Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, also glycerone phosphate in older texts) is the anion with the formula HOCH2C(O)CH2OPO32-. This anion is involved in many metabolic pathways, including the Calvin cycle in plants and glycolysis. It is the phosphate ester of dihydroxyacetone.
3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||170.06 g/mol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Role in glycolysisEdit
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate lies in the glycolysis metabolic pathway, and is one of the two products of breakdown of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, along with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is rapidly and reversibly isomerised to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
|β-D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate||fructose-bisphosphate aldolase||D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate||dihydroxyacetone phosphate|
The numbering of the carbon atoms indicates the fate of the carbons according to their position in fructose 6-phosphate.
|Dihydroxyacetone phosphate||triose phosphate isomerase||D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate|
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]
Role in other pathwaysEdit
In the Calvin cycle, DHAP is one of the products of the sixfold reduction of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate by NADPH. It is also used in the synthesis of sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, both of which are used to reform ribulose 5-phosphate, the 'key' carbohydrate of the Calvin cycle.
DHAP is also the product of the dehydrogenation of L-glycerol-3-phosphate, which is part of the entry of glycerol (sourced from triglycerides) into the glycolytic pathway. Conversely, reduction of glycolysis-derived DHAP to L-glycerol-3-phosphate provides adipose cells with the activated glycerol backbone they require to synthesize new triglycerides. Both reactions are catalyzed by the enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase with NAD+/NADH as cofactor.
DHAP also has a role in the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana.
- Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, Stryer (2002). Biochemistry (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-3051-0.
- Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York, 2000. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.
- Carl J. Sullivan, Anja Kuenz, Klaus‐Dieter Vorlop (2018). "Propanediols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_163.pub2.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)