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Donald Trump–Russia dossier

The Donald Trump–Russia dossier, also known as the Steele dossier,[1] is a private intelligence dossier that was written by Christopher Steele, a former British MI6 intelligence officer. It contains allegations of misconduct and collusion between Donald Trump and his campaign, and the Russian government during the 2016 U.S. presidential election and the period preceding the election. The contents of the dossier were published in full by BuzzFeed on January 10, 2017.[2] BuzzFeed's decision to publish the dossier was met with criticism from some mainstream media outlets.[3][4][5]

The dossier primarily discusses possible Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election. The media and the intelligence community have stressed that most of the accusations in the dossier have not been verified. Most experts have therefore treated the dossier with caution, and Trump himself denounced the report, calling it "fake news" and "phony". In February, it was reported that some details related to conversations between foreign nationals had been independently corroborated, giving U.S. intelligence and law enforcement greater confidence in some aspects of the dossier as investigations continued.

The dossier was produced as part of opposition research during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. After Trump emerged as the probable Republican nominee, attorney Marc Elias of the Perkins Coie law firm retained American research firm Fusion GPS to conduct opposition research about Trump on behalf of the Democratic National Committee and Clinton presidential campaign. Fusion GPS later contracted Steele to compile the dossier.[6] Following Trump's election as president, Steele continued working on the report, with funding from Democrats ceasing and financing finally coming directly from Glenn R. Simpson of Fusion GPS.[7] The completed dossier and its information was then passed on to British and American intelligence services.



The 35-page dossier claims that Russia is in possession of damaging information about Trump which could be used for purposes of blackmail to get Trump to cooperate with the Russian government.[8] The material includes allegations about Trump's sexual and financial dealings in Russia.[9] The dossier further alleges that Russia, with Putin's endorsement, had cultivated and supported Trump for at least five years with the overall aim of creating divisions between Western alliances, and that there had been multiple contacts and in-person meetings between Russian officials and Trump campaign staffers.[8][10][11][12]

The dossier also alleges that Trump's personal attorney, Michael Cohen, together with three colleagues, was in Prague at some time during August/September 2016, where he allegedly made arrangements to pay those who had hacked the DNC and to cover up any evidence of their deeds.[13][14] Cohen denied the allegations, saying: "I'm telling you emphatically that I've not been to Prague, I've never been to Czech [Republic], I've not been to Russia. The story is completely inaccurate, it is fake news meant to malign Mr. Trump."[15] Cohen said that between August 23 and August 29 he was in Los Angeles. According to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, "A Czech intelligence source told the Respekt magazine that there is no record of Cohen arriving in Prague by plane, although the news weekly pointed out he could have traveled by car or train from a nearby EU country, avoiding passport control under Schengen zone travel rules."[16]

Sergei Millian was identified as source "D" and/or "E" within the dossier.[17][18]


According to reports, the dossier and the investigations preceding it were all part of opposition research on Trump. The investigation into Trump was initially funded by a conservative political website and later by Democrats.[19][20][21]

In October 2015, during the Republican primary campaign, The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative website primarily funded by Republican donor Paul Singer, hired the American research firm Fusion GPS to conduct opposition research on Trump and other Republican presidential candidates.[1] For months, Fusion GPS gathered information about Trump, focusing on his business and entertainment activities. When Trump became the presumptive nominee on May 3, 2016, The Free Beacon stopped funding research on him.[21][22][23]

In April 2016, the investigation contract and funding were taken over by Marc Elias, a partner in the large Seattle-based law firm Perkins Coie and head of its Political Law practice. Elias was the attorney of record for the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and the Clinton presidential campaign.[6] In total, Perkins Coie paid Fusion GPS $1.02 million in fees and expenses, $168,000 of which was paid to Orbis Business Intelligence, a private British intelligence firm, and used by them to produce the dossier.[24] Glenn R. Simpson of Fusion GPS has stated that Steele did not pay any of his sources.[25]

In June 2016, it was revealed that the DNC website had been hacked by Russian sources, so Fusion GPS hired Orbis to look into any Russian connections.[21] The investigation was undertaken by Orbis co-founder Christopher Steele, a retired British MI6 officer with expertise in Russian matters.[21] He later told Mother Jones that he soon found "troubling information indicating connections between Trump and the Russian government. According to his sources, he says, 'there was an established exchange of information between the Trump campaign and the Kremlin of mutual benefit.'" He described the finding as "an extraordinary situation" and that it was "sufficiently serious" enough for him to share it with the FBI. He did this in July, without the permission of Fusion GPS.[26]

Steele delivered his report as a series of two- or three-page memos, starting in June 2016 and continuing through December. He continued his investigation even after the Democratic client stopped paying for it following Trump's election.[21] After the election, Glenn R. Simpson of Fusion GPS "reportedly spent his own money to continue the investigation".[7]

On his own initiative, Steele decided to also pass the information to British and American intelligence services because he believed the findings were a matter of national security for both countries.[27] However, he became frustrated with the FBI, which he believed was failing to investigate his reports, choosing instead to focus on the investigation into Hillary Clinton's emails. According to The Independent, Steele came to believe that there was a "cabal" inside the FBI, particularly its New York field office linked to Trump advisor Rudy Giuliani, which blocked any attempts to investigate the links between Trump and Russia.[27] In October 2016, Steele had compiled 33 pages and passed on what he discovered so far to a reporter from Mother Jones magazine.[26]

Shortly after the presidential election, Senator John McCain, who had been informed about the alleged links between Kremlin and Trump, met with former British ambassador to Moscow Sir Andrew Wood. Wood confirmed the existence of the dossier and vouched for Steele's "professionalism and integrity".[27] McCain obtained the dossier from David J. Kramer and took it directly to FBI director James Comey on December 9, 2016.[21][20]

In December 2016, two more pages were added alleging efforts by Trump's personal attorney, Michael Cohen, to pay those who had hacked the DNC and to arrange to cover up any evidence of their deeds.[13][14]

In a court filing in April 2017, Steele revealed previously unreported information that in December 2016 he gave one more report to "the senior British national security official and sent an encrypted version to Fusion GPS with instructions to deliver a hard copy to Senator McCain.... Comey has confirmed that counter-intelligence investigations are under way into possible links between Trump associates and Moscow, and CNN has reported that the FBI used the dossier to bolster its investigations."[14]

Hints of existenceEdit

By the third quarter of 2016, many news organizations knew about the existence of the dossier, which had been described as an "open secret" among journalists. However, they chose not to publish information that could not be confirmed.[21] Finally on October 31, 2016, a week before the election, Mother Jones reported that a former intelligence officer, whom they did not name, had produced a report based on Russian sources and turned it over to the FBI.[26] It starts with the allegation that:

The "Russian regime has been cultivating, supporting and assisting TRUMP for at least 5 years. Aim, endorsed by PUTIN, has been to encourage splits and divisions in western alliance". It maintained that Trump "and his inner circle have accepted a regular flow of intelligence from the Kremlin, including on his Democratic and other political rivals". It claimed that Russian intelligence had "compromised" Trump during his visits to Moscow and could "blackmail him".

— Mother Jones, October 31, 2016[26]

In October 2016, the FBI reached an agreement with Steele to pay him to continue his work, according to involved sources reported by The Washington Post. "Steele was known for the quality of his past work and for the knowledge he had developed over nearly 20 years working on Russia-related issues for British intelligence."[28] The FBI found Steele credible and his unproved information worthy enough that it considered paying Steele to continue collecting information, but the release of the document to the public stopped discussions between Steele and the FBI.[28]

Trump and Barack Obama were briefed on the existence of the dossier by the chiefs of several U.S. intelligence agencies in early January 2017. Vice President Joe Biden has confirmed that he and the president had received briefings on the dossier, and the allegations within.[29][22][30][31]

On January 10, 2017, CNN reported that classified documents presented to Obama and Trump the previous week included allegations that Russian operatives possess "compromising personal and financial information" about Trump. CNN stated that it would not publish specific details on the memos because it had not "independently corroborated the specific allegations".[32][33] Following the CNN report,[34] BuzzFeed published a 35-page dossier that it said was the basis of the briefing, including unverified claims that Russian operatives had collected "embarrassing material" involving Trump that could be used to blackmail him.[35][36][33][37] NBC reported that a senior U.S. intelligence official said that Trump had not been previously briefed on the contents of the memos,[38] although a CNN report said that a statement released by James Clapper in early January confirmed that the synopsis existed and had been compiled for Trump.[39]

Many news organizations knew about the document in the fall of 2016, before the presidential election, but did not publish it because they could not independently verify the information.[40] BuzzFeed was harshly criticized for publishing what Washington Post columnist Margaret Sullivan called "scurrilous allegations dressed up as an intelligence report meant to damage Donald Trump",[41] while The New York Times noted that the publication sparked a debate centering on the use of unsubstantiated information from anonymous sources.[42] BuzzFeed's executive staff said the materials were newsworthy because they were "in wide circulation at the highest levels of American government and media" and argued that this justified public release.[43]


When CNN reported the existence of the dossier on January 10, 2017,[44] it did not name the author of the dossier, but revealed that he was British. Steele concluded that his anonymity had been "fatally compromised" and realized it was "only a matter of time until his name became public knowledge", and, accompanied by his family, he fled into hiding in fear of "a prompt and potentially dangerous backlash against him from Moscow".[45][46][19] The Wall Street Journal revealed Steele's name the next day, on January 11.[47] Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd, for whom Steele worked at the time the dossier was authored, and its director Christopher Burrows would not "confirm or deny" that Orbis had produced the dossier.[44][21]

Called by the media a "highly regarded Kremlin expert" and "one of MI6's greatest Russia specialists", Steele formerly worked for the British intelligence agency MI6 and is currently working for Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd, a private intelligence company Steele co-founded in London.[48][47][49] Steele entered MI6 in 1987, directly after his graduation from Cambridge University.[50]

Former British ambassador to Moscow Sir Andrew Wood has vouched for Steele's reputation.[27] He views Steele as a "very competent professional operator ... I take the report seriously. I don't think it's totally implausible." He also stated that "the report's key allegation—that Trump and Russia's leadership were communicating via secret back channels during the presidential campaign—was eminently plausible".[51]

On December 26, 2016, Oleg Erovinkin, a former KGB/FSB general, was found dead in his car in Moscow. Erovinkin was a key liaison between Igor Sechin, head of state-owned oil company Rosneft, and President Putin. Steele claimed much of the information came from a source close to Sechin. According to Christo Grozev, a journalist at Risk Management Lab, a think-tank based in Bulgaria, the circumstances of Erovinkin's death were "mysterious". Grozev suspected Erovinkin helped Steele compile the dossier on Trump and suggests the hypothesis that the death may have been part of a cover-up by the Russian government.[52][53] Mark Galeotti, senior research fellow at the Institute of International Relations Prague, who specializes in Russian history and security, rejected Grozev's hypothesis.[54][52]

On March 7, 2017, as some members of the U.S. Congress were expressing interest in meeting with or hearing testimony from Steele, he reemerged after weeks in hiding, appearing publicly on camera and stating, "I'm really pleased to be back here working again at the Orbis's offices in London today."[55]


Observers and experts have had varying reactions to the dossier. Generally, "former intelligence officers and other national-security experts" urged "skepticism and caution" but still took "the fact that the nation's top intelligence officials chose to present a summary version of the dossier to both President Obama and President-elect Trump" as an indication "that they may have had a relatively high degree of confidence that at least some of the claims therein were credible, or at least worth investigating further".[56] The author of the dossier said he believes that 70–90% of the document is accurate.[57] Steele said that his FBI contacts greeted his intelligence report with "shock and horror".[57]

Vice President Biden told reporters that while he and President Obama were receiving a briefing on the extent of Russian hackers trying to influence the US election, there was a two-page addendum which addressed the contents of the Steele dossier.[58] Top intelligence officials told them they "felt obligated to inform them about uncorroborated allegations about President-elect Donald Trump out of concern the information would become public and catch them off-guard".[59]

Former Los Angeles Times Moscow correspondent Robert Gillette wrote in an op-ed in the Concord Monitor that the dossier has had at least one of its main factual assertions verified. On January 6, 2017, the Director of National Intelligence released a report assessing "with high confidence" that Russia's combined cyber and propaganda operation was directed personally by Vladimir Putin, with the aim of harming Hillary Clinton's candidacy and helping Trump.[60] Gillette wrote: "Steele's dossier, paraphrasing multiple sources, reported precisely the same conclusion, in greater detail, six months earlier, in a memo dated June 20."[61]

Former CIA analyst Patrick Skinner said that he is "neither dismissing the report nor taking its claims at face value", telling Wired: "I imagine a lot more will come out, and much will be nothing and perhaps some of it will be meaningful, and perhaps even devastating."[56] Russian investigative journalist Andrei Soldatov writes that while "many of the report's elements appear hastily compiled", and there were many "shaky" claims, the document "rings frighteningly true" and "overall ... reflects accurately the way decision-making in the Kremlin looks to close observers".[62] Soldatov writes: "Unverifiable sensational details aside, the Trump dossier is a good reflection of how things are run in the Kremlin—the mess at the level of decision-making and increasingly the outsourcing of operations, combined with methods borrowed from the KGB and the secret services of the lawless 1990s."[62]

Newsweek published a list of "13 things that don't add up" in the dossier, writing that the document was a "strange mix of the amateur and the insightful" and stating that the document "contains lots of Kremlin-related gossip that could indeed be, as the author claims, from deep insiders—or equally gleaned" from Russian newspapers and blogs.[63] Former UK ambassador to Russia Sir Tony Brenton stated that certain aspects of the dossier were inconsistent with British intelligence's understanding of how the Kremlin works, commenting: "I've seen quite a lot of intelligence on Russia, and there are some things in [the dossier] which look pretty shaky."[64] Former acting Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Michael Morell noted that Steele did not directly interact with his sources, but rather "used intermediaries": "The intermediaries paid the sources and the intermediaries got the money from Chris. And that kind of worries me a little bit because if you're paying somebody, particularly former FSB officers, they are going to tell you truth and innuendo and rumor, and they're going to call you up and say, 'hey, let's have another meeting, I have more information for you,' because they want to get paid some more." While another CIA officer commented that "the CIA also pays its sources," Morell responded: "But we know who the source is and we know how they got the information."[65]

According to Business Insider, the dossier alleges that "the Trump campaign agreed to minimize US opposition to Russia's incursions into Ukraine".[66] In July 2016, the Republican National Convention made changes to the Republican Party's platform on Ukraine: initially they proposed providing "lethal weapons" to Ukraine, but the line was changed to "appropriate assistance". J. D. Gordon, who was one of Trump's national security advisers during the campaign, said that he had advocated for changing language because that reflected what Trump had said.[66][67]

Reputation in the U.S. intelligence communityEdit

According to Paul Wood of BBC News, the information in Steele's report is also reported by "multiple intelligence sources" and "at least one East European intelligence service". They report that there is "more than one tape, not just video, but audio as well, on more than one date, in more than one place, in both Moscow and St. Petersburg". While also mentioning "nobody should believe something just because an intelligence agent says it."[68][47] He added that "the CIA believes it is credible that the Kremlin has such kompromat—or compromising material—on the next US commander in chief" and "a joint taskforce, which includes the CIA and the FBI, has been investigating allegations that the Russians may have sent money to Mr Trump's organisation or his election campaign".[69][70][68] On March 30, 2017, Wood reported that the FBI was using the dossier as a roadmap for its investigation.[71] On April 18, 2017, CNN reported that, according to U.S. officials, information from the dossier had been used as part of the basis for getting the FISA warrant to monitor former Trump foreign policy adviser Carter Page during the summer of 2016. Officials told CNN this information would have had to be independently corroborated by the FBI before being used to obtain the warrant.[72]

Susan Hennessey, a former National Security Agency lawyer now with the Brookings Institution, stated: "My general take is that the intelligence community and law enforcement seem to be taking these claims seriously. That itself is highly significant. But it is not the same as these allegations being verified. Even if this was an intelligence community document—which it isn't—this kind of raw intelligence is still treated with skepticism."[56][73] Hennessey and Benjamin Wittes wrote that "the current state of the evidence makes a powerful argument for a serious public inquiry into this matter".[73] Robert S. Litt, a former lawyer for the Director of National Intelligence, wrote that the dossier "played absolutely no role" in the intelligence community's determination that Russia had interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[74]

On February 10, 2017, CNN reported that some communications between "senior Russian officials and other Russian individuals" described in the dossier had been corroborated by multiple U.S. officials. Sources told CNN that some conversations had been "intercepted during routine intelligence gathering", but refused to reveal the content of conversations, or specify which communications were detailed in the dossier. CNN was unable to confirm whether conversations were related to Trump. U.S. officials said the corroboration gave "US intelligence and law enforcement 'greater confidence' in the credibility of some aspects of the dossier as they continue to actively investigate its contents".[75]

Carter Page testimonyEdit

On November 2, Carter Page, Donald Trump's foreign policy adviser during the campaign, testified before the House Intelligence Committee which is investigating Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Page testified he informed Jeff Sessions, J. D. Gordon, Hope Hicks and Corey Lewandowski, Trump's campaign manager, of a planned trip to Russia and that Lewandowski approved the trip, responding "If you'd like to go on your own, not affiliated with the campaign, you know, that's fine."[76][77] In his testimony, Page admitted he met with high ranking Kremlin officials. Previously, Page had denied meeting any Russian officials during the trip. His comments appeared to corroborate portions of the dossier.[78][79] In October 2016, after being informed of his trip by Page, Sessions claimed that "he was not aware of anyone in the Trump campaign that had communications with the Russians" in his testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee.[79]

Use in 2017 Special Counsel investigationEdit

According to Senate Intelligence Committee vice chairman Mark Warner, the dossier's allegations are being investigated by a Special Counsel led by Robert Mueller, which is also investigating allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 elections.[80] In the summer of 2017, Mueller's team of investigators met with Christopher Steele.[81] As some leads stemming from the dossier have already been followed and confirmed by the FBI, legal experts have stated that Special Counsel investigators, headed by Robert Mueller, are obligated to follow any leads the dossier has presented them with, irrespective of what parties financed it in its various stages of development, or "[t]hey would be derelict in their duty if they didn't."[80][82]


Donald Trump called the dossier "fake news" and criticized the intelligence and media sources that published it.[83] During a press conference on January 11, 2017, Trump denounced the unsubstantiated claims as false, saying that it was "disgraceful" for U.S. intelligence agencies to report them. Trump refused to answer a question from CNN's senior White House correspondent Jim Acosta on the subject. In response, CNN said that it had published "carefully sourced reporting" on the matter which had been "matched by the other major news organizations", as opposed to BuzzFeed's posting of "unsubstantiated materials".[84][34] James Clapper described the leaks as damaging to US national security.[85] This also contradicted Trump's previous claim that Clapper said the information was false; Clapper's statement actually said the intelligence community had made no judgement on the truth or falsity of the information.[86]

Russian press secretary Dmitry Peskov insisted in an interview that the document is a fraud, saying "I can assure you that the allegations in this funny paper, in this so-called report, they are untrue. They are all fake."[87] The President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, called the people who leaked the document "worse than prostitutes"[88] and referred to the dossier itself as "rubbish".[89] Putin went on to state he believed that the dossier was "clearly fake",[90] fabricated as a plot against the legitimacy of President-elect Donald Trump.[91]

Some of Steele's former colleagues expressed support for his character, saying "The idea his work is fake or a cowboy operation is false—completely untrue. Chris is an experienced and highly regarded professional. He's not the sort of person who will simply pass on gossip."[92]

Among journalists, Bob Woodward called the dossier a "garbage document," while Carl Bernstein took the opposite view, noting that the senior-most U.S. intelligence officials had determined that the content was worth reporting to the president and the president-elect.[93]

Ynet, an Israeli online news site, reported on January 12 that U.S. intelligence advised Israeli intelligence officers to be cautious about sharing information with the incoming Trump administration, until the possibility of Russian influence over Trump, suggested by Steele's report, has been fully investigated.[94]

Aleksej Gubarev, chief of technology company XBT and a figure mentioned in the dossier, sued BuzzFeed for defamation on February 3, 2017. The suit, filed in a Broward County, Florida court,[95] centers on allegations from the dossier that XBT had been "using botnets and porn traffic to transmit viruses, plant bugs, steal data and conduct 'altering operations' against the Democratic Party leadership".[96] In the High Court of Justice, Steele's lawyers said their client did not intend for the memos to be released, and that one of the memos "needed to be analyzed and further investigated/verified".[97]

On March 2, 2017, media began reporting that the Senate may call Steele to testify about the Trump dossier.[98] On March 27, 2017, Senate Judiciary Chairman Chuck Grassley asked the Department of Justice to initiate an inquiry into Fusion GPS, who initially retained Steele to write the dossier.[99] Fusion GPS was previously associated with pro-Russia lobbying activities due to sanctions imposed by the Magnitsky Act.[100] On August 22, 2017, media reported that Steele had met with the FBI and had provided them with the names of his sources for the allegations made in the dossier.[101]


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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit