The drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills.

Male at Limbe Wildlife Centre, Cameroon
Female with infant at Tierpark Hellabrunn in Munich, Germany
CITES Appendix I (CITES)[3]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Mandrillus
M. leucophaeus
Binomial name
Mandrillus leucophaeus
(F. Cuvier, 1807)

M. l. leucophaeus
M. l. poensis

Drill range

Description edit

A skull

The drill is a short-tailed monkey up to 70 cm (28 in) long, similar in appearance to the mandrill, but lacks the bright blue and red on the face of that species. It has high sexual dimorphism in weight, with males weighing up to 20 kg (44 lb) and females up to 12.5 kg (28 lb).[4]

A close-up of face

The body is overall a dark grey-brown. Mature males have a pink lower lip and white chin on a dark grey to black face with raised grooves on the nose. The rump is pink, mauve and blue. Female drills lack the pink chin.

Taxonomy edit

Two subspecies of drill are accepted by some authorities,[4] but are not considered distinct by others:[5]

Their closest relative is the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), found from southern Cameroon through mainland Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gabon and into the Congo. The two species are allopatric across the Sanaga River.

Biology edit

A dominant male leads a multi-male multi-female group of 20-30 individuals, and is father to most of the young. This group may join others, forming super groups of over 100 individuals. They are seasonally semi-nomadic, and will often rub their chests onto trees to mark their territory. They are semi-terrestrial, foraging mainly on the ground, but climbing trees to sleep at night. The females give birth to a single baby; twins have been recorded once at the Drill Rehab & Breeding Center in Nigeria.[4] The average longevity in captivity is 28 years. The diet is primarily frugivorous, taking a wide range of fruit, but they also eat herbs, roots, eggs, insects, and small mammals on occasion.[4][6]

Distribution edit

Male drill in Boki, Cross River

Drills are found only in Cross River State in Nigeria, southwestern Cameroon (south to the Sanaga River), and on Bioko Island, part of Equatorial Guinea, in rainforest habitats. Their entire global range is less than 40,000 km2.

Conservation edit

Drills are among Africa’s most endangered mammals, and are listed by the IUCN as the highest conservation priority of all African primates.[2] Drill numbers have been declining in all known habitat areas for decades as a result of illegal commercial hunting, habitat destruction, and human development; as few as 3,000 drills may remain in the wild, with the highest population estimate only 8,000. A total of 174 drills recovered from illegal capture are in semicaptivity at the Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Centre in Nigeria, with high success rates in breeding recorded there,[7] and about 40 in other zoos internationally.[4]

References edit

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 165. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Gadsby, E.L.; Cronin, D.T.; Astaras, C.; Imong, I. (2020). "Mandrillus leucophaeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T12753A17952490. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T12753A17952490.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  4. ^ a b c d e ARKive - Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) Archived 2015-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Primate Info Net: Drill
  6. ^ Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program page on the drill Archived February 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ the Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Centre (Pandrillus) Buanchor Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

External links edit

  • Pandrillus - Drill and primate conservation group operating in Nigeria and Cameroon
  • The Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) - A wildlife rescue and rehabilitation project situated in the South West Region of Cameroon.