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Dirk Uipko Stikker (5 February 1897 – 23 December 1979) was a Dutch politician and diplomat of the defunct Liberal State Party (LSP) and co-founder of the defunct Freedom Party (PvdV) and of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and businessman. He served as the Secretary General of NATO from 21 April 1961 until 1 August 1964.[1]

Dirk Stikker
Secretaris-generaal van de NATO, mr. D.U. Stikker, tijdens een persconferentie …, Bestanddeelnr 093-0129.jpg
Dirk Stikker in 1964
3rd Secretary General of NATO
In office
21 April 1961 – 1 August 1964
Preceded byPaul-Henri Spaak
Succeeded byManlio Brosio
Permanent Representative of the
Netherlands to NATO and the OECD
In office
15 June 1958 – 21 April 1961
Preceded byEelco van Kleffens
Succeeded byHugo Scheltema
Ambassador of the Netherlands
to the United Kingdom
In office
10 September 1952 – 15 June 1958
Preceded byEdgar Michiels
van Verduynen
Succeeded byHerman van Roijen
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
7 August 1948 – 2 September 1952
Prime MinisterWillem Drees
Preceded byPim van Boetzelaer
van Oosterhout
Succeeded byJohan Beyen
Chairman of the People's Party
for Freedom and Democracy
In office
28 January 1948 – 7 August 1948
LeaderPieter Oud
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byPieter Oud
Leader of the Freedom Party
In office
23 March 1946 – 28 January 1948
LeaderHimself
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOffice discontinued
Chairman of the Freedom Party
In office
23 March 1946 – 28 January 1948
LeaderHimself
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOffice discontinued
Member of the Senate
In office
20 November 1945 – 7 August 1948
Parliamentary groupPeople's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(1948)
Freedom Party
(1946–1948)
Liberal State Party
(1945–1946)
Personal details
Born
Dirk Uipko Stikker

(1897-02-05)5 February 1897
Winschoten, Netherlands
Died23 December 1979(1979-12-23) (aged 82)
Wassenaar, Netherlands
NationalityDutch
Political partyPeople's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(from 1948)
Other political
affiliations
Freedom Party
(1946–1948)
Liberal State Party
(1945–1946)
Spouse(s)
Catharine van der Scheer
(m. 1922; his death 1979)
ChildrenUipko Dirk Stikker (born 1924)
Allerd Stikker (born 1928)
Alma materUniversity of Groningen
(Bachelor of Laws, Master of Laws)
OccupationPolitician · Diplomat · Civil servant · Businessman · Banker · Corporate director · Nonprofit director · Trade association executive

Stikker worked as an accountant for the Twentsche Bank from 1922 until 1926 and as a Director of a branch of the bank from 1926 until 1928 when he worked as a regional manager for the Twentsche Bank from 1928 until 1935. Stikker worked as chief financial officer for Heineken N.V. from 1 July 1935 until 1 August 1948. Following the end of World War II Queen Wilhelmina ordered a Recall of Parliament and Stikker became a Member of the Senate taking the place of the deceased Samuel van den Bergh, taking office on 20 November 1945. On 23 March 1946 the Liberal State Party was renamed as the Freedom Party. Stikker was one of the co-founders and became the Leader of the Freedom Party and Chairman. On 24 January 1948 the Freedom Party (PvdV) and the Committee-Oud and the choose to merge to form the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). Stikker was one of the co-founders and became the first Chairman of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.

After election of 1948 the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Parliamentary leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy in the House of Representatives Pieter Oud opted to remain in the House of Representatives instead of accepting a ministerial post in the new Cabinet Drees–Van Schaik and endorsed Stikker who had been serving as the Deputy Leader as Minister of Foreign Affairs, taking office on 7 August 1948. The Cabinet Drees–Van Schaik fell on 24 January 1951 and was replaced by the Cabinet Drees I with Stikker continuing as Minister of Foreign Affairs, taking office on 15 March 1951. In February 1952 Stikker announced that he would not stand for the election of 1952. The Cabinet Drees I was succeeded by the Cabinet Drees II on 2 September 1952. Stikker remained in active politics, he was appointed as the Ambassador of the Netherlands to the United Kingdom, serving from 10 September 1952 until 15 June 1958 when he was appointed as the Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to NATO and the OECD. In April 1961 Stikker was nominated as the next Secretary General of NATO. He resigned as Permanent Representative on 21 April 1961 the day he was installed as Secretary General, serving from 21 April 1961 until 1 August 1964.

After his retirement, Stikker occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director for supervisory boards in the business and industry world and for supervisory boards for several international non-governmental organizations and research institutes (Unilever, Van Lanschot, Netherlands Atlantic Association, Carnegie Foundation, Trilateral Commission and the DSM Company) and as an advocate and lobbyist for European integration and serving on several commissions for the European Economic Community and state commissions on behalf of the Dutch government.

Stikker was known for his abilities as a manager and negotiator. Stikker continued to comment on political affairs as a statesman until his death. He holds the distinction as the first Secretary General of NATO from the Netherlands.

Contents

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Born in Winschoten, he studied law at the University of Groningen. After his studies he began a career in the banking sector. In 1935, he became director of Heineken International, the famous beer company. He held this post until 1948. In 1945, he was among the organizers of the Stichting van de Arbeid (Dutch Labour Foundation), thus helping to lay the foundation of post-war collective bargaining in the Netherlands.

PoliticsEdit

 
Vice President and Prime Minister of Indonesia Mohammad Hatta and Minister of Foreign Affairs Dirk Stikker during a meeting in The Hague on 25 August 1949.

Stikker entered politics in 1945, when he was elected to the Senate of the States General. On 23 March 1946, he co-founded the Partij van de Vrijheid (PvdV, Freedom Party), together with some former members of the pre-war Liberale Staatspartij (LSP, Liberal State Party). On 24 January 1948, the PvdV was absorbed by the Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD, Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy), which is as of 2004 the country's most important Liberal party. Stikker was the VVD's first chairman.

Minister of Foreign AffairsEdit

In 1948, Stikker became minister of foreign affairs in the first government led by Willem Drees, holding that position until 1951. After his party adopted a no-confidence motion over the government's colonial policy in New Guinea, Stikker resigned on 23 January 1951, prompting the cabinet's fall. He returned to that position less than two months later. The Netherlands played an important role in the creation of NATO and the European Coal and Steel Community during Stikker's time in office as minister of foreign affairs.

AmbassadorEdit

After his ministerial office, Stikker was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1952–1958) and head of the Dutch Permanent Representation to the North Atlantic Council and to the Organization for European Economic Co-operation, the predecessor of the OECD (1958–1961).

Secretary General of NATOEdit

On 21 April 1961 he succeeded Paul-Henri Spaak to become the third Secretary General of NATO. He resigned due to poor health on 1 August 1964.

PersonalEdit

In 1964, Stikker was awarded an honorary doctorate by Brown University. He died in Wassenaar in 1979, aged 82.

Further readingEdit

  • Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp. 427–32.

DecorationsEdit

Honours
Ribbon bar Honour Country Date Comment
  Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Luxembourg 29 April 1949
  Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Belgium 15 September 1950
  Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire United Kingdom 30 May 1951
  Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order United Kingdom 24 December 1958
  Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Italy 9 September 1961
  Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour France 1 June 1962
  Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix Greece 18 November 1962
  Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit Germany 23 May 1963
  Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau Netherlands 30 April 1965 Elevated from Commander (30 September 1952)
  Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands 19 February 1972 Elevated from Knight (31 August 1946)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Stikker, Dirk Uipko (1897-1979)" (in Dutch). Huygens ING. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2019.

External linksEdit

Official
Party political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Leader of the Freedom Party
1946–1948
Succeeded by
Office discontinued
Chairman of the Freedom Party
1946–1948
Preceded by
Office established
Chairman of the People's Party
for Freedom and Democracy

1948
Succeeded by
Pieter Oud
Deputy Leader of the People's Party
for Freedom and Democracy

1948–1952
Succeeded by
Henk Korthals
Succeeded by
Roelof Zegering Hadders
Political offices
Preceded by
Pim van Boetzelaer
van Oosterhout
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1948–1952
Succeeded by
Johan Beyen
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Edgar Michiels
van Verduynen
Ambassador of the Netherlands
to the United Kingdom

1952–1958
Succeeded by
Herman van Roijen
Preceded by
Eelco van Kleffens
Permanent Representative
of the Netherlands to NATO

1958–1961
Succeeded by
Hugo Scheltema
Preceded by
Paul-Henri Spaak
Secretary General of NATO
1961–1964
Succeeded by
Manlio Brosio
Business positions
Preceded by
Unknown
CFO of Heineken N.V.
1935–1948
Succeeded by
Unknown
Preceded by
Office established
Chairman of the
Employers association

1945–1948
Succeeded by
Hans de Koster