Duke Xiang of Song
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After the death of the Hegemon of China, Duke Huan of Qi, in 643 BC, Duke Xiang intervened in the War of Qi's succession on the behalf of his ally Prince Zhao. Forming an alliance with Cao, Wey, and Zou, Duke Xiang and his troops invaded Qi and eventually defeated Prince Zhao's rival brothers, crowning him as "Duke Xiao of Qi". With his influence on the rise, Duke Xiang saw a chance to become the next hegemon of China and made war with Chu. In 638 BC he attacked the state of Zheng and met the troops from Chu, who were running to save Zheng. Instead of giving the enemy a surprise attack, he waited for the enemy to go across the river in order to be a real Ren (仁) gentleman. In the Battle of Hongshui (泓水之戰) against the much stronger and fully prepared enemy, Duke Xiang's troops were defeated thoroughly and he himself was badly hurt. He died in the following year and was succeeded by his son Wangchen known as Duke Cheng of Song.
Despite his failure in expansion, he is considered one of the Five Hegemons by some historians.
- Prince Wangchen (公子王臣; d. 620 BC), ruled as Duke Cheng of Song from 636–620 BC
- Prince Yu (公弟禦; d. 620 BC), ruled as the Duke of Song in 620 BC
- Schaberg, David (2001). A Patterned Past: Form and Thought in Early Chinese Historiography. Volume 205 of Harvard East Asian monographs (Illustrated ed.). Harvard University Asia Center. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-674-00861-8.
- Zuo Qiuming. "Book 5. Duke Xi". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- Schram, Stuart R. (1997). Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings, 1912-1949. 1 (Illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-56324-457-5.