Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine.
|, DBM, Dopamine beta-monooxygenase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine β-hydroxylase, ORTHYP1|
It is the only enzyme involved in the synthesis of small-molecule neurotransmitters that is membrane-bound, making norepinephrine the only known transmitter synthesized inside vesicles. It is expressed in noradrenergic neurons of the central nervous system (ie. locus coeruleus) and peripheral nervous systems (ie. sympathetic ganglia), as well as in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
Mechanism of catalysisEdit
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / QuickGO|
Although details of DBH mechanism are yet to be confirmed, DBH is homologous to another enzyme, peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). Because DBH and PHM share similar structures, it is possible to model DBH mechanism based on what is known about PHM mechanism.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of not only dopamine but also other phenylethylamine derivatives when available. The minimum requirement seems to be a benzene ring with a two-carbon side chain that terminates in an amino group.
DBH primarily contributes to catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis. It also participates in the metabolism of xenobiotics related to these substances; for example, the human DBH enzyme catalyzes the beta-hydroxylation of amphetamine and para-hydroxyamphetamine, producing norephedrine and para-hydroxynorephedrine respectively.
DBH has been implicated as correlating factor in conditions associated with decision making and addictive drugs, e.g., alcoholism and smoking, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Inadequate DBH is called dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency.
Because it is difficult to obtain a stable crystal of dopamine beta-hydroxylase, its crystal structure is yet to be solved. However, an homology model based on the primary sequence and comparison to PHM is available.
Regulation and inhibitionEdit
|Ascorbate is cofactor; tyramine is substitute for dopamine, DBH's namesake substrate
DBH is reversibly inhibited by l-2H-Phthalazine hydrazone (hydralazine; HYD), 2-1H-pyridinone hydrazone (2-hydrazinopyridine; HP), 2-quinoline-carboxylic acid (QCA), l-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid (IQCA), 2,2'-bi-lH-imidazole (2,2'-biimidazole; BI), and IH-imidazole-4-acetic acid (imidazole-4-acetic acid; IAA). HYD, QCA, and IAA are allosteric competitive.
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase (beta-hydroxylating).
Other names in common use include:
- dopamine beta-monooxygenase
- dopamine beta-hydroxylase
- membrane-associated dopamine beta-monooxygenase (MDBH)
- soluble dopamine beta-monooxygenase (SDBH)
- 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine beta-oxidase
- 4-(2-aminoethyl) pyrocatechol beta-oxidase
- dopa beta-hydroxylase
- dopamine beta-oxidase
- dopamine hydroxylase
- phenylamine beta-hydroxylase
- (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) beta-mono-oxygenase
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The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position by DA β-hydroxylase affords p-hydroxynorephedrine. Alternatively, direct oxidation of amphetamine by DA β-hydroxylase can afford norephedrine.
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Dopamine-β-hydroxylase catalyzed the removal of the pro-R hydrogen atom and the production of 1-norephedrine, (2S,1R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyl-1-phenylpropane, from d-amphetamine.
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