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Door County, Wisconsin

Door County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,785.[1] Its county seat is Sturgeon Bay.[2]

Door County
Door County Government Center
Door County Government Center
Map of Wisconsin highlighting Door County
Location within the U.S. state of Wisconsin
Map of the United States highlighting Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 45°01′N 87°01′W / 45.02°N 87.01°W / 45.02; -87.01
Country United States
State Wisconsin
Founded1861
Named forDoor Peninsula
SeatSturgeon Bay
Largest citySturgeon Bay
Area
 • Total2,370 sq mi (6,100 km2)
 • Land482 sq mi (1,250 km2)
 • Water1,888 sq mi (4,890 km2)  80%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total27,785
 • Estimate 
(2018)
27,610
 • Density12/sq mi (4.5/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district8th
Websitewww.co.door.wi.gov

The county was created in 1851 and organized in 1861.[3] It is named after the strait between the Door Peninsula and Washington Island. The dangerous passage, known as Death's Door, is scattered with shipwrecks and was known to early French explorers and local Native Americans.

Door County is a popular vacation and tourist destination, especially for Illinois residents.[4]

HistoryEdit

Paleo-Indian artifacts were found at the Cardy Site, including Clovis points.[5] As of 2007, seven Clovis points have been found in the county.[6] Artifacts from an ancient village site at Nicolet Bay Beach date to about 400 BC. This site was occupied by various cultures until about 1300 AD.[7]

Door County's name came from Porte des Morts ("Death's Door"), the passage between the tip of Door Peninsula and Washington Island.[8] It is a common misconception that the name "Death's Door" arose from the number of shipwrecks associated with the passage. It was instead the result of Native American tales, heard by early French explorers and published in greatly embellished form by Hjalmar Holand, about a failed raid by the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) tribe to capture Washington Island from the rival Pottawatomie tribe in the early 1600s.[9]

Before and during the 19th century, various Native Americans occupied the area that became Door County and its islands. 17th-century French explorers made contact with various tribes in the Door Peninsula. In 1634, the Jean Nicolet expedition landed at Rock Island. This is considered the first visit by men of European descent to what is now Wisconsin.[10] In 1665, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers spent the winter in the county with the Potawatomi. In 1669, Claude-Jean Allouez also wintered with the Potawatomi. He mentioned an area called "la Portage des Eturgeons." In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet stayed in the county about three months as part of their exploration.[11] In 1679, the party led by La Salle purchased food from a village of Potawatomi in what is now Robert La Salle County Park.[12] Around 1690, Nicolas Perrot visited the Potawatomi on Washington Island. In 1720, Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix visited the area with eight experienced voyageurs.[11] By the end of French rule over the area in 1763, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Later, some Potawatomi moved back from Michigan to northern Wisconsin. Some but not all Potawatomi later left northern Wisconsin for northern Indiana and central Illinois.[13] In 1815, Captain Talbot Chambers was falsely reported[14] to have died fighting Blackhawk Indians on Chambers Island; the island was named for him in 1816.[15] During an attack in 1835, one of two fishermen squatting on Detroit Island was shot and killed along with one or more Native Americans.[16] From the 1840s to the 1880s, the Clark brothers operated a fishing camp at Whitefish Bay that employed 30 to 40 fishermen. Additionally, 200-300 Potawatomis extracted fish oil from the fish waste at the camp.[17]

 
Potawatomi Chief Simon Onanguisse Kahquados, 1919

The Menominee ceded their claim to the Door Peninsula to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars after years of negotiations with the Ho-Chunk and the U.S. government over how to accommodate the incoming populations of Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Brothertown peoples who had been removed from New York.[18] As a result of this treaty, settlers could purchase land, but many fishermen still chose to live as squatters. At the same time, the more decentralized Potawatomi were divested of their land without compensation. Many emigrated to Canada because of invitations from other Native Americans already in Canada, favorable treaty arrangements, and a desire to avoid the harsh terms of the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. Although not all Potawatomi participated in the Treaty of Chicago, it was federal policy that any who did not relocate westward as the treaty stipulated would not be compensated for their land.[19] With the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862, people could purchase 80 acres of land for $18, provided they resided on the land, improved it, and farmed for five years. This made settlement in Door County more affordable. In 1894 the Ahnapee and Western Railway was extended to Sturgeon Bay. Trains operated on this line until 1986.[20]

Potawatomi Chief Simon Kahquados traveled to Washington, D.C. multiple times in an attempt to get the land back. In 1906, Congress passed a law to establish a census of all Potawatomi formerly living in Wisconsin and Michigan as a first step toward compensation. The 1907 "Wooster" roll, named after the clerk who compiled it, documented 457 Potawatomi living in Wisconsin and Michigan and 1423 in Ontario. Instead of returning the land, a meager monthly payment was issued.[19] Although Kahquados was unsuccessful, he increased public awareness of Potawatomi history. In 1931, 15,000 people attended his burial in Peninsula State Park.[21]

 
Graves of Increase Claflin and family.
 
Eagle Bluff Lighthouse.

The 18th and 19th centuries saw the immigration and settlement of pioneers, mariners, fishermen, loggers, and farmers, with the first white settler being Increase Claflin.[22] In 1851, Door County was separated from what had been Brown County.[11] In 1854 on Washington Island, the first post office opened in the county.[23] In 1855, four Irishmen were accidentally left behind by their steamboat, leading to the settlement of what is now Forestville.[24] In 1853, Moravians founded Ephraim as a religious community after Nils Otto Tank resisted attempts at land ownership reform at the old religious colony near Green Bay.[25] In the 19th century, a fairly large-scale immigration of Belgian Walloons populated a small region in southern portion of the county,[7] including the area designated as the Namur Historic District. They built small roadside votive chapels, some still in use today.[26] Eagle Bluff Lighthouse was constructed in Peninsula State Park in 1868 on orders from President Andrew Johnson, at a cost of $12,000. It was restored by the Door County Historical Society in 1964, and opened to the public.[27] When the 1871 Peshtigo fire burned the town of Williamsonville, sixty people were killed. The area of this disaster is now Tornado Memorial County Park, named for the whirlwinds of fire.[28][29][30] Altogether, 128 people in the county perished in the Peshtigo fire.[11] Following the fire, some residents decided to use brick instead of wood.[31]

In 1885 or 1886, the Coast Guard Station was established at Sturgeon Bay.[32][33] The small seasonally open station on Washington Island was established in 1902.[34]

From 1865 through 1870, three resort hotels were constructed in and near Sturgeon Bay along with another one in Fish Creek.[35] Tourists could visit the northern part of the county by steamboat, sometimes as part of a lake cruise featuring music and entertainment.[36] Improved highways of crushed stone facilitated motor tourism in the early 1900s.[11] By 1909 at least 1,000 tourists visited per year.[37]

In 1865, the first commercial fruit operation was established when grapes were cultivated on one of the Strawberry Islands. By 1895, a large fruit tree nursery was established and fruit horticulture was aggressively promoted. Not only farmers but even "city-bred" men were urged to consider fruit husbandry as a career. The first of multiple fruit marketing cooperatives began in 1897. In addition to corporate-run orchards, in 1910 the first corporation was established to plant and sell pre-established orchards. Although apple orchards predated cherry orchards, by 1913 it was reported that cherries had outpaced apples.[38]

Women and children were typically employed to pick fruit crops, but the available work outstripped the labor supply. By 1918, it was difficult to find enough help to pick fruit crops, so workers were brought in by the YMCA and Boy Scouts of America. Cherry picking was marketed as a good summer camp activity for teenage boys in return for room, board, and recreation activities. One orchard hired players from the Green Bay Packers as camp counselors. Additionally, members of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin and other native tribes were employed to pick fruit crops.[39][40] A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was established at Peninsula State Park during the Great Depression. In the summer of 1945, Fish Creek was the site of a POW camp under an affiliation with a base camp at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.[41][42][43] The German prisoners engaged in construction projects, cut wood, and picked cherries in Peninsula State Park and the surrounding area.[44] The Wisconsin State Employment Service established an office in Door County in 1949 to recruit Tejanos to pick cherries. Work was unpredictable, as cherry harvests were poor during certain years and workers were paid by the amount they picked. In 1951, the Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare conducted a study documenting conflict between migrant workers and tourists, who resented the presence of migrant families in public vacation areas.[45] A list of recommendations was prepared to improve race relations.[46] The employment of migrants continues to the present day. In 2013, there were three migrant labor camps in the county, housing a total of 57 orchard laborers and food processors along with five non-workers.[47]

In June 1938, aerial photos were taken of the entire county; in 2011 the photography was made available online.[48]

In 1941, the Sturgeon Bay Vocation School opened, now it is the Sturgeon Bay campus of Northeast Wisconsin Technical College.

In 1998, Egg Harbor was hit by an F3 tornado.[49]

GeographyEdit

 
An aerial photo of Nicolet Bay at Peninsula State Park

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,370 square miles (6,100 km2), of which 482 square miles (1,250 km2) is land and 1,888 square miles (4,890 km2) (80%) is water.[50] It is the largest county in Wisconsin by total area. The county also has 298 miles (480,000 m) of shoreline. Locals and tourists alike refer to the area as the "Cape Cod of the Midwest".[51] The county covers the majority of the Door Peninsula. With the completion of the Sturgeon Bay Shipping Canal in 1881, the northern half of the peninsula technically became an island.[27] This canal is believed to have somehow caused a reduction in the sturgeon population in the bay due to changes in the aquatic habitat.[52] The 45th parallel north bisects this "island," and this is commemorated by Meridian County Park.[53][54] According to the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, in 2017 Door County had 1270 miles of roadways.[55] A quilt trail along roadside barns was organised in 2010.[56]

Limestone outcroppings of the Niagara Escarpment are visible on both shores of the peninsula, but the karst formations of the cuesta are larger and more prominent on the Green Bay side as seen at the Bayshore Blufflands. Many caves are found in this escarpment.[57] Progressions of dunes have created much of the rest of the shoreline, especially on the easterly side. Flora along the shore provides clear evidence of plant succession. The middle of the peninsula is mostly flat or rolling cultivated land.

The escarpment is an attractive location for quarrying, the building of homes, and erection of communications towers.[58] A wind turbine project was completed in 1999. At the time the 30.5 acre (12.3 ha) Rosière Wind Farm was the largest in the Eastern United States.[59] High-tension power lines along the escarpment carry electricity into the peninsula. After the retirement of the Kewaunee Power Station in Carlton and the J. P. Pulliam Generating Station in Green Bay, power to Door County is primarily from the gas-powered plant in De Pere (Brown County) owned by SkyGen and the Point Beach Nuclear Plant in Kewaunee County.[60] An exception to this is Chambers Island, which has no electrical grid system.[61]

As of 2016, there are 16 active pits and quarries in the county, producing sand, gravel, and crushed rock for roadwork and construction use.[62] A former stone quarry five miles northeast of Sturgeon Bay is county park with a boat launch, deep water fishing access, and a short hiking trail.[63]

Beyond the northern tip of the peninsula, the partially submerged ridge forms the Potawatomi Islands, which stretch to the Garden Peninsula in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The largest of these islands is Washington Island. Most of these islands form the Town of Washington.[64]

The 102 ft high Brussels Hill[65] (elevation of 851 feet) is the highest named point in Door County.[66] It has been explained as the result of a meteorite impact.[67][68][69] There are six other named peaks in the county,[70] including Old Baldy, which is the tallest sand dune in the state[71] at 93 feet above the lake level.[72]

A pit cave containing the skeletal remains of both present-day and pre-Columbian animals opens at the southern base of Brussels Hill. It is the deepest known[73] pit cave in the state and the fourth longest known cave of any sort in Wisconsin. It was discovered by excavating three sinkholes in an extensive project.[74][75] Hundreds of sinkholes in the county have been located and marked on an interactive map.[76]

The most common USDA soil association in the northern two-thirds of the county is the Summerville[a]-Longrie[b]-Omena[c].[77] These associated soils typically are less than three feet deep. Altogether, thirty-nine percent of the county is mapped as having less than three feet (about a meter) to the dolomite bedrock. This is a factor in lower agricultural productivity, basement flooding, and public health concerns.

Both sale prices and rental values of agricultural land are lower than most Wisconsin counties.[78] The most important field crops by acres harvested in 2017 were hay and haylage at 25,197 acres, soybeans at 16,790 acres, corn (grain) at 15,371 acres, corn (silage) at 9,314 acres, wheat at 8,790 acres, oats at 2,610 acres, and barley at 513 acres.[79] Despite lower productivity for other forms of agriculture, in the early 1900s the combination of thin soils and fractured bedrock was described by area promoters as beneficial to fruit horticulture, as the land would quickly drain during wet conditions and provide ideal soil conditions for orchard trees.[38]

Because there is relatively little soil over much of the peninsula and the bedrock is fractured, snowmelt quickly enters the aquifer. This causes seasonal basement flooding in some areas.[80]

The combination of shallow soils and fractured bedrock makes well water contamination more likely. At any given time, at least one-third of private wells may contain bacteria, and in situations with quickly flowing underground water, wells may test clean one day but contaminated the next. Some household wells turn brown every spring from nearby manure applications.[81] The porous and fractured limestone bedrock was implicated as a factor in a June 2007 epidemic when 229 patrons and employees of the newly opened Log Den restaurant were sickened by a norovirus. Six were hospitalized. The virus was found to have traveled from a septic field 188 m (617 ft) away to the restaurant's well, contaminating their water.[82] From September to December 2007 a study was conducted in which dyes were placed into the septic system. The dyes traveled through the groundwater at about 2 miles per year, and researchers concluded that viral contaminants could travel "many miles in their life times."[83]

After the Milwaukee Journal published an Insight article about septic system problems in the county in 1971, 28% of tourists surveyed in person and 57% of tourists surveyed by telephone reported having read the article. 13% of tourists surveyed by phone said that if water pollution increased, they would stop visiting the county. But the Chamber of Commerce spokesman and one other resort owner said they thought the publicity was good advertising. 14 out of 15 resort owners surveyed said their business had not declined from the previous year, although six thought the article hurt tourism and two thought their businesses had been negatively affected. A study found that those who thought bad water was the county's main problem were less likely to return, and that the water quality problem was hurting tourism.[84]

BiotaEdit

There are 24 state-defined natural areas in the county.[85] Besides Lake Michigan, there are 25 lakes, ponds, or marshes and 37 rivers, creeks, streams, and springs in the county.[86] 4,631 ha (11,400) acres of Door Peninsula Coastal Wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention as wetlands of international importance.[87] The listing is inclusive of three areas in the county previously recognized as "Wetland Gems."[88]

FloraEdit

Door County, along with nearby Marinette and Delta (see Garden Peninsula) counties, is home to endemic plants and disjunct populations,[89] such as those protected at Plum Island, Coffee Swamp, Cave Point County Park, the adjacent Whitefish Dunes State Park, and The Ridges Sanctuary. Many of the Grand Traverse islands are home to some of the richest rare plant reserves in Wisconsin.[90]

The county is home to a variety of plant communities, including some unique to the area. Boreal rich fen is called "rich" because the limestone makes the soil more fertile.[91] In white cedar variant forests, white cedar co-exists with hardwoods and balsam fir in upland stands that ordinarily would not support cedar. This forest cover is likely due to the alkaline soil and mostly grows on the Niagara Escarpment along the Green Bay side of the peninsula or near the Lake Michigan shoreline. The escarpment also features the dry cliff natural community[92] and is home to two rare species of whitlow-grass.[93][94] Other uncommon communities are alvar and the similar Great Lakes alkaline rockshore,[95][96] also home to rare plants.[89]

Some trees have attracted attention: One white cedar found on the escarpment was over 600 years old and near other old-growth cedars.[97] The largest tree in the county is a 170 year old eastern cottonwood along Highway 57 in Institute that measures 110 feet tall and 35 feet in circumference.[98] In 1997, striped maple was discovered in a shoreline forest near Newport, the first time this species had been documented in the state.[99]

As of 2019, 1201 species and hybrids of vascular plants[100] and 255 unique taxa of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts[101] have been identified in Door County. 25 native orchid species are found at The Ridges.[102] In 2006, 60 species of aquatic plants or macrophytic algae were found in Clark Lake and nearby upstream.[103] In 2017, 9 species of aquatic plants were found in the Forestville Millpond, also called the Forestville Dam or Forestville Flowage.[104]

An interactive, county-wide map of Japanese knotweed, Phragmites, teasel, and wild parsnip infested locations is updated annually.[76]

The U.S. Potato Genebank just north of Sturgeon Bay is the world's largest living collection of wild and domesticated potatoes.[105]

As of 2019, 243 species of mushrooms and other macrofungi have been identified north of the canal,[106] with 326 species for the county as a whole, including those found in lichens.[107] Several of the more uncommon lichens found in the county are Cetraria arenaria, which grows on the ground,[108] and Anaptychia crinalis, which grows on tree bark.[109]

In 2009, a unique hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was found on fallen cherries near Fish Creek. This strain of S. cerevisiae descended from both oak-tree and vineyard lineages.[110]

FaunaEdit

From 1971 through 1976, 11 species of small mammals were found at Toft Point,[111] the Newport State Park Mammals Checklist has 34 species,[112] and in 1972 44 mammals were listed for the entire county.[113] In 1992, six amphibians and eight reptiles were found in and around Potawatomi State Park.[114] As of 2018, 166 species of birds have been confirmed to live in Door County, excluding birds seen which lack the habitat to nest and must only be passing through.[115] In 1999, the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory listed 24 aquatic and 21 terrestrial animals in Door County as being "rare."[116] In particular, Kangaroo Lake State Natural Area has the largest breeding population of the endangered Hine's Emerald Dragonfly in the world.[117] Also, Brussels Hill, North Kangaroo Lake, Rock Island and the escarpment are home to rare snails.[118][119]

Tamias striatus doorsiensis, a subspecies of eastern chipmunk, was described in 1971[120] and is only found within the county.[121]

In 2014 the state speargun record for the invasive round goby was taken by out of Door County waters on the Lake Michigan side. It weighed 5.0 ounces and was 8.25 inches long.[122]

During the 20th century, thousands of herring gulls were banded on Hat Island[123] to determine their migratory patterns.[124] Banded birds were found as far north as Hudson Bay and as far south as Central America.[125]

Research on apple maggots infesting cherries in Door County contributed to the study of sympatric speciation in the 1970s.[126]

Door County is home to the fishing spider Dolomedes tenebrosus, which can grow to about three inches, half the size of a tarantula.[127] The local climate may allow for the better survival of the northern black widow spider.[128]

PollutionEdit

 
2016 HYSPLIT map

Most air pollution in Door County comes from outside the county. This map shows how air travels to the pollution monitor in Newport State Park.[129] Because the monitor at Newport State Park is near the shore, only the red lines (which show the lower air currents) meaningfully depict the path of ozone to the monitor. Unfortunately, as shown on the map, these lower air currents carry polluted air from major urban areas. But further inland, the air from higher up mixes more, so all color lines are significant when tracing the path of air pollution further inland. Fortunately, these higher air currents (shown in green and blue) blow in from cleaner, mostly rural areas.[130]

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources reports 137 leaking underground storage tank sites, 385 spill locations, and 104 other areas with contaminated soil and/or groundwater, including fifty open cases which are mostly cherry orchards with arsenic and lead contaminated soils from the pesticides. Additionally, two landowners voluntarily cooperated with the DNR, limiting their future liability.[131] Mines, prior landfills, and former orchard sites are considered impaired lands and are specially marked on an interactive, county-wide map.[76]

PCBs from Green Bay have been deposited into the county as windborn dust[132] and off of contaminated waters.[133] 6.85 miles of the Ahnapee River in Door County are listed by the state as an impaired waterway due to PCB pollution, a designation extending past the county line.[134]

In 2017, farmers spent $2,825,000 on agricultural chemicals,[135] in addition to $5,295,000 spent on fertilizer, lime, and soil conditioners.[136]

AttractionsEdit

 
Ephraim, site of the annual Fyr Bal Festival
 
Europe Bay Woods State Natural Area. Europe Lake is nearby.
 
Door Bluff County Park
 
Cherry tree
 
Fish boil, flare up achieved with a can of fuel oil #6 (on left)

In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt recommended that the Shivering Sands area be protected.[137] Today this area includes Whitefish Dunes, Kellner’s Fen, Shivering Sands wetland complex,[138] and Cave Point County Park.[139] Hjalmar Holand, an Ephraim resident,[140] promoted Door County as a tourist destination in the first half of the 20th century. As part of a committee begun in 1927 to protect and promote historical sites, he recommended the establishment of a series of county parks.[141]

Since then the tourism industry has grown. Although Door County has a year-round population of about 28,000, it experiences an influx of tourists each summer between Memorial Day and Labor Day, with over 2.1 million visitors per year.[142] Most businesses are targeted to tourism and operate seasonally. Based on room tax collections from 2017-18, July is the busiest month of the year, although sales tax revenue is higher in August. The fewest room taxes are collected for January, and the fewest sales taxes are collected for April.[143] The majority of tourists and summer residents come from the metropolitan areas of Milwaukee, Chicago, Madison, Green Bay, and the Twin Cities,[144] although Illinois residents are the dominant group both in Door County and further south along the eastern edge of Wisconsin.[4]

In 2003, researchers found that compared to other Wisconsin counties, Door County had a high number of campgrounds, golf courses, amusement businesses,[d] and downhill ski hills and a middling amount of inland water acreage, forestland, county-owned acreage, and rail trail mileage.[145] There is a motor racetrack in Sturgeon Bay[146] and a semi-pro football team in Baileys Harbor.[147] Tourism supports an arts community, agritourism, and local food production,[148][149][150] such as cherry pie[151] Belgian pie,[152], cheese curds,[153] and booyah.[154]

Door County is home to five state parks: Newport State Park, northeast of Ellison Bay; Peninsula State Park, east of Fish Creek; Potawatomi State Park, along Sturgeon Bay; Rock Island State Park, off the tip of the Door Peninsula; and Whitefish Dunes State Park, along Lake Michigan.[155] Besides nature centers located in the state parks, there are also three other nature centers. Additionally, there are four State Wildlife and Fishery Areas allowing free public access.[156] Besides county,[157] town, and community parks,[158][159] there is one boy scout camp, a local land trust operates 14 privately owned parks open to the public,[160] and thousands of acres of other privately owned land are open to the public for hunting, fishing, hiking, sight-seeing and cross-country skiing under the Managed Forest Program.[161]

The area has been called "the Cape Cod of the Midwest."[144] Including both the Lake Michigan and Green Bay shores, there are 54 public beaches or boat launches,[162] 35 which are routinely monitored for water quality advisories.[163] Prior to the state beach monitoring program, an outbreak at Nicolet Beach in Peninsula State Park sickened 68 people in July 2002.[164] A two-year study of selected Door County beaches concluded that neither the abundance of bird droppings nor bird populations reliably predicted E. coli contamination,[165] although rainfall was associated with elevated E. coli levels in six of the eight beaches studied.[166] The quantity of beaches is one possible factor in the prevalence of skin cancer in the county. From 2009 to 2013 it had the highest skin cancer rate in the state.[167]

In 2012, 8,341 registered boats were kept in the county. Most of the county boating accidents reported in 2012 occurred in Green Bay.[168] A 1989-90 study of recreational boating in Wisconsin found that the county's Green Bay and Lake Michigan waters had a higher frequency of Great Lakes boating than any other county bordering Lake Michigan or Lake Superior. The typical engine used in the county's Green Bay and Lake Michigan waters had a horsepower over 90, while the typical engine used for inland county waters had a horsepower under 50. Overall, boaters perceived county waters not be crowded and boater satisfaction was average.[169]

In 2018, Door County ranked second in the state in the Chinook salmon harvest, with 14,268 fish caught, below Kewaunee County, which had 26,557.[170] Several state record salmon have been caught out of county waters on the Lake Michigan side. In 1994 the state record Chinook was taken; it weighed 44 pounds, 15 ounces, and was 47.5 inches long. In 2016 the state record for pinook (a hybrid of the pink and Chinook salmons) was set at a weight of 9 pounds, 1.6 ounces, and 27.87 inches.[122] Beginning in 1964, first coho and then Chinook salmon were stocked in Lake Michigan.[171] New Chinook fingerling stocking in the spring and egg and milt collection from late September to early November primarily takes place at the Strawberry Creek Chinook Facility in southern Door County. The facility is a public attraction during stocking and collection times.[172]

In recent years there has been concern that the alewife population will not support the salmon population,[173] especially as the Chinook population has already collapsed in Lake Huron.[174] A 2016 survey of Wisconsin anglers found they would on average pay $140 for a trip to catch Chinook salmon, $90 for lake trout, and $180 for walleye.[175] Should the Chinook salmon fishery be replaced with a native lake trout fishery, the economic value would decrease by 80%.[176]

Lake Michigan shoreline is used for lake surfing.[177]

The longest river canoe route in the county is on the Ahnapee River from County H going south to the county line.[178]

In 2018, 3,476 motorcycles were registered in the county, up from 1,806 in 2018.[179] A local motorcycle club hosts a regional burning man event[180] involving a large wooden cow and maintains the adjacent Wisconsin Motorcycle Memorial.[181]

In 2019, 46 aircraft were registered in the county, most owned by individuals.[182] During the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, a fish boil is held as a $100 hamburger event at the Washington Island Airport to entice AirVenture conventiongoers to land on the island.[183]

Including both lake and Green Bay shorelines, there are ten lighthouses. Most were built during the 19th century and are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Baileys Harbor Range Lights; Cana Island Lighthouse; Chambers Island Lighthouse; Eagle Bluff Lighthouse; Pilot Island Lighthouse; Plum Island Range Lights; Pottawatomie Lighthouse; and Sturgeon Bay Canal Lighthouse. The other lighthouses in the county are: Baileys Harbor Lighthouse; Sherwood Point Lighthouse; and the Sturgeon Bay Canal North Pierhead Light.[184] Thirteen historical sites are marked[185] in the state maritime trail for the area[186] in addition to eight roadside historical markers.[187] Including lighthouses, the county has 72 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are 214 known confirmed and unconfirmed shipwrecks listed for the county,[188] including the SS Australasia, Christina Nilsson, Fleetwing, SS Frank O'Connor, Grape Shot, Green Bay, Hanover, Iris, SS Joys, SS Lakeland, SS Louisiana, Meridian, Ocean Wave, and Success. Some shipwrecks are used for scuba diving.[189]

Scandinavian heritage related attractions include The Clearing Folk School, two stave churches,[190] and Al Johnson's Swedish Restaurant, which features goats on its grassy roof. In Ephraim, the Village Hall, the Moravian and Lutheran churches, and the Peter Peterson House are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, along with the L. A. Larson & Co. Store building in Sturgeon Bay. Although fish boils have been attributed to Scandinavian tradition, [191] multiple ethnicities present on the peninsula have traditions of boiling fish. The method common in the county is similar to that used by Native Americans.[192]

A Town of Sturgeon Bay farm was featured on a postage stamp commemorating the Wisconsin Sesquicentennial in 2004,[193] and a cherry orchard near Brussels was featured on 2012 Earthscapes series stamp.

A 2018 survey of tourists reported Forestville and Brussels as the least-visited communities in the county.[194]

Maple syrup production[195] was 983 gallons in 2017 from seven operations. This was similar to figures from 2012, but down from 2007 when 15 operations produced 2,365 gallons.[196]

The sucker run, which was a popular fishing event in the 19th century,[197] occurs in March and April.[198] Suckers may be taken by frame dip nets,[199] and the sucker run is also sought out as viewing opportunity.[200] Another permitted method of fishing for suckers is by speargun. In April 2018, the state speargun record for longnose sucker was taken by out of Door County waters on the Lake Michigan side. It weighed 3 pounds, 9.9 ounces and was 21.25 inches long.[122]

Another attraction is mushroom hunting on public land.[201][202] Additionally, as of 2017 there are two commercial mushroom operations.[203]

In 2017, there were ten operations growing 14 acres of strawberries.[204]

In 2017, there were eight operations harvesting five acres of fresh cut herbs, up from four acres in 2012.[205] Two of these operations grow lavender on Washington Island.[206]

Door County has a history of apple, cherry, and plum growing that dates back to the 19th century.[207][38] Farmers were encouraged to grow fruit on the basis of the relatively mild climate on the peninsula. This is due to the moderating effects of the lake and bay on nearby land temperatures. U-pick orchards and fruit stands can be found along country roads when in season, and there are two frozen cherry processors.[208] However, the cherry and apple businesses have declined[209] since peaking in 1946[210] and 1964[38][211] respectively due to concerns about pesticides,[212] lack of migrant labor and a difficulty in finding local help, the closure of all processing plants save one, unpredictable harvests, the introduction of Drosophila suzukii, land-use competition with tourism and residential development, and better growing conditions to the east in the fruit belt, such as the nearby Traverse City area.[213][38] In 2017, there were only 1,945 acres of tart cherry orchards, down from 2012 when there were 2,429 acres.[214] Additionally, there were 400 acres of apple orchards in 2017, down from 468 acres in 2012.[215] In 2017, there were 12 acres of pear orchards, spread among 11 operations.[216] In 2017, there was only one acre of plum orchards, spread among four operations.[217] In 2007, there were two acres of apricot orchards, spread among six operations.[218] Research on the development of cold-hardy peaches has continued since the 1980s.[219] In 2012, there were two acres of peach orchards, spread among seven operations.[220]

In 2018, a county total of 4,791 deer were killed as a total of all deer hunting seasons, down from the total harvest of 5,264 deer in 2017.[221] Chronic wasting disease as of 2018 has never been detected within the county.[222]

Winter attractions include ice fishing, cross-country skiing,[223] broomball,[224] snowmobiling,[225] watching lake freighters in Sturgeon Bay,[226] and Christmas tree farms.[227] In 2017, 860 Christmas trees were cut, down from 1,929 in 2012.[228] Nearly 60% of the time, Door County has a white Christmas.[229]

In Sturgeon Bay, industrial tourism includes tours of the Bay Shipbuilding Company, CenterPointe Yacht Services[230] and other manufacturers.[231]

In 2014-15, there were 257 liquor licenses in the county.[232] The county also has businesses that produce alcoholic beverages,[233] and as a result was recognized as part of a larger federally designated wine grape-growing region in 2012. In 2017, there were 40 acres of vineyards, down from 78 in 2012.[234] To encourage tourism, Ephraim residents passed referenda in 2016 to allow beer and/or wine sales within the village. Until then, Ephraim had been the state's last dry municipality.[235]

Economics of tourismEdit

 
Migrant worker housing (March, 2011) Because the cost of living in Door County is high compared to the limited income many tourism-industry jobs provide, temporary workers are often hired, both domestic and foreign. Workers come from as far away as Ukraine,[236] Scandinavia, Uzbekistan, Turkey, or South Africa.

Between 2000 and 2017, home prices in Door County rose only 1.3% annually, less than the U.S. average of 2.5%.[237] In a 2008 survey of county residents, the most frequent local concern was the need to control rampant overdevelopment, including condos.[238] Shoreline parcels, which tend to be the most highly valued real estate, are typically owned by non-Wisconsin residents unless they are public property.[239] In 2006, nonresidents paid about 60% of the property taxes in the northern half of the county.[240] For forested lands, high property values drive up property tax levies, which in turn encourages landowners to enroll their land in the Managed Forest Program to reduce their taxes.[241] The high property values combined with low enrollment serve to punish local school districts in the state funding formula. As a result the county's school districts often have referenda for additional property tax funding.[242]

Door County was Wisconsin's only county with high per capita government spending in 2005 that did not also have a large low-income population. High per capita county government spending in Wisconsin is typically due to poverty.[243] Door County's spending can be explained by development patterns. A 2004 study showed that residential and commercial land tends to require more in government services than property taxes generate. These in turn are subsidized by taxes on industrial, agricultural, and open lands, which generally require few government services.[244] The dispersal of residential developments is a compounding factor. A 2002 study found that Wisconsin town residents are typically subsidized by city and village residents.[245]

A 2012 report found that Door County's preserved open spaces reduced the likelihood that nearby land would be subdivided, but if it was subdivided, areas near the open space were divided into more parcels than those further away. It did not appear to affect agriculture-related development.[246]

In 2014, Door County spent $11,287 per resident on advertising and other forms of tourism promotion, the second-most per capita of any Wisconsin county.[247]

Due to tourism's impact on restaurant prices, some residents of the more rural southern part of the county cannot afford to eat at restaurants in the northern part.[248]

Door County unemployment rates during the summer and fall are considerably lower than in winter.[249] Annual earnings in Door County are typically less than similar jobs in other areas of Wisconsin. This has been attributed to the seasonal nature of much of the employment. For example, in 2009, it was found that people were 4.85 times more likely to be employed by hotels and motels in Door County as opposed to the rest of the nation.[250] The effects of the low earnings are compounded by average housing prices; other areas in Wisconsin with low wages tend to have low housing prices.[251] The unaffordability of housing has been linked to the labor shortage problem, as new employees may be unable to afford housing and decide to leave.[252] The housing problem has been made more severe as properties once available to residents have been turned into Airbnb-style short-term rentals for tourists. In 2015 only 191 county properties offered short-term rental lodging online, but by 2018 there were 706.[253] The 2019 documentary A Place of Our Own: The Challenge of "Home" in Door County interviewed residents to examine this economic challenge.[254] A 2019 report by the Wisconsin Bureau of Aging and Disability Resources based on data from 2013 to 2017 found that while only 12.7% of Door County residents aged 65 and older rented (compared to 23.5% statewide), 59.8% of those who did rent spent 30% or more of their income on rental costs (compared to 55.4% statewide).[255]

Because foreign workers brought in under the Summer Work Travel Program are sometimes housed in a different community from where they are employed, some have ended up bicycling 10-15 miles a day since they lack cars and the county has limited public transportation.[236] Additionally, illegal or undocumented immigrants who work in the tourism industry often lack drivers' licenses.[256] In 2012, Door County District Attorney Ray Pelrine said the "illegal immigrant workforce is now built into the structure of a lot of businesses here."[257]

Most of the homeless in Door County are couch surfers, although in the summer many will camp or live out of their vehicles.[258]

In 2015, Door County arts and cultural organizations spent $9.7 million, of which 70.9% was spent locally, in addition to $15.0 million spent by attendees. An estimated 1,582 volunteers for arts and cultural organizations averaged 35.7 hours each. In 2015, 194,424 people attended arts and cultural events in the county, 78.0% of them non-residents. In 2016, the average arts event attendee from the county spent $28.96, while the average nonresident spent $90.53. In 2016, 50.6% of non-residents said the arts event was the primary reason they made the trip to the county. 66.0% of county resident attendees in 2016 were 65 or older, while 48.6% of non-resident attendees were.[259]

An analysis comparing 1999 data for select Wisconsin counties found that Door County was especially strong in the retail of building and materials, groceries, apparel and accessories, miscellaneous retail, and restaurants. For services, it ranked strong in amusement, movie, and recreation and lodging. Door County ran a fiscal surplus in all categories to all other counties, with the exception of furniture & home furnishing, in which Door County had a leakage of sales to other counties.[260]

The county has been a focus of sex-trafficking enforcement efforts.[261]

TransportationEdit

Major highways

Rustic roads

Airports

  • There are eleven airports in the county, including private or semi-public airports:

Ferries

  • Washington Island is served by two ferry routes. The first route is to take a 30-minute ferry ride from the Door Peninsula to Detroit Harbor on the island from a freight, automobile, and passenger ferry that departs daily from the Northport Pier at the northern terminus of Wisconsin Highway 42. The second route is a passenger-only ferry that departs from the unincorporated community of Gills Rock on a 20-minute route.[269]
  • Rock Island State Park is reachable by the passenger ferry Karfi from Washington Island.[270] (During winter Rock Island is also accessible via snowmobile and foot traffic.)
  • Although Chambers Island has no regularly scheduled ferry, there are boat operators which transport people to the island on call from Fish Creek.

Boat ramps and marinas

  • There are thirty public boat access sites in the county.[271]

Bridges across the bay

 
Aerial view of the Michigan Street Bridge with a laker in Sturgeon Bay. Ships routinely come into the bay for servicing at Bay Ship.
  • Sturgeon Bay Bridge, (also called Michigan Street Bridge) (11.5 feet clearance, overhead-truss, Scherzer-type, double-leaf, rolling-lift bascule)[272]
  • Oregon Street Bridge (reinforced concrete slab, rolling lift bascule girder with mechanical driven center locks)[273]
  • Bayview Bridge (monolithic concrete placed on structural deck with steel girder superstructure, open grating on deck, bascule)[274]

Snowmobile

  • There are about 250 miles of snowmobile trails,[275] which are opened as trails are groomed.[276]

Non-motorized

Demographics, public health, and religious adherentsEdit

Census Pop.
18602,948
18704,91966.9%
188011,645136.7%
189015,08229.5%
190017,58316.6%
191018,7116.4%
192019,0731.9%
193018,182−4.7%
194019,0955.0%
195020,8709.3%
196020,685−0.9%
197020,106−2.8%
198025,02924.5%
199025,6902.6%
200027,9618.8%
201027,785−0.6%
Est. 201827,610[278]−0.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[279]
1790–1960[280] 1900–1990[281]
1990–2000[282] 2010–2018[1]
 
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Door County.[e]

As of the 2000 census,[283] there were 27,961 people, 11,828 households, and 7,995 families residing in the county. The population density was 58 people per square mile (22/km²). In 2018, there were an estimated 23,500 head of cattle in the county.[284] There were 19,587 housing units at an average density of 41 per square mile (16/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.84% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.69% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.4% were of German and 10.3% Belgian ancestry. A small pocket of Walloon speakers forms the only Walloon-language region outside of Wallonia and its immediate neighbors.[285] Out of a total of 11,828 households, 58.10% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.84.[citation needed]

In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, and 18.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.[citation needed]

In 2017, there were 217 births, giving a general fertility rate of 59 births per 1000 women aged 15–44, the 49th highest rate out of 72 Wisconsin counties.[286] Additionally, there were eleven reported induced abortions performed on women of Door County residence in 2017.[287] From 2013-2017, 36.8% of the 9,358 households in the county included children, based on the ACS 5-year estimate, compared to 44.2% for Wisconsin in 2017, based on the ACS one year estimate.[288] In most measures of public health for 2015, the county has figures as healthy as or healthier than those of the entire state.[289] A study of the risk of getting Lyme disease in Door County between 1991 and 1994 found it to be relatively low, possibly due to its having less vegetation than most Wisconsin counties.[290]

Most fatal or incapacitating vehicle accidents in the county between 2010 and 2014 involved visitors. 6% of the persons involved in these accidents were from Illinois, 3% from Florida, and 7% from other states.[291] In a study of car accident data from 1992 to 2001, the risk of incurring a severe traffic injury during a stretch of driving was found to be lower in Door County than in Kewaunee County, but Door County had more fatalities per 100 people severely injured than Kewaunee, Brown, Manitowoc, and Sheboygan Counties. This was thought to be due to the relatively long distance it takes to get persons injured in Door County to treatment, as the nearest hospital with a high level of trauma accreditation was St. Vincent Hospital in Green Bay.[292]

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Door County was the Catholics, with 9,325 adherents worshipping at six parishes, followed by 2,982 ELCA Lutherans with seven congregations, 2,646 WELS Lutherans with seven congregations, 872 Moravians with three congregations, 834 United Methodists with four congregations, 533 non-denominational Christians with six congregations, 503 LCMS Lutherans with two congregations, 283 LCMC Lutherans with one congregation, 270 Converge Baptists with three congregations, 213 Episcopalians with one congregation, 207 UCC Christians with one congregation, and 593 other adherents. Altogether, 69.3% of the population was counted as adherents of a religious congregation.[293]

CommunitiesEdit

Adjacent countiesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

PoliticsEdit

Door County has voted for the winning candidate in every presidential election since 1996.

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results[299]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 48.8% 8,580 45.6% 8,014 5.7% 998
2012 46.0% 8,121 53.0% 9,357 1.1% 193
2008 40.7% 7,112 58.0% 10,142 1.3% 227
2004 50.9% 8,910 47.8% 8,367 1.2% 214
2000 51.3% 7,810 43.1% 6,560 5.6% 850
1996 40.4% 4,948 45.6% 5,590 14.0% 1,713
1992 39.7% 5,468 34.4% 4,735 25.9% 3,574
1988 55.6% 6,907 43.7% 5,425 0.7% 90
1984 67.4% 8,264 31.9% 3,916 0.7% 91
1980 55.2% 7,170 38.2% 4,961 6.6% 851
1976 57.4% 6,557 39.9% 4,553 2.7% 307
1972 64.3% 6,503 33.9% 3,430 1.9% 188
1968 63.3% 5,647 30.6% 2,728 6.1% 541
1964 49.2% 4,289 50.7% 4,416 0.1% 9
1960 61.5% 5,790 38.4% 3,610 0.2% 14
1956 78.0% 6,722 21.6% 1,859 0.5% 41
1952 80.8% 7,621 19.0% 1,790 0.2% 19
1948 65.8% 4,911 32.7% 2,440 1.5% 108
1944 68.3% 5,668 31.3% 2,599 0.5% 38
1940 66.1% 5,461 33.3% 2,750 0.6% 49
1936 41.1% 3,146 51.6% 3,952 7.4% 566
1932 37.0% 2,488 61.6% 4,149 1.4% 97
1928 59.3% 3,636 40.0% 2,456 0.7% 42
1924 38.6% 1,891 4.8% 235 56.6% 2,778
1920 88.3% 3,817 8.9% 385 2.8% 119
1916 56.3% 1,656 40.9% 1,204 2.9% 84
1912 41.2% 1,167 27.1% 769 31.7% 900
1908 73.9% 2,463 23.3% 778 2.8% 93
1904 80.5% 2,689 15.4% 515 4.1% 136
1900 76.3% 2,362 21.8% 674 1.9% 60
1896 71.3% 2,402 26.6% 895 2.1% 72
1892 58.2% 1,596 36.7% 1,007 5.1% 140

GalleryEdit

Radio stationsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Summerville soil series information, also see inceptisol as Summerville soils are inceptisols.
  2. ^ Longrie soil series information, also see spodosol, as Longrie soils are spodosols.
  3. ^ Omena soil series information, also see alfisol, as Omena soils are alfisols.
  4. ^ such as go-kart tracks, water parks, and mini-golf
  5. ^ For an updated pyramid, see 2010-2040CoPyramids.xlsx

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Wisconsin: Individual County Chronologies". Wisconsin Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Rebecca L. Schewe; Donald R. Field; Deborah J. Frosch; Gregory Clendenning; Dana Jensen (May 15, 2012). Condos in the Woods: The Growth of Seasonal and Retirement Homes in Northern Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Pres. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-299-28533-3.
  5. ^ Older than the Egyptian pyramids, stone tools found in Sturgeon Bay go on display by Liz Welter, Green Bay Press-Gazette Aug. 14, 2018
  6. ^ A Survey of Wisconsin Fluted Points by Thomas J. Loebel, Current Research in the Pleistocene 24:118–119
  7. ^ a b Soucek, G. (2011). Door County Tales: Shipwrecks, Cherries and Goats on the Roof. American Chronicles. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-61423-383-1. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  8. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved May 7, 2018 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Kohl, Cris & Joan Forsberg, Shipwrecks at Death's Door, Page 10.
  10. ^ A Guide to Significant Wildlife Habitat and Natural Areas Of Door County, Wisconsin, March, 2003, by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Sturgeon Bay Service Center, page 128.
  11. ^ a b c d e Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030. Chapter 3 – Historical and Cultural Resources. Volume II, Resource Report., Table 3.1: Timeline of Historic Events in Door County, pages 19-20 (page four through five of the pdf)
  12. ^ Robert LaSalle County Park kiosk historical notes
  13. ^ Edmunds, R. David (1988). The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press (Civilization of the American Indian Series); ISBN 0-8061-2069-X
  14. ^ Forgotten Charms of Chambers Island by Patty Williamson, Peninsula Pulse, August 25th, 2017
  15. ^ Town of Gibraltar 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, chapter 2, page 3 (page 35 of pdf)
  16. ^ Book Excerpt, Island Tales: “History and Anecdotes of Washington Island” by Jessie Miner
  17. ^ Whitefish Dunes State Park History, Wisconsin DNR, January 7, 2015
  18. ^ "Menominee Treaties and Treaty Rights". Indian Country Wisconsin. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Potawatomi Migration from Wisconsin & Michigan to Canada". Geni. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  20. ^ Mailer, Stan (1989). Green Bay & Western The First 111 Years. Hundman Publishing.
  21. ^ "Kahquados, Chief Simon". Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Door County. Wisconsin Public Television. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  22. ^ Hjalmar Holand. History of Door County Wisconsin, The County Beautiful. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1917, p. 77.
  23. ^ Going For The Mail: A History Of Door County Post Offices by James B. Hale, Brown County Historical Society: Green Bay, WI. 1996. Full text on Internet Archive
  24. ^ Village of Forestville Comprehensive Plan, September 11th, 2009, pages 14-16 of the document
  25. ^ "History of Ephraim, Door County, Wisconsin". by Hjalmar R. Holand, 1917
  26. ^ Lott, Katie (May 1, 2009). "Southern Door County's Belgian Wayside Chapels". Door County Living. Retrieved January 22, 2019.doorcounty.com. "Where to Find Belgian Chapels in Door County". Door County Visitor Bureau. Retrieved January 22, 2019., also Wisconsin Belgian Roadside Chapels in Google Maps
  27. ^ a b Wardius, K.; Wardius, B. (2013). Wisconsin Lighthouses: A Photographic and Historical Guide, Revised Edition. Wisconsin Historical Society Press. pp. 100–25. ISBN 978-0-87020-610-8. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  28. ^ Tornadoes of Fire at Williamsonville, Wisconsin, October 8, 1871 by Joseph M. Moran and E. Lee Somerville, 1990, Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 31 pages
  29. ^ Skiba, Justin (2 September 2016). "The Fire That Took Williamsonville". Door County Living. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  30. ^ Tornado Memorial Park kiosk historical notes, also see page 19 of the County C Park and Ride lot panel draft pdf
  31. ^ Brick by Brick: A Comparative pXRF Analysis of Brickworks and Structures in the Belgian-American Community of the Door Peninsula by Lisa Marie Zimmerman, unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 2013 and Old World Wisconsin: around Europe in the Badger State by Fred L. Holmes. E. M. Hale and Company, 1944, page 163 (169 of the pdf)
  32. ^ II. Transportation Profile Draft, by the Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030 Transportation Advisory Workgroup, page 5 of the pdf
  33. ^ "Station Sturgeon Bay Canal, Wisconsin" (PDF). U.S. Coast Guard History Program. United States Coast Guard. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  34. ^ "USCG Station Washington Island" (PDF). United States Coast Guard. January 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  35. ^ Door County Wisconsin's Peninsular Jewel by Bruce Thomas, 1993, pages 33-34, and 41
  36. ^ Ships and Shipwrecks in Door County, Wisconsin, Volume 2 by Arthur C. and Lucy F. Frederickson, Frankfort, Michigan, 1963, page 3 (page 5 of the pdf)
  37. ^ State parks for Wisconsin. Report of John Nolen, Landscape Architect, With Letter of Transmittal by State Park Board, by John Nolen, 1909, page 31 (page 47 of the pdf)
  38. ^ a b c d e Cain, Cortney (May 2006). "Chapter 4, Door County Apple Horticulture". The Development of Apple Horticulture in Wisconsin, 1850s-1950s: Case Studies of Bayfield, Crawford, and Door Counties (M.A. thesis). UW-Madison. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  39. ^ Geography of Apple Orchards in Wisconsin: Examining the Core of Cultivation by Kody Bankston, Morgan Jarocki, and Adrienne Miller, unpublished student paper, UW-Madison, 2012
  40. ^ Migrant Labor and Door County Cherries by Emily Irwin, July 1, 2017
  41. ^ Mariah Goode. "The Harvest of 1945: German POW Camps Filled Door County’s Labor Shortage". Door County Pulse, July 1, 2005.
  42. ^ cheyenne Lentz. "Story Of Wisconsin's German POWs Is A Piece Of Hidden History, Author Says". Wisconsin Public Radio, June 23, 2015.
  43. ^ Damien Jaques. "Cherry picking with German POWs in Door County". On Milwaukee, July 9, 2012.
  44. ^ Tishler, W.H. (2006). Door County's Emerald Treasure: A History of Peninsula State Park. Wisconsin Land and Life. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22073-0. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  45. ^ Mexicans in Wisconsin by Sergio González, Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2017
  46. ^ The list is found on pages 51 and following of Migrant agricultural workers in Door County by the Division for Children and Youth, State Department of Public Welfare, Wisconsin, 1951
  47. ^ Developing Strategies to Improve Farm Labor Camp Housing Policy in Massachusetts, by Daniel MacVeigh-Fierro Samantha Ricci Damani Walder, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Boston Project Center B.S. Interactive Qualifying Project, page 65 (page 79 of the pdf)
  48. ^ They are available from the WHAIFinder application, for reference see Wisconsin historic aerial photographs now available online by Howard Veregin, Wisconsin Geospatial News, February 23, 2011
  49. ^ Development of the Door County Supercell on 23 August 1998 by James R. Jelinek, Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, May 2006
  50. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
  51. ^ Lyttle, Bethany (September 11, 2008). "The Cape Cod of the Midwest". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  52. ^ City of Sturgeon Bay Comprehensive Plan Update, 2010, chapter 2 page 2 (page 14 of the pdf)
  53. ^ "Meridian County Park". Door County Parks. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  54. ^ Meridian County Park and Harter-Matter Sanctuary Map and trail guide
  55. ^ Wisconsin DOT Door County Map
  56. ^ Barn Quilts of Door County Location Guide, by the UW-Extension and 4-H program, 2014
  57. ^ Geology and Ground Water in Door County, Wisconsin, with Emphasis on Contamination Potential in the Silurian Dolomite By M. G. Sherrill, United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2047. 1978, locations of caves are shown on Plate 1
  58. ^ The Niagara Escarpment: Inventory Findings 1999-2001 and Considerations for Management. Final Report, Craig Anderson, Eric Epstein, William Smith, Nicole Merryfield, May 2002, Natural Heritage Inventory Program Bureau of Endangered Resources Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, page 32 (page 40 of the pdf)
  59. ^ "Rosière Wind Farm". Madison Gas and Electric. Retrieved July 8, 2009. and  "MGE Celebrates 10th Anniversary of State's First Wind Farm". Wisconsin Ag Connection. July 7, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  60. ^ Town of Union 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, May 2007, Chapter 9, page 1, page 181 of the pdf
  61. ^ Chambers Island: An Escape to Simpler Pleasures by Susan Glenn, Door County Living, July 1st, 2005
  62. ^ Pit locations spreadsheet, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, 1/21/2016
  63. ^ George Pinney County Park kiosk information
  64. ^ "Soil Survey of Door County, Wisconsin" (PDF). USDA SCS. December 1978. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  65. ^ Town of Gardner 20 Year Comprehensive Plan, January 2010, Chapter 5, page 15 (page 78 of the pdf)
  66. ^ Town of Brussels 2020 Comprehensive Plan, Chapter 2, page 30 (p. 56 of the pdf)
  67. ^ A previously unrecognized impact structure at Brussels Hill, Door County, Wisconsin: Brecciation and shock-metamorphic features by Zawacki, Emily E. and Bjornerud, Marcia G., Presentation at the 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia (19-22 October 2014)
  68. ^ A previously unrecognized impact structure at Brussels Hill, Door County, Wisconsin: Brecciation and shock-metamorphic features. by E. E. Zawacki, October 2014, presented at the 2014 Geological Society of America annual meeting
  69. ^ Crater Hunters Find New Clues to Ancient Impact Storm by Becky Oskin, LiveScience, October 31, 2014
  70. ^ PeakVisor Door County Named Mountains
  71. ^ Get A Bird's Eye View of Wisconsin's Fall Color by Travel Wisconsin, Sept. 21, 2017
  72. ^ Note that lake level changes from year to year. Whitefish Dunes State Park Trail descriptions, Wisconsin DNR, March 20th 2016, accessed September 7th, 2019
  73. ^ A Guide to Significant Wildlife Habitat and Natural Areas Of Door County, Wisconsin, March, 2003, by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Sturgeon Bay Service Center, page 52.
  74. ^ Wisconsin Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists Field Trip, May 30-31, 2009, page 85 (page 87 of the pdf)
  75. ^ Beneath the Door Peninsula: The Story of Paradise Pit Cave by Gary K. Soule, p. 239-246, NSS News, June 1986
  76. ^ a b c Web-Map of Door County, Wisconsin ... For All Seasons!, Door County Land Information Office, Accessed September 7th, 2019
  77. ^ Map 6.1: General Soil Association, Door County Comprehensive and Farmland Preservation Plan 2035
  78. ^ See the map of soils by suitability for agriculture for context. In 2016, the average rental value was $81.00 per acre, less than the Wisconsin average of $131.00 per acre and $144.00 per acre for Kewaunee County. The average sale price of agricultural land in 2016 was $3,861 per acre, less than the Wisconsin average of $5,306 per acre and $6,568 per acre for Kewaunee County. Statistics from the 2017 Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics pages 5 and 10 and (9 and 13 of the pdf), by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, September 2017
  79. ^ Quick Stats data from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service.
  80. ^ Village of Ephraim Comprehensive Plan 2009 Chapter 6, page 5 (page 66 of the pdf)
  81. ^ Protect the Water You Drink pamphlet, by Debbie Beyer, UW-Extension Basin Education Initiative; Shelby Giguere, and the Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department. See also Groundwater Quality Changes in a Karst Aquifer of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA: Reduction of Brown Water Incidence and Bacterial Contamination Resulting from Implementation of Regional Task Force Recommendations by Kevin Erb, Eric Ronk, Vikram Koundinya, and John Luczaj, published in Resources 2015, 4, 655-672; doi:10.3390/resources4030655
  82. ^ Norovirus outbreak caused by a new septic system in a dolomite aquifer, by Mark A. Borchardt, Kenneth R. Bradbury, Elizabeth C. Alexander, Rhonda J Kolberg, S Catherine. P Alexander, John R. Archer, Laurel A Braatz, Brian M. Forest, Jeffrey Alan Green, Susan K. Spencer, published in Ground Water. 2011 Jan-Feb;49(1):85-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00686.x.
  83. ^ Plum Bottom Closed Depression Groundwater Trace Final Report by E. Calvin Alexander, Jr., Jeffrey A. Green, and Scott C. Alexander 25 January 2008
  84. ^ Appendix H of Groundwater quality, Door County, Wisconsin: an assessment of the institutional and physical constraints on economic development, recreational growth, and ground water quality, edited by Harry Leslie. Report of the Water Resources Management Workshop held May, 1973. Madison : Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, pages 153-172 (pages 187-206 of the pdf)
  85. ^ Wisconsin DNR. "Door". State natural areas by county. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  86. ^ Wisconsin DNR (November 27, 2009). "Page 20 of the pdf, Tables 4.15 and 4.16" (PDF). Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030: Chapter 4, Agricultural and Natural Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit