Duke Zhao of Qi

Duke Zhao of Qi (Chinese: 齊昭公; pinyin: Qí Zhāo Gōng; died 613 BC) was from 632 to 613 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Pan (呂潘), ancestral name Jiang (), and Duke Zhao was his posthumous title. He was known as Prince Pan before his accession to the throne.[1][2]

Duke Zhao of Qi
Ruler of Qi
Reign632–613 BC
PredecessorDuke Xiao of Qi
Died613 BC
SpouseZi Shu Ji
IssueShe, Duke of Qi
Ancestral name: Jiang (姜)
Clan name: Lü (呂)
Given name: Pan (潘)
HouseHouse of Jiang
FatherDuke Huan of Qi
MotherGe Ying

Accession to the throneEdit

Duke Zhao's father was Duke Huan of Qi, who was the first of the Five Hegemons, the most powerful rulers of the Spring and Autumn period. Duke Huan had at least three main wives who bore no sons, six favoured concubines, and more than ten sons. Duke Zhao was then known as Prince Pan, and his mother was Ge Ying, a princess of the minor state of Ge (葛). Five other sons of Duke Huan also contended for the throne: Prince Wukui, Crown Prince Zhao (later Duke Xiao), Prince Shangren (later Duke Yi), Prince Yuan (later Duke Hui), and Prince Yong.[1][2]

When Duke Huan died in the tenth month of 643 BC, the six princes fought one another for the throne. Wukui prevailed at first, but he sat on the throne for only three months before being killed by supporters of Crown Prince Zhao. Prince Zhao ascended the throne with the help of Duke Xiang of Song and was known as Duke Xiao of Qi.

Duke Xiao reigned for ten years. After he died in 633 BC, Prince Kaifang of Wey, who had been a trusted official of Duke Huan, killed Duke Xiao's son and helped Prince Pan usurp the throne. Prince Pan is posthumously known as Duke Zhao of Qi.[1][2]

Reign and successionEdit

In 632 BC, Duke Wen of Jin defeated the State of Chu at the Battle of Chengpu, and was declared the Hegemon of China, a title that was previously held by Duke Zhao's father Duke Huan.[1][2]

In 627 BC, the sixth year of Duke Zhao's reign, the Di tribes invaded Qi.[1][2]

In the fifth month of 613 BC, Duke Zhao died and was succeeded by his son She. However, just two months later She was murdered by Duke Zhao's younger brother Shangren, who usurped the throne and was posthumously known as Duke Yì of Qi.[1][2]



  • Zi Shu Ji, of the Ji clan (子叔姬 姬姓), the mother of Prince She


  • Prince She (公子舍; d. 613 BC), ruled as the Duke of Qi in 613 BC


Duke Cheng of Qi (d. 795 BC)
Duke Zhuang I of Qi (d. 731 BC)
Duke Xi of Qi (d. 698 BC)
Duke Huan of Qi (d. 643 BC)
Wey Ji of Wey
Duke Zhao of Qi (d. 613 BC)
Ge Ying of Ge


  1. ^ a b c d e f Sima Qian. 齐太公世家 [House of Duke Tai of Qi]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Guoxue.com. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Han Zhaoqi (韩兆琦), ed. (2010). Shiji (史记) (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 2546–2554. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
Duke Zhao of Qi
 Died: 613 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by Duke of Qi
632–613 BC
Succeeded by