Duke Yì of Qi

Duke Yì of Qi (Chinese: 齊懿公; pinyin: Qí Yì Gōng; died 609 BC) was from 612 to 609 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His personal name was Lü Shangren (呂商人), ancestral name Jiang (), and Duke Yì was his posthumous title.[1][2]

Duke Yì of Qi
Ruler of Qi
Reign612–609 BC
SuccessorDuke Hui of Qi
Died609 BC
Ancestral name: Jiang (姜)
Clan name: Lü (呂)
Given name: Shangren (商人)
HouseHouse of Jiang
FatherDuke Huan of Qi
MotherMi Ji

Accession to the throneEdit

Duke Yì's father was Duke Huan of Qi, who was the first of the Five Hegemons, the most powerful rulers of the Spring and Autumn period. Duke Huan had at least three main wives who bore no sons, six favoured concubines, and more than ten sons. Duke Yì was then known as Prince Shangren, and his mother was Mi Ji, a princess of the minor state of Mi (密). Five other sons of Duke Huan also contended for the throne: Prince Wukui, Crown Prince Zhao (later Duke Xiao), Prince Pan (later Duke Zhao), Prince Yuan (later Duke Hui), and Prince Yong.[1][2]

When Duke Huan died in the tenth month of 643 BC, the six princes fought one another for the throne. Wukui prevailed at first, but was killed three months later and replaced by Duke Xiao. Duke Xiao died after ten years of reign, and was succeeded by Duke Zhao whose supporters killed Duke Xiao's son.[1][2]

Duke Zhao reigned for 20 years and died in the fifth month of 613 BC, and his son She ascended the throne. However, just two months later Prince Shangren murdered his nephew on the tomb of Duke Xiao and usurped the throne. He was the fourth of five sons of Duke Huan to become the ruler of the state, and was posthumously known as Duke Yì of Qi.[1][2]

Death and successionEdit

Duke Yì reigned for four years, and was killed by Bing Chu (邴歜) and Yan Zhi (閻職) in 609 BC. The ministers of Qi deposed his son and installed his half-brother Prince Yuan, who was then exiled in the State of Wey, on the throne. Prince Yuan would become known as Duke Hui of Qi.[1][2]


Duke Cheng of Qi (d. 795 BC)
Duke Zhuang I of Qi (d. 731 BC)
Duke Xi of Qi (d. 698 BC)
Duke Huan of Qi (d. 643 BC)
Wey Ji of Wey
Duke Yì of Qi (d. 609 BC)
Mi Ji of Mi


  1. ^ a b c d e Sima Qian. 齐太公世家 [House of Duke Tai of Qi]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Guoxue.com. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e Han Zhaoqi (韩兆琦), ed. (2010). Shiji (史记) (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 2546–2555. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
Duke Yì of Qi
 Died: 609 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by Duke of Qi
612–609 BC
Succeeded by