Dubica, Bosnia-Herzegovina

Kozarska Dubica (Serbian Cyrillic: Козарска Дубица), is a town and municipality located in northern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 21,542 inhabitants, while the town of Kozarska Dubica has a population of 11,566 inhabitants.

Kozarska Dubica

Козарска Дубица
Highlights of Kozarska Dubica
Highlights of Kozarska Dubica
Coat of arms of Kozarska Dubica
Coat of arms
Location of Kozarska Dubica within Republika Srpska
Location of Kozarska Dubica within Republika Srpska
Location of Kozarska Dubica
Coordinates: 45°11′N 16°48′E / 45.183°N 16.800°E / 45.183; 16.800Coordinates: 45°11′N 16°48′E / 45.183°N 16.800°E / 45.183; 16.800
CountryBosnia and Herzegovina
EntityRepublika Srpska
Government
 • MayorRadenko Reljić (SNSD)
 • Municipality499.01 km2 (192.67 sq mi)
Elevation
104 m (341 ft)
Population
 (2013 census)
 • Town
11,566
 • Municipality
21,542
 • Municipality density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s)52

GeographyEdit

It is situated in the eastern part of Bosanska Krajina region. The municipality of Hrvatska Dubica lies to the north, in Croatia. Bosanska Dubica is situated 26 kilometres (16 miles) from the ZagrebBelgrade highway. The town and its suburbs border Croatia to the north, the town of Gradiška to the east, the town of Kostajnica to the west, and the town of Prijedor to the south. The land area of Bosanska Dubica is 499 square kilometres (193 sq mi).

NameEdit

The town was originally known as "Bosanska Dubica" (Босанска Дубица in Serbian Cyrillic, literally "Bosnian Dubica") but was renamed "Kozarska Dubica" (Козарска Дубица in Serbian Cyrillic) by the authorities of Republika Srpska following the Bosnian War, which was part of a broad political resolution to remove all Bosnian prefixes.[1] This included towns like Gradiška (Bosanska Gradiška) and Novi Grad (Bosanski Novi).

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

Kozarska Dubica was built in 930.[citation needed] Dubica on the right bank of the Una it was first mentioned in 1258 as Castrum. He was capital of the Dubica county. In 1538 Dubica came under Ottoman rule [2] Babonići-Vodički were in charge of the town until the 12th century. Kozarska Dubica became an important fort during the Ottoman Empire due to its geographic positioning. It became a vital and important border crossing for many years. The last Austrian-Turkish war was the so-called Dubica War (1788–91) and was fought in this area. During the war in Kozarska Dubica in the 1780s, the town, which was described at the time as having only a few houses and a mosque, was completely razed. The town fell under Ottoman occupation in 1538. Kozarska Dubica encountered many different rulers during the Ottoman Empire and the later Austro-Hungarian Empire.

During World War II, the town was occupied by Axis troops and was included into the Pavelić's Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The fascist Ustashe regime committed the Genocide of the Serbs and the Holocaust. During the war, the NDH armed forces killed over 7,000 Serbs in the municipality of Kozarska Dubica, while the municipality lost more than half of its pre-war population.[3] The biggest massacre was committed by the Croatian Home Guard in January 1942, when the village Draksenić was burned and more than 200 were people killed.[4]

During the 1970s, Kozarska Dubica experienced a great improvement in its economy. During the 1980s there was a boom in construction and renovation which was halted by the outbreak of yet another war.

The Serbian Orthodox Moštanica Monastery (Manastir Moštanica) appears on the coat of arms of Kozarska Dubica.

Bosnian WarEdit

During the period July–September 1992 all three of the town's mosques were completely destroyed.[5] The main town's mosque Gradska Džamija (literally Town's Mosque), was rebuilt in 2003 and its Harem courtyard declared a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[5] The bridge between Kozarska Dubica and Hrvatska Dubica was destroyed on the Croatian side. During the war the city was under siege by the Croatian Army during a failed operation called Operacija Una 95. On September 18, 1995, the Croatian army made a descent across the Una River and took control of some parts of Kozarska Dubica. The next day, on September 19, Serb units from other parts of the front line forced the Croat army to retreat back over the river, with Serb planes from the Banja Luka airport attacked in the vicinity of the villages Živaja and Šaš in Croatia.[6] A total of 54 Serb civilians were killed by the regular Croatian army during a failed invasion from Croatia.

SettlementsEdit

Aside from the town of Kozarska Dubica, the municipality includes the following settlements:

DemographicsEdit

 
Topola užasa Donja Gradina
 
Concentration camp memorial Donja Gradina

PopulationEdit

Population of settlements – Kozarska Dubica municipality
Settlement 1879. 1885. 1895. 1910. 1921. 1931. 1948. 1953. 1961. 1971. 1981. 1991. 2013.
Total 8,776 12,069 15,176 25,794 27,354 33.129 24,280 30,384 30,887 31,606 21,524
1 Aginci 407 275
2 Božići 414 219
3 Brekinja 316 223
4 Čitluk 425 218
5 Demirovac 467 359
6 Donja Slabinja 482 266
7 Donji Jelovac 466 254
8 Draksenić 725 565
9 Jošik 646 451
10 Kadin Jelovac 391 206
11 Klekovci 486 320
12 Knežica 626 394
13 Kozarska Dubica 4,452 4,720 6,259 9,185 11,170 13,680 11,566
14 Malo Dvorište 333 526
15 Međeđa 808 566
16 Međuvođe 529 317
17 Mirkovac 328 215
18 Ševarlije 350 228
19 Sključani 307 211
20 Sreflije 392 201
21 Veliko Dvorište 384 209
22 Vrioci 391 344

Ethnic compositionEdit

Ethnic composition – Kozarska Dubica town
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971. 1961.
Total 11,566 (100,0%) 13,680 (100,0%) 11,170 (100,0%) 9,185 (100,0%) 6,259 (100,0%)
Bosniaks 6,084 (44,47%) 4,812 (43,08%) 4,927 (53,64%) 1,138 (18,18%)
Serbs 5,540 (40,50%) 3,439 (30,79%) 3,417 (37,20%) 3,527 (56,35%)
Yugoslavs 1,329 (9,715%) 2,453 (21,96%) 251 (2,733%) 972 (15,53%)
Others 439 (3,209%) 76 (0,680%) 62 (0,675%) 16 (0,256%)
Croats 288 (2,105%) 316 (2,829%) 481 (5,237%) 558 (8,915%)
Albanians 33 (0,295%) 13 (0,142%) 20 (0,320%)
Montenegrins 31 (0,278%) 22 (0,240%) 6 (0,096%)
Roma 6 (0,054%)
Macedonians 3 (0,027%) 4 (0,044%) 15 (0,240%)
Slovenes 1 (0,009%) 5 (0,054%) 7 (0,112%)
Hungarins 3 (0,033%)


Ethnic composition – Kozarska Dubica municipality
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971. 1961.
Total 21,524 (100,0%) 31,606 (100,0%) 30,867 (100,0%) 30,384 (100,0%) 24,280 (100,0%)
Serbs 18,670 (86,74%) 21,728 (68,75%) 20,453 (66,26%) 23,989 (78,95%) 21,299 (87,72%)
Bosniaks 2,168 (10,07%) 6,440 (20,38%) 5,052 (16,37%) 5,114 (16,83%) 1,165 (4,798%)
Others 413 (1,919%) 1,099 (3,477%) 289 (0,936%) 102 (0,336%) 34 (0,140%)
Croats 273 (1,268%) 488 (1,544%) 513 (1,662%) 717 (2,360%) 746 (3,072%)
Yugoslavs 1,851 (5,856%) 4 463 (14,46%) 403 (1,326%) 978 (4,028%)
Montenegrins 38 (0,123%) 28 (0,092%) 7 (0,029%)
Albanians 34 (0,110%) 13 (0,043%) 22 (0,091%)
Macedonians 10 (0,032%) 9 (0,030%) 19 (0,078%)
Slovenes 6 (0,019%) 6 (0,020%) 7 (0,029%)
Roma 6 (0,019%)
Hungarins 3 (0,010%) 3 (0,010%) 3 (0,012%)

EconomyEdit

 
Border with Croatia

Situated in the valley of the rivers, the municipality of Kozarska Dubica has more than 316.09 square kilometres (122.04 sq mi) of arable land, to which agriculture is an important development factor. Agricultural production is focused on land cultivation, cattle breeding, raising of industrial crops, and recently the development of fruit and wine growing. The climate of Kozarska Dubica is conducive to the cultivation of different kinds of vegetables.

Most of the economy comes from the livestock. The largest milk production company is Mlijekoprodukt located near the town of Kozarska Dubica. It continues its tradition of growing fruits in the area. Kozarska Dubica also has an important construction company, IGP "UNA", which was established in 1962. Prior to the war there was a sugar factory operating as well.

Economic preview

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018):[7]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 121
Mining and quarrying 1
Manufacturing 1,477
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 85
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 97
Construction 143
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 862
Transportation and storage 103
Accommodation and food services 205
Information and communication 45
Financial and insurance activities 46
Real estate activities 9
Professional, scientific and technical activities 42
Administrative and support service activities 3
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 218
Education 277
Human health and social work activities 221
Arts, entertainment and recreation 23
Other service activities 55
Total 4,033

CultureEdit

 
A view from nearby Krivdiča hill.

Every year outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, the annual Bosansko Dubičko Veče is held. It is a celebration that brings together displaced Bosnians of all ethnicities from Kozarska Dubica. Celebrations in the United States are held in Chicago and St. Louis, Illinois. In Chicago it is always held on the Saturday before Memorial Day and hosted at the Rumija Cultural Center. Sydney, Australia, also holds the same celebration in order to gather people of Kozarska Dubica from different Australian and New Zealand areas. Work continues on creating a congress that would meet once every two years, in order to help young children born outside of Kozarska Dubica to retain the heritage and cultural traditions. These celebrations typically attract many Bosniaks; however, many Croats and Serbs also come to show their respect towards their heritage and the town of Kozarska Dubica, and to reunite with former neighbors.

TourismEdit

 
Una River with beach and bar boat Sveti Nikola in background.

Hunting is a traditional sport of the municipality of Kozarska Dubica. One hunting organization is called Jele (Deer) The area used for hunting is around 500 square kilometres (193 sq mi). Hunting is extravagant in Kozarska Dubica because of its two big mountains, Kozara and Prosara, with the hunting area filled with rich forests. Hunting ranges from deer to smaller animals such as wild ducks. Every April an international dog hunting competition occurs in Kozarska Dubica.

Spa Mlječanica is the center for physiatrics, rehabilitation, and health in Kozarska Dubica, located on the northwest slopes of Kozara. A modern, specialized institution for physical medicine and rehabilitation, it provides ideal conditions for a successful rest and recovery for its clients.

Fishing is a highly important industry in Kozarska Dubica. Because of its location right on the Una River, fishing has developed into a long time tradition, drawing people from different areas. Also, the Sava River is located not far from Kozarska Dubica at Jasenovac, where the Una enters the Sava.

SportsEdit

Kozarska Dubica has an old tradition in sports that dates back to the early 20th century. In the 1930s, Kozarska Dubica established a football club named SK Una. After World War II, Kozarska Dubica had an upsurge of different sport organizations. In 1962 the handball club Borac was established. On February 11, 1973, the basketball club BK Una was created. In 1982 the Karate Club Knešpolje was founded. Even today the different sports remain an important part of Kozarska Dubica. There are both male and female teams for handball. Also there are a couple of karate clubs and chess clubs.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Mitja Velikonja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 259. ISBN 978-1-60344-724-9.
  2. ^ HAMDIJA KREŠEVLJAKOVIĆ, 1953, STARI BOSANSKI GRADOVI (VIEUX BOURGS BOSNIAQUES) https://www.fmks.gov.ba/download/zzs/1953/1-1953.pdf #page=37
  3. ^ Cvetković, Dragan (2009). Bosna i Hercegovina: numeričko određenje ljudskih gubitaka u Drugom svetskom ratu. Belgrade. pp. 124–128. ISBN 9788686831019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ Barić, Nikola (2019). Historiae patriaeque cultor. Slavonski Brod. ISBN 978-953-8102-23-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ a b "Harem Gradske džamije u Bosanskoj Dubici, proglašava se nacionalnim spomenikom Bosne i Hercegovine". old.kons.gov.ba (in Bosnian). Komisija za očuvanje nacionalnih spomenika. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  6. ^ Eduard Šoštarić (14 August 2006). "Otvorena istraga zbog akcije 'Una'" [Inquiry into the Operation Una commenced] (in Croatian). Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba. Republika Srspka Institute of Statistics. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.

External linksEdit