The Dual Fluid Reactor is a reactor concept of the Canadian company Dual Fluid Energy Inc. It combines techniques from molten salt reactors (MSR) and liquid metal cooled reactors. It is intended to reach the criteria for reactors of the Generation IV International Forum.

Design edit

The fuel can be a molten solution of actinide chloride salts, or it can be pure liquid actinide metal. Cooling is provided by molten lead in a separate loop. It is a fast breeder reactor, and can use both uranium and thorium to breed fissile material, as well as recycle processed high-level waste and plutonium.

The reactor is inherently safe, because decay heat can be removed passively. This takes advantage of the high thermal conductivity of the molten metal.

U-238 of a spent nuclear fuel element of a light water reactor can be dissolved in Chlorine-salt, including long-living transuranic isotopes. Breeding and fission could power a 300MW electrical Dual Fluid Reactor for about 25 years. The initial fuel would be completely converted into fission products with radiotoxicity reduced from a hundreds of thousands of years to a few hundred years.[1] This essentially eliminates the need for problematic long term storage.


History edit

A conceptual predecessor of the Dual Fluid Reactor was the UK 1970s lead-cooled fast spectrum molten salt reactor (MSFR), which dissolved the fissile fuel in a molten salt, with experimental work undertaken over 1968-73, before it lost funding.[2]

The Dual Fluid Reactor was initially developed by a German research institute, the Institute for Solid-State Nuclear Physics in Berlin. In February 2021, the six inventors, along with the existing team, formed Canadian company Dual Fluid Energy Inc. to commercialize the design. In June 2021, the company secured over $6 million in Canadian seed funding.

One patent has been obtained,[3] and another is pending on the liquid metal fuel variant.[4]

The reactor design won the public vote for the Galileo Knowledge Prize in the German GreenTec Awards of 2013, although the award committee presiding over the awards changed the rules to exclude nuclear designs before announcing the winner. Dual Fluid participants successfully sued to remedy this.[5][6][7][8]

In 2023 the company signed a deal signed with the Rwanda Atomic Energy Board (RAEB) to build a demonstrator reactor. The reactor is expected to be complete by 2026 and complete testing by 2028.[9]

References edit

  1. ^ Rodney C. Ewing (15 October 1999). "Less Geology in the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste". Science. Vol. 286, no. 5439. pp. 415–417. doi:10.1126/science.286.5439.415. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  2. ^ "Molten Salt Reactors". World Nuclear Association. December 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Dual Fluid Reactor".
  4. ^ "Dual Fluid Reactor – Variant with Liquid Metal Fissionable Material (DFR/ M)".
  5. ^ "DFR – The Dual Fluid Reactor". The perspective of molten salt reactors. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Der Dual Fluid Reaktor (DFR) ist per Gerichtsbeschluss für die GreenTec Awards nominiert ! – Ruhrkultour" (in German). August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Stellungnahme Denominierung — Dual Fluid Reaktor" (in German). 8 August 2013. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  8. ^ Klute, Rainer (20 June 2013). "How To Stash A Nuclear Reactor Away". Rainers Blog. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  9. ^ Ashimwe, Edwin (12 September 2023). "Rwanda to host first demo Dual Fluid nuclear reactor". The New Times. Retrieved 12 September 2023.

Further reading edit

External links edit