Dugu Xin (Chinese: 獨孤信; 503 – 24 April 557), Xianbei name Qimitou (期彌頭), known as Dugu Ruyuan (獨孤如願) before 540, was a prominent general and official during the chaotic Northern and Southern dynasties period of imperial China. In 534, Dugu Xin followed Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei to the west to join the warlord Yuwen Tai, and in the ensuing years led Western Wei forces against their nemesis, the Eastern Wei. Despite an early debacle (after which he fled to and stayed for 3 years in the southern Liang dynasty before returning to the northwest), he captured the former Northern Wei capital Luoyang from Eastern Wei in 537. He rose to high ranks under Yuwen Tai, and his eldest daughter married Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Yu. When the Northern Zhou dynasty replaced Western Wei, Dugu Xin was created Duke of Wei (衛國公), but was soon forced to commit suicide by the powerful regent Yuwen Hu.
Luoyang, Northern Wei
|Died||April 24, 557 (aged 53–54)|
Chang'an, Northern Zhou
|Cause of death||Forced suicide|
Dugu Xin was described as an extremely handsome man and was fond of wearing strange clothes. He is best remembered today due to his three daughters: it is because of their marriages that he was a father-in-law to two emperors from two Chinese dynasties (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou and Emperor Wen of Sui), and maternal grandfather to two emperors from two dynasties (Emperor Yang of Sui and Emperor Gaozu of Tang), all after his death. In fact, every Chinese emperor for 3 centuries (from 604 to 907, with the exception of Wu Zetian and self-proclaimed rebels) was descended from him. During the Sui dynasty, Dugu Xin was honored as Duke Jing of Zhao (趙景公) by Emperor Wen (who married his seventh daughter Dugu Qieluo). In 583, the empress built a temple dedicated to his memory in the capital Daxingcheng, the remains of which were discovered in 1997 on the campus of Xi'an Jiaotong University.
- Father: Dugu Kuzhe (獨孤庫者)
- Mother: Lady Feilian (費連氏)
Consorts and their respective issue(s):
- Lady Luo, of the Luo clan (罗氏)
- Dugu Luo (獨孤羅), Duke of Shu (蜀恭公), first son
- Lady Guo, of the Guo clan (郭氏)
- Lady Cui, of the Cui clan of Qinghe (清河崔氏)
- Dugu Shan (獨孤善), Duke Jun of Henei (河内郡公), second son
- Dugu Mu (獨孤穆), Duke Xiao of Jinquan (金泉县公), third son
- Dugu Zang (獨孤藏), Duke Xian of Wuping (武平县公), third son
- Dugu Shun (獨孤順), Duke Cheng of Wu (武成公), fourth son
- Dugu Tuo (獨孤陀), Duke Xian of Wuxi (武喜县公), fifth son
- Dugu Zong (獨孤宗), sixth son
- Dugu Zheng (獨孤整), seventh son
- Lady Dugu (獨氏), second daughter
- Lady Dugu (獨氏), third daughter
- Empress Yuanzhen (元贞皇后), fourth daughter
- Married Li Bing, Duke of Tang
- Lady Dugu (獨氏), fifth daughter
- Lady Dugu (獨氏), sixth daughter
Notes and referencesEdit
- Volume 167 of Zizhi Tongjian recorded that Dugu died on the jiyou day of the 3rd month of the 1st year of the Yongding era of Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu's reign. This date corresponds to 24 Apr 557 on the Gregorian calendar.
- Bei Shi, ch. 61.
- Zizhi Tongjian, ch. 167.
- Tang Liang Jing Cheng Fang Kao, ch. 3.
- "【校史故事365】81 交大校址上出土的唐代文物". Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese).
- Li Dashi; Li Yanshou (659). Bei Shi (北史) [History of the Northern Dynasties] (in Chinese).
- Sima Guang (1086). Zizhi Tongjian (資治通鑑) [Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government] (in Chinese).
- Xu Song (1848). Tang Liang Jing Cheng Fang Kao (唐兩京城坊考) [A Survey of the Two Tang Dynasty Capitals] (in Chinese).