Dolný Kubín (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈdɔlniː ˈkubiːn] (listen); also known by other names) is a town in northern Slovakia in the Žilina Region. It is the historical capital and the largest settlement of the Orava region.
|• Mayor||Ján Prílepok (independent)|
|• Total||55.02 km2 (21.24 sq mi)|
|Elevation||507 m (1,663 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+421 43|
The name is derived from the archaic Slovak word klubin meaning a "glade covered by smoke after burnt roots". Dolný Kubín means "Lower Kubín", in contrast with to Vyšný ("Upper") Kubín. The location and the settlement was known also as Kublen (1314), Clbin (1393), Culbyn (1408), Kubyn Nysny (1547), Dolny Kubin (1773). Other names in the past include German: Unterkubin, Hungarian: Alsókubin.
Dolný Kubín lies at an altitude of 468 metres (1,535 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 55.055 square kilometres (21.3 sq mi). It is located in northern Slovakia on the Orava River, between the Lesser Fatra, Oravská Magura and Chočské vrchy mountains. It is located around 15 km (9.32 mi) from Ružomberok, 45 km (27.96 mi) from the Polish border and 270 km (167.77 mi) from Bratislava. The town is composed of the following boroughs: Banisko, Beňova Lehota, Brezovec, Kňažia, Malý Bysterec, Medzihradné, Mokraď, Srňacie, Staré mesto, Veľký Bysterec and Záskalie. The city limits also encompass the settlement of Jelšava.
The first written reference of the location dates from 1314 and is about the land (not the settlement yet) Kubín. In 1325, the existence of "Superior Kolbyn" (Vyšný Kubín) was recorded what could indicate also the existence of Dolný Kubín, more detailed information about the settlement are from 1380s. The settlement belonged to the Orava Castle and was the center for the neighboring settlements. The citizens lived by animal husbandry and hunting, but also by quarrying. It was granted town privileges (town status, town charter) in 1632, and its importance was further strengthened in 1633 when the town was granted the right to hold markets. In 1683 the town became the seat of the Orava county and in 1776 also the seat of a processus district. In the 19th century Dolný Kubín was a centre of Slovak national life and the poet Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav and other Slovak national revivalists were active in the town.
After World War I, Dolný Kubín remained the seat of the Orava County until 1923, when Orava became a part of Váh County and it became the seat of its district. During World War II, the local garrison actively participated in preparation of Slovak National Uprising. Between December 1944 and January 1945, the town suffered from retaliatory actions and mass arrests. Red Army arrived to the town in the night from 4 to 5 April 1945, warmly welcomed by the local population.
The town experienced major developments mainly after World War II, when electrical works as well as other enterprises were established.
Landmarks and cultureEdit
The Gothic St. Catherine church was built in the 14th century. The Čaplovič Library, containing collection of newspapers, books, maps and other printed works from 15th to the 19th century, along with the P. O. Hviezdoslav Museum, is located in the town. The Orava Gallery focuses on the art works from the 15th century to the 20th century and is seated in the former County House from the 17th century. The premier Slovak competition in poetry and prose recitation, called Hviezdoslavov Kubín (Hviezdoslav's Kubín), has taken place in the town since 1954. Orava Castle is located a few kilometres north-east of the town, in the village of Oravský Podzámok.
According to the 2001 census, the town had 19,948 inhabitants. 97.03% of inhabitants were Slovaks, 1.07% Czechs and 0.28% Roma. The religious make-up was 65.11% Roman Catholics, 16.62% Lutherans and 14.55% people with no religious affiliation.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
- Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (1849–1921), Slovak poet, born in nearby Vyšný Kubín, but lived and died in Dolný Kubín.
- Ladislav Nádaši-Jégé (1866–1940), Slovak author, born, lived and died in Dolný Kubín.
- Janko Matúška (1821–1877), author of Slovakia's national anthem, was born, became clerk of the district court, and died in Dolný Kubín.
- Juraj Laštík (b. 1987), Slovakian ski mountaineer
- Ján Johanides (1934–2008), Slovak writer
- Jaroslav Prílepok, contemporary composer and multi-instrumentalist, born in Dolný Kubín.
- Soňa Stanovská, slalom canoeist, born 27 February 2000 in Dolný Kubín.
- "Počet obyvateľov podľa pohlavia - obce (ročne)". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
- "Hustota obyvateľstva - obce [om7014rr_ukaz: Rozloha (Štvorcový meter)]". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
- "Základná charakteristika". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
- "Hustota obyvateľstva - obce". www.statistics.sk (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
- Krajčovič, Rudolf (2010). "Z lexiky stredovekej slovenčiny s výkladmi názvov obcí a miest (22)". Kultúra slova (in Slovak). Martin: Vydavateľstvo Matice slovenskej (4): 230. ISSN 0023-5202..
- "Municipal Statistics". Statistical Office of the Slovak republic. Archived from the original on 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
- Climate Summary
- Die Poststempel auf der Freimarken-Ausgabe 1867 von Österreich und Ungarn, Edwin Mueller, 1930, type G1.
- Huba, Peter. "História mesta Dolný Kubín" (PDF) (in Slovak). Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- http://www.dolnykubin.sk/sk/navstevnik/o_meste/historia_mesta/ Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine (Slovak)
- "Partnerské mestá" (in Slovak). Dolný Kubín. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bytca, Slovakia"
- Roman Catholic church records (births/marriages/deaths): 1672-1898 (parish A)
- Lutheran church records (births/marriages/deaths): 1787-1897 (parish A)