District of Columbia Public Schools

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) is the local, traditional public school system of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. DCPS should not be confused with the independently governed DC Public Charter Schools (DCPCS), which also operates in Washington, D.C.

District of Columbia Public Schools
1200 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002
Mid-Atlantic, Southeast

United States
District information
Established1805 (1805)
ChancellorDr. Lewis Ferebee
Schools111 (2014–2015 academic year)
Students and staff
Student–teacher ratio11.49
Other information
WebsiteGovernment website

Composition and enrollmentEdit

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) consists of 111[1][2] of the 238 public elementary and secondary schools and learning centers located in Washington, D.C. These schools have a grade span of prekindergarten to twelfth grade and, as of 2000, a kindergarten entrance age of 5 years old.[3] School is compulsory for DCPS students between the ages of 5 and 18.[4] DCPS schools typically start the last Monday in August. The school day is generally approximately six hours.[citation needed]

The ethnic breakdown of students enrolled in 2014 was 67% Black, 17% Hispanic (of any race), 12% non-Hispanic White, and 4% of other races. As of 2014, the District itself has a population that is 44% White (includes White Hispanics), 49% Black and 10% Hispanic (of any race).[5] Gentrification and demographic changes in many DC neighborhoods has increased the White and Hispanic populations in the city, while reducing the Black population. In 2008, DCPS was 84.4% Black, 9.4% Hispanic (of any race), 4.6% non-Hispanic White, and 1.6% of other races.[6]

Facilities reform legislation in DC has led to many school openings and closings. The most recent closure announcement is that River Terrace Elementary School and Shaed Education Campus are shutting their doors at the end of the 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 school years, respectively. Students attending River Terrace Elementary School will transition with Emery Education Campus to the Langley Building. In 2019, a proposal was submitted to close Metropolitan High School, an alternative school.[7] In addition, the Montessori program is expanding into the Montessori School (PS-5th grade). A part of this will be the Jefferson 6th Grade Academy, which will only house 6th grade students. As of the 2009–2010 school year, there was a total enrollment of 43,866 students and 4,017 classroom teachers. The current student to teacher ratio is 10.92, an improvement from the 2006–07 ratio of 13.5.[8] However, student enrollment was at a peak of 72,850 students with a much larger staff totaling 12,000. The reason for this sudden enrollment drop in DCPS is that the Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 separated DC Public Charter Schools (DCPCS) from District of Columbia Public Schools.

The District of Columbia passed charter school legislation in 1996, which went into effect in September 1999. The legislation gave the District the power to grant charters for 15 years. Although this is longer than the traditional 3–5 year term observed in 31 other states, a required review takes place every 5 years. 4.4% of public school students enrolled in a charter school for the 1999 academic school year; the 28 schools had a total enrollment of approx. 3,000 students. After legislation was enacted in 2007, chartering authority was placed under the D.C. Public Charter School Board and disaffiliated from DCPS. The governance of DCPS was also restructured, and the district was placed under the control of the Mayor. In 2010 about 38% of Washington, D.C. public school students attended 60 charter schools.[9] There are 52 public charter schools in the District, with 93 campuses and 30,000 students. The total number of public charter schools has been reduced from 60 schools on 96 campuses in 2008–09 to 53 schools on 98 campuses as of the 2011–12 school year. However, the addition of grades to the charter schools are still increasing enrollment and decreasing from DCPS’ numbers.



In 2009, 43% of all DCPS public school students were overweight or obese. This was one of the highest rates in the United States.[10]

Dropout rateEdit

In the graduating class of spring 2008, the average freshman graduation rate for DCPS was 56%‚ compared with a national average of 74.9%. This constituted a large drop from the freshman graduation rate of 68.4% in 2002 and 68.8% as recently as 2005. In just the 2008–09 school year alone, 1,075 black students dropped out of high school. This figure raises concern since there were 1,246 students that dropped out of DCPS schools that year.[11] However, these numbers are not meant to be misleading; the 62.8% freshman graduation rate of black students in 2008 was above the state average.


Within DCPS, schools are classified as either a "neighborhood school" or a "destination school." Neighborhood schools are elementary or secondary schools assigned to students based on his or her address. Destination schools are feeder-schools for elementary or secondary institutions from a school a student is already attending. Since the fall of 2009, students may choose a destination school, regardless of their neighborhood location. Locations of all of the schools and the neighborhood divides can be found on the DCPS website.[12]

For the school year ending in spring 2007, the DCPS was governed by the D.C. Board of Education, with eleven members, including two students who had the right to debate but not to vote. Five members were elected and four were appointed by the Mayor. The Board established DCPS policies and employed a superintendent to serve as chief executive officer of the school district, responsible for day-to-day operations. Four Board members represented specific geographical boundaries and the Board President was elected at large. One condition of the District of Columbia Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 was the creation of DCPS as a separate cabinet-level agency from the D.C. Board of Education. This moved DCPS within the executive branch of the District of Columbia government—specifically, under Mayoral control. Currently, this means that DCPS is subordinate to District of Columbia Mayor Muriel Bowser. D.C. Mayor Adrian Fenty proposed putting the public schools under the direct control of the Mayor's Office upon taking office in January 2007. However, this reform to District of Columbia Public Schools was encouraged by his predecessor and constituents at large. It also placed all of the District of Columbia public charter schools under the care of a new board—District of Columbia Public Charter School Board (PCSB). Although these schools were previously a part of DCPS, they are now considered to be a separate district controlled by the D.C. Public Charter School Board (PCSB).

The D.C. Council passed the Mayor's proposal into law but since the change amended the Home Rule Act, the change needed to gain Federal approval before taking effect. D.C. Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton introduced H.R. 2080, a bill to amend the D.C. Home Rule Charter Act to provide for the Mayor's proposal. H.R. 2080 was passed by the United States House of Representatives under an expedited procedure on May 8, 2007 by a voice vote. After three U.S. Senators (Ben Cardin of Maryland, Mary Landrieu of Louisiana, and Carl Levin of Michigan) initially placed "holds" on the bill to prevent its consideration in the United States Senate, the Senate agreed to pass H.R. 2080 without amendment on May 22, 2007 by unanimous consent. On May 31, 2007, the bill was presented to the President and President Bush signed H.R. 2080 into law on June 1, 2007. After the standard Congressional review period expired on June 12, 2007, the Mayor's office had direct control of the Superintendent and the school budget. On June 12, Mayor Fenty appointed Michelle Rhee the new Chancellor, replacing Superintendent Clifford B. Janey.

D.C. School Choice Incentive Act of 2003Edit

In January 2004, Congress passed the D.C. School Choice Incentive Act of 2003. The law established a federally-funded private school voucher program known as the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). The OSP distributes vouchers to low-income families to cover private school tuition. Because there are more eligible applicants than available vouchers, they are distributed by lottery. In 2010, a randomized controlled trial conducted under the auspices of the Department of Education examined the impacts of the OSP students, finding that it raised graduation rates.[13] Students who were offered vouchers had a graduation rate of 82%, while those who actually used their vouchers had a graduation rate of 91%. By comparison, the rate for students who did not receive vouchers was only 70%. The study received the Department of Education's highest rating for scientific rigor.[14] Over 90% of the study's participants were African American, and most of the remainder were Latino American. Further research found that students who received vouchers were 25% more likely to enroll in college than students with similar demographic characteristics who did not receive vouchers.[15]

D.C. Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007Edit

The Council of the District of Columbia enacted the DC Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007. This act established a DC public school agency based on authority given to the council in the District of Columbia Home Rule Act of 1973. The Department of Education that was established under the Mayor triggered several changes. The largest was already discussed—DCPCS gained sole authority over chartering and charted schools, DCPS became subordinate to the Mayor's office. Secondly, many smaller authoritative changes took place. The first is that the State Education Office (SEO) became the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE). The four subsections of the District were reaffirmed through location-based State Board of Education selectees. In addition, the smaller eight school election wards were reaffirmed. Finally, the commission was established through this legislature. The "Commission" is the Interagency Collaboration and Services Integration Commission, which includes the Mayor, Chairman of the Council of the District of Columbia, Chief Judge of the DC Superior Family Court, Superintendent of Education, Chancellor of DCPS, Chair of DCPCSB and fourteen others. After the 2007–2008 school year, about one-fifth of the teachers and one-third of the principals resigned, retired, or were terminated from DCPS. A very strong negative impact was initially experienced by DCPS due to the loss. A GAO-conducted study[16] recommended that the Mayor direct DCPS to establish planning processes for strikes and look to performance reviews from central offices to strengthen accountability. These recommendations were followed and accountability has increased through academic and financial report generation. Increased accountability made way for other small reforms. One example is the implementation of a requirement that students entering 9th grade are now required to sit down with a school counselor and construct a course-plan to reach graduation.

No Child Left Behind complianceEdit

In accordance with Section 1116, a provision of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), entitled "Academic Assessment and Local Education Agency and School Improvement", the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) of the District of Columbia oversees compliance with Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). A large portion of meeting AYP is based on standardized-tests performance; the District used the summative assessment called the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System ("DC CAS") through the 2013–2014 school year, after which it switched to tools from the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) and the National Center and State Collaborative (NCSC).[17][18][19]

Many schools are failing to meet AYP, even though DCPS educators offer support and tools to students to be academically successful.[citation needed] DCPS has created an evaluation tool to assess schools by more than their standardized test scores. They call this a Quality School Review, which uses the Effective Schools Framework[20] to assess schools through rubrics on topics such as classroom observations, interviews with parents, students, teachers, and school leadership, staff surveys and reviewing artifacts (i.e. handbooks, student work).[21] In 2007, Karin Hess of the National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment conducted an analysis that has also gone into the alignment of DCPS standards and the "DC CAS Alt", the assessment for students with cognitive disabilities.[citation needed]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, DCPS had a budget of $1.2 billion and spent $29,409 per pupil in FY 2009–10.[22]

In 1989–90, DCPS reported that it had spent $10,200 (1999 adj. dollars) per pupil and a decade later, in 1999–2000, its reported per pupil expenditures had increased to $11,500. However, those figures likely underreport DCPS's actual total per pupil expenditures. In 2012, the Cato Institute's Andrew J. Coulson showed that DCPS's reported per pupil expenditures figures were based on incomplete data.[23] That year, the U.S. Census Bureau had reported that DCPS's 2008–09 per pupil expenditures were $18,181, but DCPS officials had neglected to include about $400 million in spending. Informed by Coulson's observations, the U.S. Census Bureau revised its data collection methods and reported that per pupil expenditures were $28,170.[24] Those revisions are reflected in the Bureau's 2009–10 reports.[citation needed]

In FY 2009–2010, the District received 6.7% of its total revenues for elementary and secondary education from federal sources.[22]


In 2008, in terms of testing 36% of students demonstrated proficiency in mathematics and 39% demonstrated proficiency in reading.[25]

The average educator was paid $67,000 in 2010. A contract signed in 2010 was expected to raise that figure to $81,000 in 2012.[26]

Schools and locationsEdit

All DCPS schools are located in Washington, D.C..

Many of the District's public schools are undergoing evolving relationships with the central office as they seek to compete for students leaving the system for charter schools. According to school choice researcher Erin Dillon, "In its winning application for federal Race to the Top funds, DCPS, for example, touted its three models for autonomous schools: The aptly named 'Autonomous Schools,' which are granted autonomy as a reward for high performance; 'Partnership Schools,' which are run by outside organizations that are granted autonomy in the hope of dramatically improving performance; and the 'D.C. Collaborative for Change,' or DC3, a joint effort of some of the District’s highest- and lowest-performing schools that have been granted autonomy as a tool for innovating with curriculum and professional development. (Meanwhile, highly autonomous charter schools, a growing presence in the District of Columbia, educate almost 40 percent of the city’s public school students.)"[27]

High schoolsEdit

Traditional high schoolsEdit

Eastern High School, Kingman Park
School name Students* Low grade High grade
Anacostia High School 449 9th 12th
Ballou High School 930 9th 12th
Calvin Coolidge High School 346 9th 12th
Dunbar High School 584 9th 12th
Eastern High School 818 9th 12th
H.D. Woodson Senior High School 634 9th 12th
Theodore Roosevelt Senior High School 668 9th 12th
Woodrow Wilson High School 1,750 9th 12th

Selective high schoolsEdit

School name Students* Low grade High grade
Benjamin Banneker Academic High School 482 9th 12th
Bell Multicultural High School (CHEC) 288 9th 12th
Duke Ellington School of the Arts 537 9th 12th
McKinley Technology High School 619 9th 12th
Phelps Architecture, Construction, and Engineering High School 328 9th 12th
School Without Walls High School 585 9th 12th

Middle schoolsEdit

School name Students* Low grade High grade
Alice Deal Middle School 1477 6th 8th
Brookland Middle School 254 6th 8th
Eliot-Hine Middle School 200 6th 8th
Hardy Middle School 374 6th 8th
Hart Middle School 349 6th 8th
Jefferson Middle School Academy 305 6th 8th
John Hayden Johnson Middle School 252 6th 8th
Kelly Miller Middle School 449 6th 8th
Kramer Middle School 193 6th 8th
MacFarland Middle School 72 6th 7th
McKinley Middle School 213 6th 8th
Sousa Middle School 255 6th 8th
Stuart-Hobson Middle School 441 6th 8th
Ida B. Wells Middle School 255 6th [a]
  1. ^ Ida B. Wells Middle School opened in August 2019 with a sixth-grade class. It will add one grade each school year until it has sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students.[28]

Elementary schoolsEdit

School name Students* Low grade High grade
Aiton Elementary School 244 Prekindergarten (3) 5th
Amidon-Bowen Elementary School 339 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Bancroft Elementary School 567 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Barnard Elementary School 620 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Beers Elementary School 489 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Brent Elementary School 432 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Bruce-Monroe Elementary School 451 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Bunker Hill Elementary School 221 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Burroughs Elementary School 273 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Burrville Elementary School 295 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Cleveland Elementary School 304 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
C.W. Harris Elementary School 232 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Dorothy L. Height Elementary School 480 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Drew Elementary School 236 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
John Eaton Elementary School 474 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Garfield Elementary School 291 Prekindergarten (3) 5th<[29]
Garrison Elementary School 277 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
H.D. Cooke Elementary School 387 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Hearst Elementary School 331 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Hendley Elementary School 366 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Houston Elementary School 277 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Hyde-Addison Elementary School 352 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Janney Elementary School 739 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
J.O. Wilson Elementary School 477 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Ketcham Elementary School 300 Prekindergarten (3) 6th[29]
Key Elementary School 399 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Kimball Elementary School 343 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
King Elementary School 295 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Lafayette Elementary School 887 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Langdon Elementary School 353 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Langley Elementary School 290 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Lawrence E. Boone Elementary School 430 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Ludlow-Taylor Elementary 439 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Malcolm X Elementary School 242 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Mann Elementary School 397 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Marie Reed Elementary School 437 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Maury Elementary School 407 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Miner Elementary School 361 Prekindergarten (3) 6th[29]
Moten Elementary School 323 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Murch Elementary School 601 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Nalle Elementary School 370 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Noyes Elementary School 224 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Oyster Adams Bilingual School 706 Prekindergarten (4) 8th<[29]
Patterson Elementary School 386 Prekindergarten (3) 5th<[29]
Payne Elementary School 346 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Peabody Elementary School 226 Prekindergarten (3) Kindergarten[29]
Plummer Elementary School 331 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Powell Elementary School 535 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Randle Highlands Elementary 329 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Ross Elementary School 190 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Savoy Elementary School 271 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Seaton Elementary School 390 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Shepherd Elementary School 379 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Simon Elementary School 241 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Smothers Elementary School 249 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Stanton Elementary School 473 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Stoddert Elementary School 463 Prekindergarten (4) 5th[29]
Thomas Elementary School 355 Prekindergarten (3) 5th<[29]
Thomson Elementary School 331 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Tubman Elementary School 548 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Turner Elementary School 497 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Tyler Elementary School 512 Prekindergarten (3) 5th[29]
Van Ness Elementary School 270 Prekindergarten (3) 4th[29]
Watkins Elementary School 444 1st 5th[29]

Education campusesEdit

School name Students* Low grade High grade
Brightwood Education Campus 755 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Browne Education Campus 309 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Cardozo Education Campus 797 6th 12th
Columbia Heights Education Campus (CHEC) 1,336 6th 12th
LaSalle-Backus Education Campus 369 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Leckie Education Campus 553 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
McKinley Education Campus 1154 Prekindergarten (3) 12th
Raymond Education Campus 613 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
School Without Walls at Francis-Stevens 471 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Takoma Education Campus 468 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Truesdell Education Campus 679 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Walker-Jones Education Campus 451 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
West Education Campus 315 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Wheatley Education Campus 321 Prekindergarten (3) 8th
Whittier Education Campus 341 Prekindergarten (3) 8th

Alternative and citywide schoolsEdit

School name Students Low grade High grade Type
Ballou STAY 538 Adult Adult Alternative
Capitol Hill Montessori School 361 Prekindergarten (3) 8th Citywide
CHOICE Academy 5 6th 12th Long-term suspended or expelled students
Dorothy I. Height Elementary School 518 Prekindergarten (3) 5th Citywide
Inspiring Youth Program 48 9th 12th Incarcerated students
Luke C. Moore High School 266 9th 12th Students who have dropped out of school
River Terrace Education Campus 131 3rd Adult Special Education
Ron Brown College Preparatory High School 105 9th 10th Citywide
Roosevelt STAY 268 Adult Adult Alternative
School-Within-School 307 Prekindergarten (3) 5th Citywide
Washington Metropolitan High School 125 8th 12th Alternative
Youth Services Center 88 7th 12th Students charged with crimes


Below is a partial list of superintendents and chancellors of the D.C. Public School system. The head of the school system was known as "Superintendent" until 2007. After June 2007, it was known as "Chancellor".

Leader In office Unconfirmed status Sources
Hugh J. Scott September 1, 1970 – June 29, 1973 [30]
Floretta D. McKenzie June 29, 1973 – August 7, 1973 (acting) [31][32]
Barbara A. Sizemore August 8, 1973 – October 9, 1975 [32][33]
Vincent E. Reed March 18, 1976 – December 31, 1980 October 9, 1975 – March 17, 1976 (acting) [34]
James Guinness January 3, 1981 – June 17, 1981 (acting) [35]
Floretta D. McKenzie July 1, 1981 – February 8, 1988 [36][37]
Andrew E. Jenkins May 25, 1988 – May 15, 1991 February 9, 1988 – May 24, 1988 (acting) [37][38][39]
Franklin L. Smith May 15, 1991 – November 4, 1996 [39][40]
Julius W. Becton, Jr. November 5, 1996 – March 26, 1998 [40][41]
Arlene Ackerman March 27, 1998 – July 17, 2000 [42]
Paul L. Vance July 18, 2000 – November 14, 2003 [43][44]
Elfreda W. Massie November 19, 2003 – April 21, 2004 (acting) [45][46]
Robert C. Rice April 22, 2004 – September 14, 2004 (acting) [46][47]
Clifford P. Janey September 15, 2004 – June 12, 2007 [48][49]
Michelle Rhee July 10, 2007 – October 30, 2010 June 12, 2007 – July 9, 2007 (acting) [49][50][51]
Kaya Henderson June 22, 2011 – September 30, 2016 November 1, 2010 – June 21, 2011 (interim) [51][52][53]
John Davis October 1, 2016 to February 1, 2017 (interim) [53]
Antwan Wilson February 1, 2017 – February 20, 2018 [54][55]
Amanda Alexander  February 20, 2018 – December 3, 2018 (interim) [55]
Lewis Ferebee March 5, 2019 – present December 3, 2018 – March 4, 2019 (acting) [56][57]

Graduation scandalEdit

In 2018, it was revealed by WAMU and NPR that progress achieved by the school district in relation to graduation rates the year prior had been inflated by high schools who granted diplomas to students who should have failed according to city law.[58] According to The Washington Post, only 46 percent of the school district's public school students were on track to graduate in 2018 after the school system began to adhere to stricter attendance policies.[59]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "DCPS Opens With Students Ready to Learn and Build on Previous Year Success" (Press release). DCPS. August 26, 2013. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2013. Today, 111 District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) opened...
  2. ^ "State Education Data Profiles". National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education. 2009–2010.
  3. ^ Paige, Rod (July 2003). "District of Columbia Public Schools--School Locator" (PDF). Overview and Inventory of State Education Reforms: 1990–2000. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Education. p. 137.
  4. ^ "Education Commission of the States: 2010 Collection" (PDF). 2010 Collection of Education Commission of the State Notes and Policy Briefs. Washington, DC: ECS Publications. 2010. p. 382. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2011.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 6, 2011. Retrieved February 1, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Key State Education Policies on PK–12 Education: 2008". Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. 2009. p. 38.
  7. ^ "DC Proposes Closing Metropolitan High School". The Washington Post. November 27, 2019.
  8. ^ "2010–2011 Public School District Directory Information". National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education. 2010–2011.
  9. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (April 29, 2010). "Taking baby steps towards charter schools". Washington, DC: Washington Pose. pp. 18 in Casual Living.
  10. ^ Craig, Tim (May 2, 2010). "D.C. Council targets childhood obesity". Washington Post. Washington, DC. pp. A8.
  11. ^ "Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008–09" (PDF). National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education. 2008–2009.
  12. ^ "District of Columbia Public Schools--School Locator". Washington, DC: The Government of the District of Columbia.
  13. ^ Wolf, Patrick. "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education -- Institute of Education Sciences.
  14. ^ "WWC Quick Review of the Report "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report"" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education -- Institute of Education Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2013.
  15. ^ "Funding Cuts for Programs That Send More Kids to Graduation AND College?". Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014.
  16. ^ "District of Columbia Public Schools: Important Steps Taken to Continue Reform Efforts, But Enhanced Planning Could Improve Implementation and Sustainability" (PDF). Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). June 2009.
  17. ^ "DC CAS". Office of the State Superintendent of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  18. ^ "How Students Are Assessed". District of Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  19. ^ "Assessment Glossary". District of Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  20. ^ "DCPS Effective Schools Framework". District of Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 23, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  21. ^ "Race to the Top: District of Columbia Report Year 1: School Year 2010 –2011" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. January 10, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Public Education Finances: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
  23. ^ Coulson, Andrew. "Census Bureau Confirms: DC Spends $29,409 / pupil". Cato.org.
  24. ^ Coulson, Andrew. "DC Vouchers Solved? Generous Severance for Displaced Workers". Cato.org.
  25. ^ Ripley, Amanda (December 8, 2008). Can She Save Our Schools. Time Magazine.
  26. ^ Turque, Bill (April 8, 2010). "Fenty, teachers union promote deal". Washington Post. Washington, DC. pp. B2.
  27. ^ Dillon, Erin. "The Road to Autonomy: Can Schools, Districts, and Central Offices Find Their Way?". Education Sector. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
  28. ^ "FAQs". Ida B. Wells Middle School. District of Columbia Public Schools. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk DCPS School Profiles, DCPS, 4/15/2020
  30. ^ Feinberg, Lawrence (September 1, 1970). "Detroit Administrator Hugh J. Scott Named D.C. School Superintendent". The Washington Post. p. A1; Prince, Richard E. (January 10, 1973). "Scott to Quit D.C. Schools In October". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  31. ^ "D.C. Names Woman, 38, Acting Superintendent". The Washington Post. June 5, 1973. p. C5.
  32. ^ a b Prince, Richard E. (August 8, 1973). "D.C. School Board Names Mrs. Sizemore by 7-3 Vote". The Washington Post. p. C1.
  33. ^ Hamilton, Martha M. (October 10, 1975). "City School Board Fires Sizemore, 7 to 4". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  34. ^ Hamilton, Martha M. (October 12, 1975). "Supt. Reed Seen as a Strong Leader". The Washington Post. p. A15; Daniels, Lee (March 18, 1976). "Diggs Fails To Halt Reed Appointment". The Washington Post. p. A1; Valente, Judith (January 9, 1981). "School Chief Is Sought From Area". The Washington Post. p. B1.
  35. ^ Feinberg, Lawrence (January 4, 1981). "Acting Head of City's Schools Is a Man of Verse in Adversity". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  36. ^ Valente, Judith (June 18, 1981). "McKenzie Named D.C. School Chief". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  37. ^ a b "Acting D.C. School Chief Named". The Washington Post. January 29, 1988. p. C4.
  38. ^ Sanchez, Rene; Pink, Daniel H. (May 25, 1988). "Insider Jenkins to Head D.C. Schools". The Washington Post. p. A1; Sanchez, Rene; Pink, Daniel H. (July 13, 1990). "Jenkins to Stay On for Final Year". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  39. ^ a b Richardson, Lynda (May 16, 1991). "D.C. Schools Chief to Make $131,000". The Washington Post. p. C3.
  40. ^ a b Vise, David (November 6, 1996). "D.C. Control Board to Oust Superintendent, Sources Say". The Washington Post. p. D1.
  41. ^ Wilgoren, Debbi; Loeb, Vernon (March 27, 1998). "D.C. Schools Chief Resigns". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  42. ^ Williams, Vanessa (March 28, 1998). "Ladner Optimistic On School Shake-Up". The Washington Post. p. B10; Blum, Justin; Strauss, Valerie (May 18, 2000). "Ackerman Quits As D.C. School Superintendent". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  43. ^ "Control Board Signs Contract With Vance". The Washington Post. July 19, 2000. p. B3.
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