d'Orléans, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe, King of the French and Duke of Orléans.

As of 2019, the titleholder is a grandson of the late Henri, Count of Paris, Orléans heir, and his wife, Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza of Brazil. Prince Foulques, Duke of Aumale, son of Prince Jacques, Duke of Orléans and the duchess, née Gersende de Sabran-Pontèves, added it to his title of Comte d'Eu.

Counts of Aumale (House of Dammartin)Edit

French Counts:

Counts of Aumale (House of Castile)Edit

Counts of Aumale (House of Harcourt)Edit

  • John III 1343–1356 (husband of Blanche)
  • John IV 1356–1389 (son)
  • John V 1389–1452 (son)
    • John VI, de facto 1415–1424 (son)
  • Mary, de facto 1424–1452, de jure to 1476 (sister), with

Counts of Aumale (House of Lorraine-Vaudémont)Edit

 
Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Guise

Dukes of AumaleEdit

 
Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Aumale of the Lorraine family

Aumale in the English peerageEdit

Through the end of the Hundred Years' War, the kings of England at various times ruled Aumale, through their claims to be dukes of Normandy and later, kings of France. The title of Count or Duke of Aumale was granted several times during this period.

Earls of Aumale (1095)Edit

In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale (and, subsequently, the remainder of Normandy). However, despite this, the kings of England continued to claim the Duchy of Normandy, and to recognize the old line of Counts or Earls of Aumale. These were:

Aveline married Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, in 1269, but she died without issue in 1274. A claim upon the inheritance by John de Eston (de Ashton) was settled in 1278 with the surrender of the earldom to the Crown.[1]

Dukes of Aumale, first Creation (1385)Edit

also: Duke of Gloucester (1385–1397), Earl of Essex (1376–1397), Earl of Buckingham (1377)

Note: This creation is not listed in several sources such as "The Complete Peerage", which indicates the creation shown below as the 1st.

Dukes of Aumale, second Creation (1397)Edit

also: Duke of York (1385), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland (1390–1402), Earl of Cork (c. 1396)

Earls of Aumale (1412)Edit

also: Duke of Clarence (1412)

Counts of Aumale (1422)Edit

also: Earl of Warwick (1088)

In further creations in the English peerage after the Hundred Years' War, Aumale was spelled in the Latinised form Albemarle. For these, see Duke of Albemarle and Earl of Albemarle.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Chisholm 1911, p. 492.
  2. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 72
  3. ^ Powell-Smith, Anna. "Countess of Aumale (Adelaide) - Domesday Book".
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albemarle, Earls and Dukes of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 492–493.
  • Turner, Ralph V. "William De Forz, Count of Aumale: An Early Thirteenth-Century English Baron", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 115, No. 3 (June 17, 1971), pp. 221–249.