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Docker is a software technology providing operating-system-level virtualization also known as containers, promoted by the company Docker, Inc.[6] Docker provides an additional layer of abstraction and automation of operating-system-level virtualization on Windows and Linux.[7] Docker uses the resource isolation features of the Linux kernel such as cgroups and kernel namespaces, and a union-capable file system such as OverlayFS and others[8] to allow independent "containers" to run within a single Linux instance, avoiding the overhead of starting and maintaining virtual machines (VMs).[9]

Docker (container engine) logo.svg
Original author(s) Solomon Hykes
Developer(s) Docker, Inc.
Initial release 13 March 2013; 4 years ago (2013-03-13)
Stable release
17.12.0-ce[1] / 26 December 2017; 29 days ago (2017-12-26)
Written in Go[2]
Operating system Linux,[a] Windows
Platform x86-64, ARM (experimental) with modern Linux kernel, or x86-64 Windows with Hyper-V capabilities
Type Operating-system-level virtualization
License Apache License 2.0 / Proprietary[5]

The Linux kernel's support for namespaces mostly[10] isolates an application's view of the operating environment, including process trees, network, user IDs and mounted file systems, while the kernel's cgroups provide resource limiting, including the CPU, memory, block I/O, and network. Since version 0.9, Docker includes the libcontainer library as its own way to directly use virtualization facilities provided by the Linux kernel, in addition to using abstracted virtualization interfaces via libvirt, LXC (Linux Containers) and systemd-nspawn.[11][12][13]



Docker can use different interfaces to access virtualization features of the Linux kernel.[13]

As actions are done to a Docker base image, union file-system layers are created and documented, such that each layer fully describes how to recreate an action. This strategy enables Docker's lightweight images, as only layer updates need to be propagated (compared to full VMs, for example).

According to a article,

Docker is a tool that can package an application and its dependencies in a virtual container that can run on any Linux server. This helps enable flexibility and portability on where the application can run, whether on premises, public cloud, private cloud, bare metal, etc.[14]

Docker implements a high-level API to provide lightweight containers that run processes in isolation.[15]

Building on top of facilities provided by the Linux kernel (primarily cgroups and namespaces), a Docker container, unlike a virtual machine, does not require or include a separate operating system.[14] Instead, it relies on the kernel's functionality and uses resource isolation (CPU, memory, block I/O, network, etc.) and separate namespaces to isolate the application's view of the operating system. Docker accesses the Linux kernel's virtualization features either directly using the libcontainer library, which is available as of Docker 0.9, or indirectly via libvirt, LXC (Linux Containers) or systemd-nspawn.[13][16]

Because Docker containers are so lightweight, a single server or virtual machine can run several containers simultaneously. A 2016 analysis found that a typical Docker use case involves running five containers per host, but that many organizations run 10 or more.[17]

Using Docker to create and manage containers may simplify the creation of highly distributed systems by allowing multiple applications, worker tasks and other processes to run autonomously on a single physical machine or across multiple virtual machines. This allows the deployment of nodes to be performed as the resources become available or when more nodes are needed, allowing a platform as a service (PaaS)-style of deployment and scaling for systems like Apache Cassandra, MongoDB or Riak. Docker also simplifies the creation and operation of task or workload queues and other distributed systems.[18][19]


Docker can be integrated into various infrastructure tools, including Amazon Web Services,[20] Ansible,[21] CFEngine,[22] Chef,[23] Google Cloud Platform,[24] IBM Bluemix,[25] HPE Helion Stackato, Jelastic,[26] Jenkins,[27] Kubernetes,[28] Microsoft Azure,[29] OpenStack Nova,[30] OpenSVC,[31] Oracle Container Cloud Service,[32] Puppet,[33] Salt,[34] Vagrant,[35] and VMware vSphere Integrated Containers.[36][37]

The Cloud Foundry Diego project integrates Docker into the Cloud Foundry PaaS.[38]

Nanobox uses Docker (natively and with VirtualBox) containers as a core part of its software development platform.[39]

Red Hat's OpenShift PaaS integrates Docker and related project (Kubernetes, Geard, Project Atomic and others) since v3 (June 2015).[40]

The Apprenda PaaS integrates Docker containers in version 6.0 of its product.[41]

Jelastic PaaS provides managed multi-tenant Docker containers with full compatibility to the native ecosystem.[42]

The Tsuru PaaS integrates Docker containers in its product in 2013, the first PaaS to use Docker in a production environment.[43]


Solomon Hykes started Docker in France as an internal project within dotCloud, a platform-as-a-service company,[44] with initial contributions by other dotCloud engineers including Andrea Luzzardi and Francois-Xavier Bourlet.[45] Jeff Lindsay also became involved as an independent collaborator.[citation needed] Docker represents an evolution of dotCloud's proprietary technology, which is itself built on earlier open-source projects such as Cloudlets.[clarification needed][citation needed]

The software debuted to the public in Santa Clara at PyCon in 2013.[46]

Docker was released as open source in March 2013.[15] On March 13, 2014, with the release of version 0.9, Docker dropped LXC as the default execution environment and replaced it with its own libcontainer library written in the Go programming language.[11][16]


In November 2014 Docker container services were announced for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).[47]

As of October 24, 2015, the project had over 25,600 GitHub stars (making it the 20th most-starred GitHub project), over 6,800 forks, and nearly 1,100 contributors.[48]

A May 2016 analysis showed the following organizations as main contributors to Docker: The Docker team, Cisco, Google, Huawei, IBM, Microsoft, and Red Hat.[49]

A January 2017 analysis of LinkedIn profile mentions showed Docker presence grew by 160% in 2016.[50] The software has been downloaded more than 13 billion times as of 2017.[46]


In 2015, O'Really published a guide to the software, Using Docker written by Adrian Mouat.[51]


  • On September 19, 2013, Red Hat and Docker announced a collaboration around Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and OpenShift.[52]
  • On October 15, 2014, Microsoft announced integration of the Docker engine into the next (2016) Windows Server release, and native support for the Docker client role in Windows.[53][54]
  • On November 10, 2014, Docker announced a partnership with Stratoscale.[55]
  • On December 4, 2014, IBM announced a strategic partnership with Docker that enables Docker to integrate more closely with the IBM Cloud.[56]
  • On June 22, 2015, Docker and several other companies announced that they are working on a new vendor and operating-system-independent standard for software containers.[57][58]
  • On June 8, 2016, Microsoft announced that Docker now could be used natively on Windows 10 with Hyper-V Containers, to build, ship and run containers utilizing the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 5 Nano Server container OS image.[59]
  • On October 4, 2016, Solomon Hykes announced InfraKit as a new self-healing container infrastructure effort for Docker container environments.[60][61]


Docker ComposeEdit

Docker Compose is a tool for defining and running multi-container Docker applications.[62] It uses YAML files to configure the application's services and performs the creation and start-up process of all the containers with a single command.

Docker SwarmEdit

Docker Swarm provides native clustering functionality for Docker containers, which turns a group of Docker engines into a single, virtual Docker engine.[63]

In Docker 1.12 and higher, Swarm mode is integrated with Docker Engine.[64]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Docker on macOS uses a Linux virtual machine to run the containers. It is also possible to run those on Windows using Hyper-V or docker-machine.[3][4]


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  36. ^ VMware vSphere Integrated Containers (VIC)
  37. ^ Fulton III, Scott M. (2015-09-04). "VMware's Photon Platform and How it Treats Containers". The New Stack. Retrieved 2017-06-08. 
  38. ^ Whelan, Phil (2014-09-03). "Cloud Foundry: Diego Explained By Onsi Fakhouri". ActiveState. Retrieved 2015-04-20. Functionality is being added to enable end-users to push Docker images directly into a Cloud Foundry cluster running Diego. 
  39. ^ Robbins, Richard (2017-06-17). "Docker Containers and the Nanobox Development Platform". Nanobox. Retrieved 2017-06-17. Nanobox uses Docker under the hood for container implementation 
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  41. ^ Verge, Jason (2015-04-28). "PaaS and Docker Containers Work Together in Latest Apprenda Release". Data Center Knowledge. Retrieved 2015-12-06. The 6.0 release integrates Docker’s flexibility and portability with the compliance, governance and security capabilities that enterprises need from PaaS. 
  42. ^ Fydorenchyk, Tetiana (2017-03-28). "Jelastic Fifth Element Released: Support of Native and Managed Docker Containers". PRWeb. Retrieved 2017-03-28. The tight integration with Docker native solutions reduce the deployment barriers for developers and opens up new business opportunities for hosting providers by redefining economic at scale in hybrid and multi-cloud environments 
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External linksEdit