Drammen (Norwegian pronunciation: [dɾàmːən]) is a city and municipality in Buskerud county, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the south-eastern and most populated part of Norway. Drammen municipality also includes smaller towns and villages such as Konnerud, Svelvik, Mjøndalen and Skoger.

Drammen Municipality
Drammen kommune
Strømsø-Bragernes
Flag of Drammen Municipality
Coat of arms of Drammen Municipality
Nickname(s): 
Elvebyen, The River City
Buskerud within Norway
Buskerud within Norway
Drammen within Buskerud
Drammen within Buskerud
Coordinates: 59°44′16″N 10°12′18″E / 59.73778°N 10.20500°E / 59.73778; 10.20500
CountryNorway
CountyBuskerud
Administrative centreDrammen
Government
 • Mayor (2023)Kjell Arne Hermansen (H)
Area
 • Total137 km2 (53 sq mi)
 • Land135 km2 (52 sq mi)
 • Rank#366 in Norway
Population
 (Third quarter of 2023)
 • Total104,109 Increase[1]
 • Rank#6 in Norway
 • Change (10 years)
Increase +9.7%
DemonymDrammenser[2]
Official language
 • Norwegian formBokmål
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-3301[4]
WebsiteOfficial website

Location edit

Drammen is located west of the Oslofjord and is situated approximately 44 km South-west of Oslo. There are more than 101 000 inhabitants in the municipality, but the city is the regional capital of an area with 82 000 inhabitants. Drammen and the surrounding communities are growing more than ever before. The city makes good use of the river and inland waterway called Drammensfjord, both for recreation, activities and housing.

Name and coat of arms edit

The Old Norse form of the city's name was Drafn, and this was originally the name of the inner part of Drammensfjord. The fjord is, however, probably named after the river Drammenselva (Norse Drǫfn), and this again is derived from drǫfn f 'wave'.[5] The coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 17 November 1960. The arms has a silver-colored column on top a silver-colored bedrock crossed with a silver-colored key and sword against a blue background.[6] It is based upon the old seal dating from 1723 for Bragernes, one of the central parts of Drammen. The motto for Bragernes (in Latin) was In Fide Et Justitia Fortitudo (English: in faith and justice is strength), and the items in the seal are referring to this: key = faith, sword = justice, column on rocks = strength.[7]

Governance edit

On January 1, 2020, the municipalities of Svelvik, Nedre Eiker and Drammen merged to form «The New Drammen Municipality». The new municipality, which is now called Drammen, is located in Viken County and is Norway's seventh largest with over 100,000 residents. The main seat of the Greater Municipality is located in the city of Drammen. Drammen city had a population of 82.875 inhabitants in 2021, but serves as a regional centre for an area that had a population of 110.236 inhabitants in 2021.[8] The city is the country's record champion in environment and urban development, 21 prices since 2003 with 16 national and 5 international.

Districts edit

After the merger of the municipalities Drammen, Nedre Eiker and Svelvik in 2020, the municipality was then divided into ten municipal regions:

 
Municipal regions in Drammen
 
Map of the urban area of Drammen 2021

[9]

 
Map of Drammensfjorden

History edit

Rock carvings at Åskollen and Austad are 6000 to 7000 years old, and are the first signs of human activity in the area. The largest rock carving at Åskollen depicts a moose.

 
Elk carving, Åskollen

Drammen originally consisted of three small seaports: Bragernes (on the northern side of the Drammenselva river) and Strømsø and Tangen (both on the southern side of the river). For trade purposes, small seaports were placed under market towns. Despite their geographical proximity, Bragernes was placed under Christiania and Strømsø under Tønsberg. For this reason, cooperation between the adjacent seaport towns was almost impossible.

In 1662, a merger was proposed to unite Strømsø and Bragernes to form a market town with the name Frederiksstrøm. The proposal was rejected by Frederick III of Denmark. Bragernes received limited market town rights in 1715, and merged with Strømsø to gain status as a single city on 19 June 1811.[10]

Its geographical location made the city favorable for seafaring, shipbuilding, log driving, timber trade. During the 19th century, paper and pulp industries were developed. Large parts of the city were ruined in the great fire of 12–13 July 1866,[11] which led to the reconstruction of the city centre, including the characteristic town square and Bragernes church. The Drammen Line (Drammenbanen ) opened in 1872 providing rail service between Drammen and Oslo.[12][13]

In 1909, Drammen got the first trolleybus system in Scandinavia, the Drammen trolleybus. The lines ran until 1967. For many years the centre of Drammen suffered from heavy traffic. In 1970, Drammen Bridge with two lanes on European route E18 was built (expanded to four lanes in 2006) and in 1999 the opening of the Bragernes tunnel (Bragernestunnelen) diverted additional traffic away from the centre of the city.[14]

In recent years, the city centre has seen the introduction of new housing, shopping facilities, restaurants, cafes and bars, as well as a public pathway along the Drammenselva river.[15]

In 2011, Drammen observed its 200th anniversary with many citywide jubilee celebrations.[16] Drammen's district heating system was upgraded to use water-sourced heat pumps, drawing on local fjord water, to support population growth in the city.[17]

Geography edit

Drammen is one of the larger cities in Norway, and lies about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the capital of Norway, Oslo. The city centre lies at the end of a valley, on both sides of the Drammenselva river, and where the river meets the Drammensfjord. The Holmen island in Drammen is also the main harbor for car and fruit import in Norway.

The Drammen region is part of the metropolitan region around Oslo and the country's fifth largest urban area, it extends far beyond the municipal boundaries; into the municipalities of Lier, Asker, Øvre Eiker and Holmestrand. The total population of the settlement is 110,236 inhabitants as of 1 January 2021.[18]

In 2008 Drammen won the prestigious prize for the best city development in Europe.[19]

Climate edit

Drammen has a humid continental climate (Dfb). Located at a sheltered location at the head of a narrow fjord branch of innermost Oslofjord, Drammen is one of the warmest cities in Scandinavia in summer. The warmest month on record was July 2018 with mean 22.3 °C (72.1 °F), average daily high 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) and 11 days with highs at or above 30 °C (86 °F). The all-time high 35 °C (95 °F) was recorded August 3, 1982, and is a tie with the national high for the month. The September record high is the national record. The all-time low −28 °C (−18 °F) was recorded in January 1987, which is the coldest month on record with mean −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) and average daily low −17.1 °C (1.2 °F). In more recent years, December 2010 was almost as cold. The average date for first overnight freeze (low below 0 °C (32 °F)) in autumn is 13 October (1981–2010 average).[20] The Drammen-Berskog weather station has been operating since 2004. An earlier weather station named Drammen-Marienlyst (3 m) operated from 1966 to 2003.

Climate data for Drammen 1991–2020 (8 m, avg high/low 2010–2019, extremes 1966–2020 includes earlier station)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
14.6
(58.3)
21.7
(71.1)
24.3
(75.7)
30.5
(86.9)
34
(93)
33.8
(92.8)
35
(95)
28.6
(83.5)
23.2
(73.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.1
(57.4)
35
(95)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
0.8
(33.4)
6.8
(44.2)
12.4
(54.3)
17.7
(63.9)
21.4
(70.5)
24.1
(75.4)
21.7
(71.1)
17.5
(63.5)
10.6
(51.1)
4.2
(39.6)
0.4
(32.7)
11.3
(52.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.3
(34.3)
6.1
(43.0)
11.2
(52.2)
15.3
(59.5)
18
(64)
16.4
(61.5)
11.9
(53.4)
5.8
(42.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.6
(43.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −7.6
(18.3)
−6.1
(21.0)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.1
(34.0)
6.4
(43.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.1
(55.6)
11.6
(52.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
2.6
(36.6)
Record low °C (°F) −28
(−18)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−8.1
(17.4)
−3
(27)
1.4
(34.5)
5.2
(41.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
−9.2
(15.4)
−17.2
(1.0)
−24
(−11)
−28
(−18)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.4
(2.34)
45.7
(1.80)
43.2
(1.70)
46.4
(1.83)
64.9
(2.56)
73.3
(2.89)
72.4
(2.85)
89.3
(3.52)
78.1
(3.07)
89.1
(3.51)
82.7
(3.26)
64.1
(2.52)
808.6
(31.85)
Source 1: eklima.no (extremes) = eklima>[21]
Source 2: yr.no (mean, precipitaiton)[22]

Demographics edit

As of 2022, Immigrants and Norwegian-born with immigrant parents in Drammen is 29 per cent,[23][24] of which 25 per cent are Norwegian-born with immigrant parents.

As of 2022, immigrants of non-Western origin and their children enumerated 20,507 and made up an estimated 22% of Drammen's population.[25] Immigrants of Western origin and their children enumerated 9,333 and made up an estimated 9% of Drammen's population.[26][27]

Minorities (1st and 2nd generation) by country of origin in 2021[28]
Ancestry Number
  Poland 3,419
  Turkey 2,689
  Iraq 1,662
  Afghanistan 1,425
  Pakistan 1,263
  Lithuania 1,194
  Somalia 1,101
  Kosovo 1,029
  India 959
  Iran 923
  Vietnam 908
  Bosnia & Herzegovina 824
  Syria 710
  Eritrea 706
  Sweden 663
Persons
2022[29][30]
3005 Drammen
Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
Total 29 840
Nordic countries except Norway, EU/EFTA, UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand 9 333
Europe except EU/EFTA/UK, Africa, Asia, America except USA and Canada, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand, polar regions 20 507
Immigrants
Total 22 249
Nordic countries except Norway, EU/EFTA, UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand 8 120
Europe except EU/EFTA/UK, Africa, Asia, America except USA and Canada, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand, polar regions 14 129
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
Total 7 591
Nordic countries except Norway, EU/EFTA, UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand 1 213
Europe except EU/EFTA/UK, Africa, Asia, America except USA and Canada, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand, polar regions 6 378

Attractions edit

 
Aass Brewery
 
Øvre sund bridge
 
Drammens museum
 
Drammen Theater

Aass Brewery edit

Aass Brewery is the oldest surviving brewery in Norway, and has won acclaim for both its beer and its well-conserved building. Founded in 1834, the brewery's primary products are soft drinks, beer and aquavit.[31]

Bridges edit

  • Øvre Sund Bridge (Øvre Sund bru) – crosses Drammenselva in the center of Drammen[32]
  • Drammen City Bridge (Drammensbrua bybro) – was a concrete bridge connecting the two centers of the city, built in 1936 and demolished in 2022. A new city bridge will open in the autumn of 2025 on the same site.[33] A temporary pedestrian bridge crosses the river adjacent to the site of the new bridge under construction.
  • Drammen Bridge (Drammensbrua) – motorway box girder bridge on E18 that crosses Drammenselva, built 1971[34]
  • Ypsilon Bridge (Ypsilon bru) – cable-stayed pedestrian bridge over Drammenselva, built 2007
  • Holmen bridges (Holmenbruene) – two railway bridges on the Drammen Line[35]
  • Nedre Eiker Bridge – (Nedre Eiker bru) crosses Drammenselva up the river connecting the towns Krokstadelva og Mjøndalen.[36][37]
  • Mjøndalsbrua – The old bridge between Mjøndalen and Krokstadelva, built for crossing of horse-drawn carriages in 1910.[38][39]

Drammen Museum edit

The Drammen Museum of Art and Cultural History includes Marienlyst, a manor house from ca. 1770, museum building from 1930 with the museum's administration, permanent exhibitions and collections, and Lyche pavilion from 1990 with the gallery, temporary exhibitions and museum café, Halling yard, with 5 old buildings, the oldest from 1760s. The museum also includes the two largest preserved like farms in Drammen, Gulskogen Manor and Austad farm.[40]

Drammen Spiral edit

The Drammen Spiral is a road tunnel that allows access to the Skansen Ridge, 180 m (591 ft) above the town. It opened in 1961 on the site of a former quarry.[41]

Drammen Theater edit

Drammen Theater in Bragernes was built in 1869 and was designed by architect Emil Victor Langlet. The theater was the first modern theater in the country. It was designed in a complex Renaissance style with symmetrical facades and round arched windows. After Drammen Theater suffered total destruction by fire in December 1993, a new theater was rebuilt on the model of the original house. It was finished during February 1997.[42]

Drammensbadet edit

Drammensbadet is a public swimming and training facility located in Marienlyst, Drammen. It was one of the largest in Norway when it opened 1 September 2008. They have five indoor and four outdoor pools.[43]

Bragernes Torg (town square) edit

Bragernes Torg is the largest town square in Norway and one of the largest in the Nordics.[44]

Sport clubs edit

 
Bandy field

Notable residents edit

Public service & business edit

 
Betzy Kjelsberg, 1935
 
Thorbjørn Jagland, 2016

The Arts edit

 
Peter Nicolai Arbo, 1874
 
Katharina Nuttall, 2010

Sport edit

 
Ole Einar Bjoerndalen, 2007

Twin towns – sister cities edit

Drammen is twinned with:[52]

Gallery – Churches & Tunnels edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Befolkning".
  2. ^ "Navn på steder og personer: Innbyggjarnamn" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
  3. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian). Lovdata.no.
  4. ^ Bolstad, Erik; Thorsnæs, Geir, eds. (26 January 2023). "Kommunenummer". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget.
  5. ^ Unger, Carl Rikard (1896). Sproglig-historiske studier (in Norwegian). Kristiania, Norge: H. Aschehoug & Co. p. 37. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  6. ^ Thorsnæs, Geir; Askheim, Svein (18 March 2022), "Drammen", Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian Bokmål), retrieved 30 June 2022
  7. ^ "Kommunevåpen". Fotw.us. 5 July 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  8. ^ "Tettsteders befolkning og areal". SSB (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  9. ^ https://www.drammen.kommune.no/globalassets/om-kommunen/dokumenter/drammensguiden2020.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  10. ^ Søbstad, Per Ivar. "Kort oversikt over Drammens historie". History of Drammen (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  11. ^ Tingle 1866.
  12. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  13. ^ Søbstad, Per Ivar. "Bybranner". History of Drammen (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 10 November 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  14. ^ "Drammen Bridge". structurae.net. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Steder – Buskerud – Drammen". Historier.no. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Drammen's 2011 bicentennial celebrations". Archived from the original on 31 July 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  17. ^ Richard Anderson (10 March 2015). "Heat pumps extract warmth from ice cold water". BBC. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  18. ^ "04859: Area and population of urban settlements (US) 2000 – 2021-PX-Web SSB".
  19. ^ "CEU ECTP – The 7th European Urban and Regional Planning Awards 2008". Ceu-ectp.eu. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  20. ^ "Første frostnatt". 25 September 2013.
  21. ^ "EKlima". Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  22. ^ "Weather statistics for Berskog".
  23. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents by immigration category, in total and separately, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 – 2023. Statbank Norway". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  24. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  25. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents by immigration category, in total and separately, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 – 2023. Statbank Norway". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  26. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents by immigration category, in total and separately, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 – 2023. Statbank Norway". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  27. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  28. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by immigration category, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 – 2021-PX-Web SSB". SSB. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  29. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents by immigration category, in total and separately, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 – 2023. Statbank Norway". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  30. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents". SSB. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  31. ^ "Aass Brewery – About Us". english.aass.no. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.
  32. ^ "Øvre Sund Bru". bridgeinfo.net. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  33. ^ "Bybrua". Drammen municipality. Open Publishing. 22 November 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  34. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  35. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  36. ^ "Nedre Eiker bru". Kartverket.
  37. ^ "Nedre Eiker Bridge". www.wikidata.org. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  38. ^ Borgen, Per Otto (1997). Hvor Drammenselven iler (in Norwegian) (Electronic reproduction ed.). Drammen: no#:Forl. for by- og bygdehistorie. p. 112. ISBN 8291649049.
  39. ^ "Q11989673". www.wikidata.org. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  40. ^ "Velkommen || Drammens Museum". Drammens.museum.no. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  41. ^ Porter, Darin; Prince, Danforth (2005). Frommer's Norway. John Wiley & Sons. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-764-59810-4.
  42. ^ "Drammen Teater".
  43. ^ "Velkommen til Drammensbadet".
  44. ^ Borgen, Per Otto (1 January 2004). "Bragernes Torg". Drammen Byleksikon. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  45. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 18 March 2021
  46. ^ Oscar Thue (20 February 2017). "Kai Fjell". Norsk kunstnerleksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  47. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 22 March 2021
  48. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 22 March 2021
  49. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 17 March 2021
  50. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 21 March 2021
  51. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 17 March 2021
  52. ^ "Drammen Byleksikon: Ørebro". byleksikon.drmk.no (in Norwegian). Drammen Kommune. Retrieved 26 March 2021.

Bibliography edit

External links edit