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Dirk Schulze-Makuch (born 1964) is a professor at the Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Technical University Berlin, Germany. He is best known for his publications on extraterrestrial life, being coauthor of five books on the topic: The Cosmic Zoo: Complex Life on Many Worlds (2017), A One Way Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet (2011), We Are Not Alone: Why We Have Already Found Extraterrestrial Life (2010), Cosmic Biology: How Life could Evolve on Other Worlds (2010), and Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (2004, 2008, 2018). In 2012 he published with David Darling Megacatastrophes! Nine Strange Ways the World Could End. In 2013 he published the second edition of his science fiction novel Alien Encounter. Together with Paul Davies he proposed in 2010 exploration of Mars by a one-way trip to the planet.[1]

Dirk Schulze-Makuch
Schulze-Makuch Dec2010.JPG
Dirk Schulze-Makuch in December 2010
Born (1964-01-29) 29 January 1964 (age 55)
Alma materUniversity of Giessen
Known for(with L.N. Irwin) Life in the Universe (book)
AwardsFriedrich-Wilhelm Bessel Award (2010)
Scientific career
InstitutionsTechnical University, Berlin
German Aerospace Centre, Berlin
Washington State University
University of Texas at El Paso
University of Wisconsin
University of Giessen

Education and careerEdit

His upbringing was in Giessen, Germany, where he received his Diplom-Degree (M.S.) in Geology from Justus Liebig University in 1991. In 1996 he obtained his Ph.D. in Geosciences from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. After having worked as Senior Project Hydrogeologist at Envirogen, a Princeton-based research and consulting firm, for which he investigated subsurface hydrocarbon spills, he became in 1997 Adjunct Professor at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. In 1998 he joined the University of Texas at El Paso as assistant professor, investigating microbe and chemical transport in groundwater, and microbial interaction in a planetary environment. From there he joined Washington State University in 2004: first as Associate Professor, since 2010 as Professor at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, with focus on astrobiology and planetary habitability. Since 2013 he is also a Professor at the Technical University Berlin (Germany) leading as Principal Investigator for a European Union – funded project on the “Habitability of Martian Environments”.

Scientific researchEdit

Schulze-Makuch's research interests and publications range from astrobiology,[2][3][4] hydrobiology,[5][6] archeology,[7][8] to cancer.[9] To the viewer he may be best known for his work in astrobiology,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] in particular the possible existence of life on Venus,[18][19] Mars,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]Titan,[31][32][33][34]Europa,[35][36][37] and Io.[38] His book Life in the Universe (with L. N. Irwin) considers alternative physiologies for extraterrestrial life.


Removal of Biological Pathogens Using Surfactant Modified Zeolite. Patent No. US 7,311,839 B2. Date of patent: dec. 25, 2007.[39]


Friedrich-Wilhelm Bessel Award (2010) by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Media activityEdit

The work of Schulze-Makuch has received much attention. It has been the subject of TV programs on the BBC, the National Geographic and the Discovery Channel, and of numerous articles in magazines such as New Scientist, The Guardian and Der Spiegel.

Blog: Air&Space Magazine on [40]


Academic booksEdit

  • Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (with L.N. Irwin) (3rd ed.) (2018) ISBN 978-3-319976570
  • Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (with L.N. Irwin) (2nd ed.) (2008) ISBN 978-3-540-76816-6
  • Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (with L.N. Irwin) (2004) ISBN 978-3-540-76816-6

Popular science booksEdit

  • The Cosmic Zoo (2017) ISBN 3-319-62044-4 ISBN 978-3-319-62044-2
  • The Extraterrestrial Encyclopedia (2nd edition, 2016) (with D. Darling)
  • How To Develop The Solar System and Beyond: A Roadmap to Interstellar Space (with A. Sinclair and six more authors) (2012) ASIN B009KWNO02
  • Megacatastrophes! Nine Strange Ways the World Could End (with D. Darling) (2012) ISBN 978-1-85168-905-7
  • A One Way Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet (with P. Davies and ten more authors; J.S. Levine, editor) (2011) ISBN 978-0-9829552-4-6
  • We Are Not Alone: Why We Have Already Found Extraterrestrial Life (with D. Darling) (2010) ISBN 978-1-85168-719-0
  • Cosmic Biology: How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds (with L.N. Irwin) (2010) ISBN 978-1-4419-1646-4

Science fiction novelEdit


  1. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davies, P. (2010). "To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars". Journal of Cosmology. 12: 3619–3626.
  2. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L.N. & Fairen, A.G. (2013). "Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere". Icarus. 225 (1): 775. Bibcode:2013Icar..225..775S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.001.
  3. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davila, A.F. (2010). "Searching for Life Beyond our Planet: Are We There Yet?". Eos. 91 (32): 280. Bibcode:2010EOSTr..91..280S. doi:10.1029/2010EO320004.
  4. ^ McKay, C.P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Boston, P.J.; ten Kate, I.L.; Davila, A.F. & Shocks, E. (2011). "The next phase in our search for life — An expert discussion". Astrobiology. 11 (1): 2. Bibcode:2011AsBio..11....2M. doi:10.1089/ast.2010.1122.
  5. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Cherkauer, D.S. (1998). "Variations in hydraulic conductivity with scale of measurement during aquifer tests in heterogeneous, porous carbonate rocks". Hydrogeology Journal. 6 (2): 204–215. Bibcode:1998HydJ....6..204S. doi:10.1007/s100400050145.
  6. ^ Abdel-Fattah, A.; Langford, R. & Schulze-Makuch, D. (2007). "Applications of particle-tracking techniques to bank infiltration: a case study from El Paso, Texas, USA". Environmental Geology. 11 (3): 505. Bibcode:2008EnGeo..55..505A. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0996-z.
  7. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (1992). "Rammner's Current Line Perturbation Method as used to prospect in an early Roman Marching-Camp". Journal of Applied Geosciences. 11: 75–86.
  8. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (1996). "Survey of the outline of an early Roman Marching Camp in Germany by Rammner's Current Line Perturbation Method". Journal of Archaeological Science. 23 (6): 883–887. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0083.
  9. ^ António, M.R.S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "The immune system as key to cancer treatment: triggering its activity with microbial agents". Bioscience Hypotheses. 2 (6): 388–392. doi:10.1016/j.bihy.2009.08.003.
  10. ^ Irwin, L.N.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2001). "Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds". Astrobiology. 1 (2): 143–160. Bibcode:2001AsBio...1..143I. doi:10.1089/153110701753198918. PMID 12467118.
  11. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L.N. (2006). "The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds". Naturwissenschaften. 93 (4): 155–172. Bibcode:2006NW.....93..155S. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0078-6. PMID 16525788.
  12. ^ Shapiro, R.S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "The search for alien life in our solar system: strategies and priorities". Astrobiology. 9 (4): 335–343. Bibcode:2009AsBio...9..335S. doi:10.1089/ast.2008.0281. PMID 19355818.
  13. ^ Brooks, H.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "The Solar Wind Power Satellite as an alternative to a traditional Dyson Sphere and its implications for remote detection". International Journal of Astrobiology. 9 (2): 89–99. Bibcode:2010IJAsB...9...89H. doi:10.1017/S1473550410000066.
  14. ^ António, M.R.S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "The power of social structure: how we became an intelligent lineage". International Journal of Astrobiology. 10 (1): 15–23. Bibcode:2011IJAsB..10...15D. doi:10.1017/s1473550410000169.
  15. ^ Irwin, L.N.; Mendez, A.; Fairen, A.G.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2014). "Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy". Challenges. 5 (1): 159–174. Bibcode:2014Chall...5..159I. doi:10.3390/challe5010159.
  16. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schulze-Makuch, A.; Houtkooper, J. (2015). "The physical, chemical, and physiological limits of life". Life. 5 (3): 1472–1486. doi:10.3390/life5031472. PMC 4598648. PMID 26193325.
  17. ^ Bains, W.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2016). "The cosmic zoo: the (near) inevitability for the evolution of complex, macroscopic life". Life. 6 (3): 25. doi:10.3390/life6030025. PMC 5041001. PMID 27376334.
  18. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L.N. (2002). "Reassessing the possibility of life on Venus: Proposal for an Astrobiology Mission". Astrobiology. 2 (2): 197–202. Bibcode:2002AsBio...2..197S. doi:10.1089/15311070260192264. PMID 12469368.
  19. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Grinspoon, D.H.; Abbas, O.; Irwin, L.N. & Bullock, M. (2004). "A sulfur-based UV adaptation strategy for putative phototrophic life in the Venusian atmosphere". Astrobiology. 4 (1): 11–18. Bibcode:2004AsBio...4...11S. doi:10.1089/153110704773600203. PMID 15104900.
  20. ^ Dohm, J.M.; et al. (2009). "New evidence for a magmatic influence on the origin of Valles Marineris, Mars" (PDF). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 185 (1–2): 12–27. Bibcode:2009JVGR..185...12D. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.029.
  21. ^ Fan, C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Xie, H. & Lu, N. (2009). "Investigation of water signatures at gully-exposed sites on Mars by hyperspectral image analysis". Planetary and Space Science. 57 (93–104): 1. arXiv:0810.1560. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57....1G. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.09.014.
  22. ^ Fairén, A.G.; et al. (2009). "Evidence for Amazonian acidic liquid water on Mars: a reinterpretation of MER mission results". Planetary and Space Science. 57 (3): 276–287. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57..276F. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.11.008.
  23. ^ Houtkooper, J.M.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "Possibilities for the detection of hydrogen peroxide-water based life on Mars by the Phoenix Lander". Planetary and Space Science. 57 (4): 449–453. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57..449H. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.08.018.
  24. ^ Davila, A.F.; Skidmore, M.; Fairén, A.G.; Cockell, C. & Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "New priorities in the robotic exploration of Mars: The case for in situ search of extant life". Astrobiology. 10 (7): 705–710. Bibcode:2010AsBio..10..705D. doi:10.1089/ast.2010.0538.
  25. ^ Fairén, A.G.; et al. (2010). "Noachian and more recent phyllosilicates in impact craters on Mars". PNAS. 107 (4): 12, 095–12, 100. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107...12C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912404107. PMC 2824403. PMID 20133883.
  26. ^ Fan, C.; Xie, H.; Schulze-Makuch, D. & Ackley, S. (2010). "A formation mechanism for hematite-rich spherules on Mars". Planetary and Space Science. 58 (3): 401–410. Bibcode:2010P&SS...58..401F. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.11.001.
  27. ^ Houtkooper, J.M. & Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "Do perchlorates have a role for Martian life?". Journal of Cosmology. 5: 930–939. Bibcode:2010JCos....5..930H.
  28. ^ Fairen, A.G.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2013). "The overprotection of Mars". Nature Geoscience. 6 (7): 510. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..510F. doi:10.1038/ngeo1866.
  29. ^ Davila, A.F.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2016). "The last possible outposts of life on Mars". Astrobiology. 16 (2): 159–168. Bibcode:2016AsBio..16..159D. doi:10.1089/ast.2015.1380.
  30. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; et al. (2018). "Transitory microbial habitat in the hyperarid Atacama Desert". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (11): 2670–2675. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.2670S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1714341115. PMC 5856521. PMID 29483268.
  31. ^ Abbas, S.H.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2007). "Synthesis of biologically important precursors on Titan". Journal of Scientific Exploration. 21 (4): 673–687.
  32. ^ Abbas, S.H.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "Plausible organic synthesis on Titan's surface". ASP Conference Series. 420: 183–186. Bibcode:2009ASPC..420..183A.
  33. ^ Meckenstock, R.U.; von Netzer, F.; Stumpp, C.; Lueders, T.; Himmelberg, A.M.; Hertkorn, N.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Harir, M.; Hosein, R.; Hosein, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2014). "Water inclusions in oil are microhabitats for microbial life". Science. 345 (6197): 673–676. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..673M. doi:10.1126/science.1252215. PMID 25104386.
  34. ^ Sohl, F.; Solomonidou, A.; Wagner, F.W.; Coustenis, A.; Hussmann, H.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2014). "Structural and tidal models of Titan and inferences on cryovolcanism" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 119 (5): 1013–1036. Bibcode:2014JGRE..119.1013S. doi:10.1002/2013JE004512.
  35. ^ Irwin, L.N.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2003). "Strategy for modeling putative ecosystems on Europa". Astrobiology. 3 (4): 813–821. Bibcode:2003AsBio...3..813I. doi:10.1089/153110703322736114. PMID 14987484.
  36. ^ Figueredo, P.H.; Greeley, R.; Neuer, S.; Irwin, L.N. & Schulze-Makuch, D. (2003). "Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations". Astrobiology. 3 (4): 851–861. Bibcode:2003AsBio...3..851F. doi:10.1089/153110703322736132. PMID 14987486.
  37. ^ Abbas, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2008). "Amino acid synthesis in Europa's subsurface environment". International Journal of Astrobiology. 7 (3–4): 193–203. Bibcode:2008IJAsB...7..193A. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004114.
  38. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "Io: Is life possible between fire and ice?". Journal of Cosmology. 5: 912–919. Bibcode:2010JCos....5..912S.
  39. ^ "Patent US7311839 - Removal of biological pathogens using surfactant-modified zeolite - Google Patents". Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  40. ^ "Life Beyond Earth".

External linksEdit