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Douma (Arabic: دوما‎, romanizedDūmā) is a city in Syria. Its centre is about 10 km (6 mi) northeast of the centre of Damascus. Being the centre of Rif Dimashq governorate (which completely surrounds the Damascus Governorate), the town is also the administrative centre of Douma District. Douma is a major city of the region known as Ghouta, for the peri-urban settlements to the east and south of Damascus.

Douma

دوما
Douma is located in Syria
Douma
Douma
Location in Syria
Coordinates: 33°34′16″N 36°24′04″E / 33.57111°N 36.40111°E / 33.57111; 36.40111
Country Syria
GovernorateRif Dimashq
DistrictDouma
Elevation
428 m (1,404 ft)
Population
 (2004 census)
 • Total110,893[1]
Demonym(s)Arabic: دوماني‎, romanized: Doumani
Arabic: دوميّ‎, romanized: Doumi
GeocodeC2338
ClimateBSk

HistoryEdit

21st centuryEdit

During the Syrian Civil War, Douma has been a major flashpoint and witnessed numerous demonstrations against the Syrian government and armed clashes against the Syrian Army and Security forces during the early stages of the conflict.[2][3]

On 30 January 2012, the Syrian Army gained control of the city after the Battle of Douma, a major operation against the opposition armed groups in Rif Dimashq Governorate.[citation needed]

On 29 June 2012, the Syrian Army was accused of committing a massacre in Douma, where more than 50 people were killed.[4]

As of 18 October 2012, the Free Syrian Army was in control of most of the suburb. Fighting and bombardments continued in the town.[5]

Douma is the main city of the Siege of Eastern Ghouta, begun in April 2013, isolating 400,000 people in a 100 square kilometre area. UN and Red Cross aid convoys were able to reach Douma with food and supplies once in 2018.[6]

In the 2015 Douma market massacre, the city was attacked by Syrian Army ground-to-ground missiles, leaving at least 50 dead and several more missing.[7]

In early 2018, the main rebel faction based in the city was Saudi Arabian-backed[8] Jaysh al-Islam (Army of Islam),[9][10] with an estimated 10-15,000 fighters in the region.[11]

On 7 April 2018, a chemical attack was carried out in the city. Douma had been the target of four reported chemical attacks over four months in 2018, as pro-government forces intensified their aerial bombardment before launching a ground offensive.[12] The last - and deadliest, according to medics and rescue workers occurred when a yellow industrial gas cylinder was reportedly dropped onto the balcony of a block of flats. The opposition's surrender came a day later.[13][14][15] In September 2018 the UN Commission of Enquiry on Syria reported: "Throughout 7 April, numerous aerial attacks were carried out in Douma, striking various residential areas. A vast body of evidence collected by the Commission suggests that, at approximately 7.30 p.m., a gas cylinder containing a chlorine payload delivered by helicopter struck a multi-storey residential apartment building located approximately 100 metres south-west of Shohada square. The Commission received information on the death of at least 49 individuals, and the wounding of up to 650 others... the Commission cannot make yet any conclusions concerning the exact causes of death, in particular on whether another agent was used in addition to chlorine that may have caused or contributed to deaths and injuries"[16][17] Local rebels and civilians were sent into northern Syria in forced exile. Similar forced displacement deals have taken place all over Syria.[18]

The State Department said the Syrian government may have used chemical weapons during in Idlib in May 2019. The United States and its allies would respond quickly and appropriately if it is determined that chemical weapons have been used. This all comes as new questions are being raised about an chemical weapons attack in Douma in 2018. The attack killed dozens of people. The U.S. and allies responded by carrying out airstrikes.[19]

ClimateEdit

Douma has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk).

Climate data for Douma
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
14.0
(57.2)
18.1
(64.6)
22.9
(73.2)
28.5
(83.3)
33.3
(91.9)
35.5
(95.9)
35.6
(96.1)
32.1
(89.8)
26.8
(80.2)
19.8
(67.6)
14.0
(57.2)
24.4
(75.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
8.1
(46.6)
11.5
(52.7)
15.4
(59.7)
20.1
(68.2)
24.2
(75.6)
26.0
(78.8)
26.0
(78.8)
22.8
(73.0)
18.5
(65.3)
12.9
(55.2)
8.5
(47.3)
16.7
(62.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
2.3
(36.1)
4.9
(40.8)
8.0
(46.4)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
16.6
(61.9)
16.5
(61.7)
13.5
(56.3)
10.2
(50.4)
6.1
(43.0)
3.1
(37.6)
9.1
(48.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
39
(1.5)
20
(0.8)
13
(0.5)
7
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
8
(0.3)
25
(1.0)
40
(1.6)
185
(7.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org [20]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "population of Douma, syria 2004 census". CBSSYR. Retrieved 2013-11-17.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ "Syria's Douma 'wants its dead'". TVNZ. 3 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Arab League monitors stoke anti-government protests in Syria". USA Today. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  4. ^ Erika Solomon, Reuters (29 June 2012). "Syrian civil war: Douma siege kills nearly 200, including young children and entire families". National Post.
  5. ^ Di Giovanni, JANINE (18 October 2012). "Denial Is Slipping Away as War Arrives in Damascus". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  6. ^ "UN convoy delivers aid to Eastern Ghouta amid 'calm'". BBC News. 9 March 2018.
  7. ^ Reuters Editorial (22 August 2015). "Over 50 people killed in Syrian missile strikes at rebel areas near Damascus". Reuters.
  8. ^ "MAPPING MILITANT ORGANIZATIONS: Jaish al-Islam". Stanford University. 31 August 2017.
  9. ^ "Who are the rebel groups fighting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government forces in Eastern Ghouta?" SBS News. 2 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Reports of Douma evacuation deal 'not true': council member". Al-Jazeera. 1 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Which rebel groups are fighting in Syria's eastern Ghouta?". Deutsche Welle. 20 February 2018.
  12. ^ BBC October 2018 bbc how chemical attacks helped assad
  13. ^ https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/despite-delay-experts-say-any-evidence-suspected-syria-chemical-attack-n868131
  14. ^ https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2018/04/09/america-vows-to-respond-to-a-suspected-chemical-attack-in-syria
  15. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-43697084
  16. ^ [1] Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, Section 92
  17. ^ https://www.opcw.org/sites/default/files/documents/S_series/2018/en/s-1645-2018_e_.pdf
  18. ^ The Guardian 9 April 2018
  19. ^ https://www.democracynow.org/2019/5/23/leaked_opcw_report_raises_new_questions
  20. ^ "Climate: Douma". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved September 23, 2018. }}

Coordinates: 33°34′16″N 36°24′04″E / 33.57111°N 36.40111°E / 33.57111; 36.40111