Dinosaur Park Formation

The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta. It was deposited during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, between about 76.5 and 74.4 million years ago.[3] It was deposited in alluvial and coastal plain environments, and it is bounded by the nonmarine Oldman Formation below it and the marine Bearpaw Formation above it.[4]

Dinosaur Park Formation
Stratigraphic range: Late Cretaceous, Campanian, 76.5–74.4 Ma
Dinosaur Park Formation exposed along the Red Deer River in Dinosaur Provincial Park, southeastern Alberta, Canada.
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofBelly River Group
UnderliesBearpaw Formation
OverliesOldman Formation
Lithology
PrimarySandstone (lower)
Mudstone and siltstone (upper)
OtherBentonite and coal
Location
Coordinates49°12′N 110°24′W / 49.2°N 110.4°W / 49.2; -110.4
Approximate paleocoordinates56°24′N 75°48′W / 56.4°N 75.8°W / 56.4; -75.8
Region Alberta
Country Canada
ExtentWestern Canadian Sedimentary Basin
Type section
Named forDinosaur Provincial Park
Named byEberth, D.A. and Hamblin, A.P.[1][2]
Year defined1993
Dinosaur Park Formation is located in Canada
Dinosaur Park Formation
Dinosaur Park Formation (Canada)
Dinosaur Park Formation is located in Alberta
Dinosaur Park Formation
Dinosaur Park Formation (Alberta)

The Dinosaur Park Formation contains dense concentrations of dinosaur skeletons, both articulated and disarticulated, which are often found with preserved remains of soft tissues. Remains of other animals such as fish, turtles, and crocodilians, as well as plant remains, are also abundant.[5] The formation has been named after Dinosaur Provincial Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site where the formation is well exposed in the badlands that flank the Red Deer River.[2]

Geological setting edit

 
Restoration of the megafaunal dinosaurs of the Dinosaur Park Formation. From left to right: Chasmosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Styracosaurus, Scolosaurus, Prosaurolophus, Panoplosaurus, and a herd of Styracosaurus in the background

The Dinosaur Park Formation is composed of sediments that were derived from the erosion of the mountains to the west. It was deposited on an alluvial to coastal plain by river systems that flowed eastward and southeastward to the Bearpaw Sea, a large inland sea that was part of the Western Interior Seaway. That sea gradually inundated the adjacent coastal plain, depositing the marine shales of the Bearpaw Formation on top of the Dinosaur Park Formation.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is about 70 metres (230 ft) thick at Dinosaur Park. The lower portion of the formation was laid down in fluvial channel environments and consists primarily of fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstones. The upper portion, which was deposited in overbank and floodplain environments, consists primarily of massive to laminated, organic-rich mudstones with abundant root traces, and thin beds of bentonite. The Lethbridge Coal Zone, which consists of several seams of low-rank coal interbedded with mudstones and siltstones, marks the top of the formation.[4]

The sediments of the Dinosaur Park Formation are similar to those of the underlying Oldman Formation and they were originally included in that formation. The two formations are separated by a regional disconformity, however, and are distinguished by petrographic and sedimentologic differences. In addition, articulated skeletal remains and bonebeds are rare in the Oldman Formation but abundant in the Dinosaur Park Formation.[2][4]

Biostratigraphy edit

The Dinosaur Park Formation can be divided into at least two distinct faunas. The lower part of the formation is characterized by the abundance of Corythosaurus and Centrosaurus. This group of species is replaced higher in the formation by a different ornithischian fauna characterized by the presence of Lambeosaurus and Styracosaurus.[6] The appearance of several new, rare species of ornithischian at the very top of the formation may indicate that a third distinct fauna had replaced the second during the transition into younger, non-Dinosaur Park sediments, at the same time an inland sea transgresses onto land, but there are fewer remains here. An unnamed pachyrhinosaur, Vagaceratops irvinensis, and Lambeosaurus magnicristatus may be more common in this third fauna.[7][8]

The timeline below follows a synthesis presented by Fowler (2017)[9] with additional information from Arbour et al. 2009,[10] Evans et al. 2009, and Penkalski, 2013.[11] Megaherbivore Assemblage Zones (MAZ) follow data presented by Mallon et al., 2012.[12]

Stegoceras validumUnescoceratops koppelhusaeLambeosaurus magnicristatusLambeosaurus lambeiCorythosaurus casuariusParasaurolophusParasaurolophus walkeriProsaurolophus maximusGryposaurusGryposaurus notabilisPachyrhinosaurinaeStyracosaurus albertensisCentrosaurus apertusVagaceratops irvinensisChasmosaurus russelliChasmosaurus belliChasmosaurus priscusMercuriceratops gemini

Amphibians edit

Remains of the following amphibians have been found in the formation:[13]

Albanerpetontidae (extinct, salamander-like amphibians)

Caudata (salamanders)

Salientia (frogs)

Dinosaurs edit

Remains of the following dinosaurs have been found in the formation:[10][16]

Ornithischians edit

Remains of the following ornithischians have been found in the formation:[17]

Ankylosaurs edit

Ankylosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Anodontosaurus A. inceptus Middle, 75.6 Ma ago [Two] skulls with teeth, mandible, partially prepared skeleton, both cervical half-rings, and osteoderms.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid
 
Dyoplosaurus D. acutosquameus Lower, 76.5 Ma ago[10] A partial skull and skeleton including pelvis, tail, and hindlimb with pes, and osteoderms.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid
 
Edmontonia E. rugosidens Lower, 76.5-75.9 Ma ago[10] A partial skeleton including a skull, dorsal vertebrae, proximal, distal caudal, ribs, humerus, ulna, radius, manus, fragments of the pelvis, tibia, fibula?, osteoderms; anterior half of an articulated skeleton with in situ osteoderms, and paired first medial scutes. A nodosaurine nodosaurid also known from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and Two Medicine Formation
 
Euoplocephalus E. tutus Lower to Middle, ~76.4-75.6 Ma ago[11] [Four] skulls, mandible, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, ribs, scapulae, humeri, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanx, ilium, ischium, femur, tibia, partial pes, sacrum, cervical half-rings, and osteoderms.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid
 
Panoplosaurus P. mirus Middle, 75.6 Ma ago[10] Skull with lower jaws, isolated teeth, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, cervical ribs, dorsal ribs, scapulocoracoid, humerus, manus, tibia, fibula, ossified intersternal plate, a pair of ossified xiphoid processes, pes, and in situ osteoderms.[19] A nodosaurine nodosaurid
 
Platypelta P. coombsi Lower, 77.5-76.5 Ma ago[18] A well-preserved skull, mandibles, teeth, cervical and dorsal vertebrae, ribs, complete pelvis, both scapulocoracoids, both humeri and radii, both cervical half-rings, and osteoderms.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid
 
Scolosaurus S. cutleri Lower, 76.5 Ma ago or more[11] A nearly complete skeleton, a skull, cervical, dorsal, and caudal vertebrae, ribs, scapula, coracoid, humeri, radii, ilium, ischium, femur, tibia, fibula, [one] cervical half-ring, and osteoderms.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid briefly thought to be synonymous with Euoplocephalus. It possibly came from the upper layers of the underlying Oldman Formation.[20]
 
S. thronus Upper, 75 Ma ago A partial skeleton including a skull, dorsal vertebrae, ?complete synsacrum, sacral ribs, caudal vertebrae, scapula, partial ilia, humerus, cervical half-rings, osteoderms, and skin impressions.[18] An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid

Ceratopsians edit

An unnamed Pachyrhinosaurus-like taxon has been recovered from the formation.[21]

Ceratopsians from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Centrosaurus C. apertus Middle, 76.2-75.5Ma ago[10] "[Fifteen] skulls, several skeletons, all adult; abundant bone-bed material with rare juveniles and subadults."[22][23] C. nasicornis may be a synonym. A centrosaurine ceratopsid
 
Chasmosaurus C. belli Middle, 76–75.5Ma ago[10] "[Twelve] skulls, several skeletons."[22] A chasmosaurine ceratopsid
 
C. russelli Lower, 76.5-76Ma ago[10] "[Six] complete or partial skulls."[24]
Mercuriceratops M. gemini[25] Lower, ~77Ma ago[25] "one apomorphic squamosal"[25] A chasmosaurine ceratopsid
 
Monoclonius M. lowei A dubious centrosaurine ceratopsid. Possibly synonymous with Centrosaurus.
Pentaceratops[26] P. aquilonius[26] Uppermost, 74.8 MA[26] two frill fragments[26] A dubious chasmosaurine ceratopsid that may be the same species as Spiclypeus shipporum.[27]
 
Spinops[28] S. sternbergorum[28] Lower, 76.5Ma[28] "partial parietal bone, partial dentary, unidentifiable limb fragments, partial skull, and partial right squamosal."[28] A centrosaurine ceratopsid.It may actually be from the upper Oldman Formation.[28]
 
Styracosaurus S. albertensis Upper, 75.5-75.2Ma ago[10] "[Two] skulls, [three] skeletons, additional material in bone beds."[22] A centrosaurine ceratopsid
 
Unescoceratops U. koppelhusae Partial lower jaw[29] A leptoceratopsid thought to have been between one and two meters long and less than 91 kilograms. Its teeth were the roundest of all leptoceratopsids.
Vagaceratops V. irvinensis Upper, 75Ma ago[10] "[Three] skulls, skeleton lacking tail."[24] A chasmosaurine ceratopsid species previously classified as a species of Chasmosaurus.[30]
 

Ornithopods edit

At least one indeterminate thescelosaurid specimen has been recovered from the formation.

In a 2001 review of hadrosaur eggshell and hatchling material from the Dinosaur Park Formation, Darren H. Tanke and M. K. Brett-Surman concluded that hadrosaurs nested in both the ancient upland and lowlands of the formation's depositional environment.[31] The upland nesting grounds may have been preferred by the less common hadrosaurs, like Brachylophosaurus or Parasaurolophus. However, the authors were unable to determine what specific factors shaped nesting ground choice in the formation's hadrosaurs. They suggested that behavior, diet, soil condition, and competition between dinosaur species all potentially influenced where hadrosaurs nested.[32]

Sub-centimeter fragments of pebbly-textured hadrosaur eggshell have been reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation. This eggshell is similar to the hadrosaur eggshell of Devil's Coulee in southern Alberta as well as that of the Two Medicine and Judith River Formations in Montana, United States.[33] While present, dinosaur eggshell is very rare in the Dinosaur Park Formation and is only found in two different microfossil sites.[31] These sites are distinguished by large numbers of pisidiid clams and other less common shelled invertebrates like unionid clams and snails. This association is not a coincidence as the invertebrate shells would have slowly dissolved and released enough basic calcium carbonate to protect the eggshells from naturally occurring acids that otherwise would have dissolved them and prevented fossilization.[33]

In contrast with eggshell fossils, the remains of very young hadrosaurs are actually somewhat common. Darren Tanke has observed that an experienced collector could actually discover multiple juvenile hadrosaur specimens in a single day. The most common remains of young hadrosaurs in the Dinosaur Park Formation are dentaries, bones from limbs and feet, as well as vertebral centra. The material showed little or none of the abrasion that would have resulted from transport, meaning the fossils were buried near their point of origin.[34] Bonebeds 23, 28, 47, and 50 are productive sources of young hadrosaur remains in the formation, especially bonebed 50. The bones of juvenile hadrosaurs and fossil eggshell fragments are not known to have preserved in association with each other, despite both being present in the formation.[35]

Ornithopods from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Corythosaurus C. casuarius Lower-Middle, 76.5-75.5Ma ago[10] "Approximately [ten] articulated skulls and associated postcrania, [ten to fifteen] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[36] A lambeosaurin lambeosaurine hadrosaur
 
Gryposaurus G. notabilis Lower, 76.2-76Ma ago[10] "Approximately [ten] complete skulls, [twelve] fragmentary skulls, associated postcrania."[37] A kritosaurin saurolophine hadrosaur
 
Lambeosaurus L. lambei Upper, 75.5-75Ma ago[10] "Approximately [seven] articulated skulls with associated postcrania, [possibly ten] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[38]
 
L. magnicristatus Upper/Bearpaw Formation, 74.8Ma ago[10] "[Two] complete skulls, one with associated, articulated postcrania."[38]
 
Parasaurolophus P. walkeri Lower, 76.5-75.3Ma ago[8] "Complete skull and postcranial skeleton."[38] A parasaurolophin lambeosaurine hadrosaur.
 
Prosaurolophus P. maximus Upper, 75.5 – 74.8 Ma "[Twenty to twenty-five] individuals, including at least [seven] articulated skulls and associated postcrania."[37] A saurolophin saurolophine hadrosaur
 

Pachycephalosaurs edit

Pachycephalosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Foraminacephale

F. brevis

Also present in the Oldman Formation

Frontoparetal dome, various other skull fragments including juvenile and subadult material

Once thought to be a species of Stegoceras

 

Gravitholus

G. albertae

"Frontoparietal dome."[39]

Potentially synonymous with Stegoceras validum.[40]

 

Hanssuesia

H. sternbergi

Lower, also present in the Oldman Formation and Judith River Formation

Potentially synonymous with Stegoceras validum.[40]

 

Sphaerotholus

S. lyonsi[41]

Upper, 76.10 ± 0.5 Ma[41]

Right squamosal[41]

Stegoceras

S. validum

Specimens including frontoparietal dome.[39]

 

"Microcephale"

A nomen nudum.

Theropods edit

In the Dinosaur Park Formation, small theropods are rare due to the tendency of their thin-walled bones to be broken or poorly preserved.[42] Small bones of small theropods that were preyed upon by larger ones may have been swallowed whole and digested.[43] In this context, the discovery of a small theropod dinosaur with preserved tooth marks was especially valuable.[42] Possible indeterminate avimimid remains are known from the formation.

Ornithomimids edit

Ornithomimids from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Ornithomimus O. sp.[44] Type specimen An ornithomimid, possibly a species of Struthiomimus.[45]
 
Qiupalong Q. sp.[46] Several specimens An ornithomimid, possibly a radiation of this genus from Asia.[46]
 
Rativates R. evadens Type specimen An ornithomimid, formerly a specimen of Struthiomimus.[47]
 

Oviraptorosaurs edit

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Oviraptorosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Caenagnathus C. collinsi Mandible, type specimen A caenagnathid[48] which rivalled Anzu in size.[49]
 
Chirostenotes C. pergracilis Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen A mid-sized caenagnathid.
 
Citipes C. elegans[49] Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen Smallest caenagnathid from the formation.[49]
 
Macrophalangia M. canadensis Junior synonym of Chirostenotes pergracilis

Paravians edit

A new taxon of troodontid based solely on teeth is known from the upper part of the formation.[50]

Paravians from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
cf. Baptornis Indeterminate A hesperornithine bird
cf. Cimolopteryx Indeterminate Partial coracoid A possible charadriiform bird
Dromaeosaurus D. albertensis Several specimens and teeth, type specimen A dromaeosaurid
 
Hesperonychus H. elizabethae Hip bones and partial toes and claws, type specimen A microraptorine dromaeosaur, also found in the Oldman Formation
 
Latenivenatrix L. mcmasterae Hip bones, pelvis, skull fragments, type specimen A large troodontid measuring 3–3.5 m (9.8–11.5 ft).
 
cf. Palintropus Unnamed Partial shoulder girdles An ambiortiform bird
cf. Paronychodon cf. P. lacustris Teeth An indeterminate maniraptoran, also found in the Judith River
cf. Pectinodon[51] Indeterminate Teeth A troodont
Polyodontosaurus P. grandis Dentary, type specimen Nomen dubium. Possibly synonymous with Latenivenatrix.
Richardoestesia R. gilmorei Mandible, type specimen A dromaeosaurid
R. isosceles[50] Teeth
Saurornitholestes S. langstoni Incomplete skeleton and teeth, type specimen. A dentary referred to Saurornitholestes was discovered that preserved tooth marks left by a young tyrannosaur.[52] A dromaeosaurid
 
Stenonychosaurus S. inequalis Nearly complete skeleton and other partial skeletons, type specimen A troodontid once thought to be a species of Troodon
 

Tyrannosaurs edit

Tyrannosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Daspletosaurus Unnamed species[53] Middle-Upper, 75.6-75Ma ago[10] Several specimens A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid, also present in the Bearpaw Formation.  
Gorgosaurus G. libratus Lower-Middle, 76.6-75.1Ma ago[10] Numerous specimens, type specimen[53] An albertosaurine tyrannosaurid whose fossils have been unearthed in the Judith River Formation and possibly the Two Medicine Formation. It was the most common large carnivore in the area.[54]
 
Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

Other reptiles edit

Choristoderes edit

Choristoderes, or champsosaurs, were aquatic reptiles. Small examples looked like lizards, while larger types were superficially similar to crocodilians. Remains of the following Choristoderes have been found in the formation:[55]

Crocodylians edit

Remains of the following Crocodylians have been found in the formation:[56]

Lizards edit

Remains of the following lizards have been found in the formation:[57]

Plesiosaurs edit

Remains of the following Plesiosaurs have been found in the formation:[58]

Pterosaurs edit

Remains of the following pterosaurs have been found in the formation:[59]

  • Cryodrakon [60] (known from small and large specimens)
  • 1 unnamed non-azhdarchid pterosaur

Turtles edit

Remains of the following turtles have been found in the formation:[61]

Mammals edit

Remains of the following mammals have been found in the formation:[62]

Fish edit

Remains of the following fish have been found in the formation:[63]

Invertebrates edit

Remains of the following invertebrates have been found in the formation:[66]

Flora edit

Plant body fossils edit

The following plant body fossils have been found in the formation:[67]

Palynomorphs edit

Palynomorphs are organic-walled microfossils, like spores, pollen, and algae. The following palynomorphs have been found in the formation:[68]

Timeline of new taxa edit

The following timeline displays valid taxa first discovered in the dinosaur park formation. Some species may have been referred to other genera subsequent to their initial description.

21st century in paleontology20th century in paleontology19th century in paleontology2090s in paleontology2080s in paleontology2070s in paleontology2060s in paleontology2050s in paleontology2040s in paleontology2030s in paleontology2020s in paleontology2010s in paleontology2000s in paleontology1990s in paleontology1980s in paleontology1970s in paleontology1960s in paleontology1950s in paleontology1940s in paleontology1930s in paleontology1920s in paleontology1910s in paleontology1900s in paleontology1890s in paleontology1880s in paleontology1870s in paleontology1860s in paleontology1850s in paleontologyCryodrakonLatenivenatrixRativatesLeptorhynchosUnescoceratopsVagaceratopsHesperonychusChasmosaurus irvinensisRichardoestesiaGravitholusSaurornitholestesDaspletosaurusHanssuesia sternbergiChasmosaurus russeliLambeosaurus magnicristatusStenonychosaurus inequalisAnodontosaurusScolosaurusDyoplosaurusChirostenotesLambeosaurusParasaurolophusDromaeosaurusPanoplosaurusStruthiomimusProsaurolophusGryposaurusGorgosaurusCorythosaurusChasmosaurusStyracosaurusCentrosaurusStereocephalus tutusStegocerasOrnithomimus altusMonoclonius belliEuoplocephalus21st century in paleontology20th century in paleontology19th century in paleontology2090s in paleontology2080s in paleontology2070s in paleontology2060s in paleontology2050s in paleontology2040s in paleontology2030s in paleontology2020s in paleontology2010s in paleontology2000s in paleontology1990s in paleontology1980s in paleontology1970s in paleontology1960s in paleontology1950s in paleontology1940s in paleontology1930s in paleontology1920s in paleontology1910s in paleontology1900s in paleontology1890s in paleontology1880s in paleontology1870s in paleontology1860s in paleontology1850s in paleontology


See also edit

Footnotes edit

  1. ^ Lexicon of Canadian Geologic Units: Dinosaur Park Formation Archived 2013-02-21 at archive.today
  2. ^ a b c Eberth, D.A.; Hamblin, A.P. (1993). "Tectonic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic significance of a regional discontinuity in the upper Judith River Group (Belly River wedge) of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and northern Montana". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30 (1): 174–200. Bibcode:1993CaJES..30..174E. doi:10.1139/e93-016.
  3. ^ Ramezani, Jahandar; Beveridge, Tegan L.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Eberth, David A.; Roberts, Eric M. (2022-09-26). "Calibrating the zenith of dinosaur diversity in the Campanian of the Western Interior Basin by CA-ID-TIMS U–Pb geochronology". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 16026. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-19896-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9512893. PMID 36163377.
  4. ^ a b c d Eberth, D.A. 2005. The geology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p.54-82. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  5. ^ Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  6. ^ Mallon, Jordan C.; S, Jason (2012). "Megaherbivorous dinosaur turnover in the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 350–352: 124–138. Bibcode:2012PPP...350..124M. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.06.024.
  7. ^ Ryan and Evans (2005).
  8. ^ a b Evans D.C.; Bavington R.; Campione N.E. (2009). "An unusual hadrosaurid braincase from the Dinosaur Park Formation and the biostratigraphy of Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Lambeosaurinae) from southern Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (11): 791–800. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46..791E. doi:10.1139/E09-050.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ Fowler, Denver Warwick (2017-11-22). "Revised geochronology, correlation, and dinosaur stratigraphic ranges of the Santonian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) formations of the Western Interior of North America". PLOS ONE. 12 (11): e0188426. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188426. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5699823. PMID 29166406.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Arbour, V. M.; Burns, M. E.; Sissons, R. L. (2009). "A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) and a revision of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (4): 1117–1135. doi:10.1671/039.029.0405. S2CID 85665879.
  11. ^ a b c Penkalski, P. (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.
  12. ^ Mallon, J. C., Evans, D. C., Ryan, M. J., & Anderson, J. S. (2012). Megaherbivorous dinosaur turnover in the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
  13. ^ Gardner, J.D. 2005. Lissamphibians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 186-201. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  14. ^ "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  16. ^ Currie, P.J. 2005. Theropods, including birds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 367-397. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  17. ^ Ryan, M.J., and Evans, D.C. 2005. Ornithischian dinosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 312-348. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Penkalski, Paul (2018). "Revised systematics of the armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus and its allies". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 287 (3): 261–306. doi:10.1127/njgpa/2018/0717.
  19. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 365.
  20. ^ Penkalski, Paul (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.
  21. ^ Ryan, Michael; Eberth, David; Brinkman, Donald; Currie, Philip; Tanke, Darren (January 2010). New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs. pp. 141–155. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  22. ^ a b c "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 495.
  23. ^ RYAN, M. J.; RUSSELL, A. P.; EBERTH, D. A.; CURRIE, P. J. (2001-10-01). "The Taphonomy of a Centrosaurus (Ornithischia: Certopsidae) Bone Bed from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian), Alberta, Canada, with Comments on Cranial Ontogeny". PALAIOS. 16 (5): 482–506. Bibcode:2001Palai..16..482R. doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2001)016<0482:ttoaco>2.0.co;2. ISSN 0883-1351. S2CID 130116586.
  24. ^ a b "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 496.
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  26. ^ a b c d Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research. 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011.
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