"Dies irae" (Ecclesiastical Latin[ˈdi.es ˈi.re]; "the Day of Wrath") is a Latin sequence attributed to either Thomas of Celano of the Franciscans (1200–1265)[1] or to Latino Malabranca Orsini (d. 1294), lector at the Dominican studium at Santa Sabina, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (the Angelicum) in Rome.[2] The sequence dates from the 13th century at the latest, though it is possible that it is much older, with some sources ascribing its origin to St. Gregory the Great (d. 604), Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), or Bonaventure (1221–1274).[1]

Centre panel from Memling's triptych Last Judgment (c. 1467–1471)

It is a medieval Latin poem characterized by its accentual stress and rhymed lines. The metre is trochaic. The poem describes the Last Judgment, the trumpet summoning souls before the throne of God, where the saved will be delivered and the unsaved cast into eternal flames.

It is best known from its use in the Roman Rite Requiem (Mass for the Dead or Funeral Mass). An English version is found in various Anglican Communion service books.

The first melody set to these words, a Gregorian chant, is one of the most quoted in musical literature, appearing in the works of many composers. The final couplet, Pie Jesu, has been often reused as an independent song.

Use in the Roman liturgyEdit

The "Dies irae" has been used in the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite liturgy as the sequence for the Requiem Mass for centuries, as made evident by the important place it holds in musical settings such as those by Mozart and Verdi. It appears in the Roman Missal of 1962, the last edition before the implementation of the revisions that occurred after the Second Vatican Council. As such, it is still heard in churches where the Tridentine Latin liturgy is celebrated. It also formed part of the pre-conciliar liturgy of All Souls' Day.

In the reforms to the Catholic Church’s Latin liturgical rites ordered by the Second Vatican Council, the "Consilium for the Implementation of the Constitution on the Liturgy", the Vatican body charged with drafting and implementing the reforms (1969–70), eliminated the sequence as such from funerals and other Masses for the Dead. A leading figure in the post-conciliar liturgical reforms, Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, explains the rationale of the Consilium:

They got rid of texts that smacked of a negative spirituality inherited from the Middle Ages. Thus they removed such familiar and even beloved texts as "Libera me, Domine", "Dies irae", and others that overemphasized judgment, fear, and despair. These they replaced with texts urging Christian hope and arguably giving more effective expression to faith in the resurrection.[3]

"Dies irae" remains as a hymn ad libitum in the Liturgy of the Hours during the last week before Advent, divided into three parts for the Office of Readings, Lauds and Vespers.[4]

TextEdit

The Latin text below is taken from the Requiem Mass in the 1962 Roman Missal.[5] The first English version below, translated by William Josiah Irons in 1849,[6] albeit from a slightly different Latin text, replicates the rhyme and metre of the original.[7] This translation, edited for more conformance to the official Latin, is approved by the Catholic Church for use as the funeral Mass sequence in the liturgy of the Anglican ordinariate.[8] The second English version is a more formal equivalence translation.

Original Approved adaptation Formal equivalence

I
 
 
 
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VIII
 
 
 
IX
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
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XIX
 

Dies iræ, dies illa,
Solvet sæclum in favilla:
Teste David cum Sibylla.

Quantus tremor est futurus,
Quando Iudex est venturus,
Cuncta stricte discussurus!

Tuba, mirum spargens sonum
Per sepulchra regionum,
Coget omnes ante thronum.

Mors stupebit, et natura,
Cum resurget creatura,
Iudicanti responsura.

Liber scriptus proferetur,
In quo totum continetur,
Unde mundus iudicetur.

Iudex ergo cum sedebit,
Quidquid latet, apparebit:
Nil inultum remanebit.

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus?
Quem patronum rogaturus,
Cum vix iustus sit securus?

Rex tremendæ maiestatis,
Qui salvandos salvas gratis,
Salva me, fons pietatis.

Recordare, Iesu pie,
Quod sum causa tuæ viæ:
Ne me perdas illa die.

Quærens me, sedisti lassus:
Redemisti Crucem passus:
Tantus labor non sit cassus.

Iuste Iudex ultionis,
Donum fac remissionis
Ante diem rationis.

Ingemisco, tamquam reus:
Culpa rubet vultus meus:
Supplicanti parce, Deus.

Qui Mariam absolvisti,
Et latronem exaudisti,
Mihi quoque spem dedisti.

Preces meæ non sunt dignæ:
Sed tu bonus fac benigne,
Ne perenni cremer igne.

Inter oves locum præsta,
Et ab hædis me sequestra,
Statuens in parte dextra.

Confutatis maledictis,
Flammis acribus addictis,
Voca me cum benedictis.

Oro supplex et acclinis,
Cor contritum quasi cinis:
Gere curam mei finis.

Lacrimosa dies illa,
Qua resurget ex favílla
Iudicandus homo reus:
Huic ergo parce, Deus:

Pie Iesu Domine,
Dona eis requiem. Amen.

Day of wrath and doom impending!
David's word with Sibyl's blending,
Heaven and earth in ashes ending!

Oh, what fear man's bosom rendeth,
When from heaven the Judge descendeth,
On whose sentence all dependeth.

Wondrous sound the trumpet flingeth;
Through earth's sepulchres it ringeth;
All before the throne it bringeth.

Death is struck, and nature quaking,
All creation is awaking,
To its Judge an answer making.

Lo, the book, exactly worded,
Wherein all hath been recorded,
Thence shall judgement be awarded.

When the Judge his seat attaineth,
And each hidden deed arraigneth,
Nothing unavenged remaineth.

What shall I, frail man, be pleading?
Who for me be interceding,
When the just are mercy needing?

King of Majesty tremendous,
Who dost free salvation send us,
Fount of pity, then befriend us!

Think, kind Jesu! — my salvation
Caused Thy wondrous Incarnation;
Leave me not to reprobation.

Faint and weary, Thou hast sought me,
On the Cross of suffering bought me.
Shall such grace be vainly brought me?

Righteous Judge, for sin's pollution
Grant Thy gift of absolution,
Ere the day of retribution.

Guilty, now I pour my moaning,
All my shame with anguish owning;
Spare, O God, Thy suppliant groaning!

Through the sinful woman shriven,
Through the dying thief forgiven,
Thou to me a hope hast given.

Worthless are my prayers and sighing,
Yet, good Lord, in grace complying,
Rescue me from fires undying.

With Thy sheep a place provide me,
From the goats afar divide me,
To Thy right hand do Thou guide me.

When the wicked are confounded,
Doomed to flames of woe unbounded,
Call me with Thy saints surrounded.

Low I kneel, with heart's submission,
See, like ashes, my contrition,
Help me in my last condition.

Ah! that day of tears and mourning,
From the dust of earth returning
Man for judgement must prepare him,
Spare, O God, in mercy spare him.

Lord, all-pitying, Jesus blest,
Grant them Thine eternal rest. Amen.

The day of wrath, that day,
will dissolve the world in ashes:
(this is) the testimony of David along with the Sibyl.

How great will be the quaking,
when the Judge is about to come,
strictly investigating all things!

The trumpet, scattering a wondrous sound
through the sepulchres of the regions,
will summon all before the throne.

Death and nature will marvel,
when the creature will rise again,
to respond to the Judge.

The written book will be brought forth,
in which all is contained,
from which the world shall be judged.

When therefore the Judge will sit,
whatever lies hidden, will appear:
nothing will remain unpunished.

What then shall I, poor wretch [that I am], say?
Which patron shall I entreat,
when [even] the just may [only] hardly be sure?

King of fearsome majesty,
Who gladly save those fit to be saved,
save me, O fount of mercy.

Remember, merciful Jesus,
that I am the cause of Your journey:
lest You lose me in that day.

Seeking me, You rested, tired:
You redeemed [me], having suffered the Cross:
let not such hardship be in vain.

Just Judge of vengeance,
make a gift of remission
before the day of reckoning.

I sigh, like the guilty one:
my face reddens in guilt:
Spare the imploring one, O God.

You Who absolved Mary,
and heard the robber,
gave hope to me also.

My prayers are not worthy:
but You, [Who are] good, graciously grant
that I be not burned up by the everlasting fire.

Grant me a place among the sheep,
and take me out from among the goats,
setting me on the right side.

Once the cursed have been silenced,
sentenced to acrid flames,
Call me, with the blessed.

[Humbly] kneeling and bowed I pray,
[my] heart crushed as ashes:
take care of my end.

Tearful [will be] that day,
on which from the glowing embers will arise
the guilty man who is to be judged:
Then spare him, O God.

Merciful Lord Jesus,
grant them rest. Amen.

Because the last two stanzas differ markedly in structure from the preceding stanzas, some scholars consider them to be an addition made in order to suit the great poem for liturgical use. The penultimate stanza, Lacrimosa, discards the consistent scheme of rhyming triplets in favour of a pair of rhyming couplets. The last stanza, Pie Iesu, abandons rhyme for assonance, and, moreover, its lines are catalectic.

In the liturgical reforms of 1969–71, stanza 19 was deleted and the poem divided into three sections: 1–6 (for Office of Readings), 7–12 (for Lauds) and 13–18 (for Vespers). In addition, "Qui Mariam absolvisti" in stanza 13 was replaced by "Peccatricem qui solvisti" so that that line would now mean, "You who absolved the sinful woman". This was because modern scholarship denies the common mediæval identification of the woman taken in adultery with Mary Magdalene, so Mary could no longer be named in this verse. In addition, a doxology is given after stanzas 6, 12 and 18:[4]

Original Approved adaptation Formal equivalence

O tu, Deus majestatis,
alme candor Trinitatis
nos conjunge cum beatis. Amen.

O God of majesty
nourishing light of the Trinity
join us with the blessed. Amen.

You, God of majesty,
gracious splendour of the Trinity
conjoin us with the blessed. Amen.

Manuscript sourcesEdit

The text of the sequence is found, with slight verbal variations, in a 13th-century manuscript in the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III at Naples. It is a Franciscan calendar missal that must date between 1253 and 1255 for it does not contain the name of Clare of Assisi, who was canonized in 1255, and whose name would have been inserted if the manuscript were of later date.

InspirationEdit

A major inspiration of the hymn seems to have come from the Vulgate translation of Zephaniah 1:15–16:

Dies iræ, dies illa, dies tribulationis et angustiæ, dies calamitatis et miseriæ, dies tenebrarum et caliginis, dies nebulæ et turbinis, dies tubæ et clangoris super civitates munitas et super angulos excelsos.

That day is a day of wrath, a day of tribulation and distress, a day of calamity and misery, a day of darkness and obscurity, a day of clouds and whirlwinds, a day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high bulwarks. (Douay–Rheims Bible)

Other images come from the Book of Revelation, such as Revelation 20:11–15 (the book from which the world will be judged), Matthew 25:31–46 (sheep and goats, right hand, contrast between the blessed and the accursed doomed to flames), 1 Thessalonians 4:16 (trumpet), 2 Peter 3:7 (heaven and earth burnt by fire), and Luke 21:26 ("men fainting with fear... they will see the Son of Man coming").

From the Jewish liturgy, the prayer Unetanneh Tokef appears to be related: "We shall ascribe holiness to this day, For it is awesome and terrible"; "the great trumpet is sounded", etc.

Other translationsEdit

A number of English translations of the poem have been written and proposed for liturgical use. A very loose Protestant version was made by John Newton; it opens:

Day of judgment! Day of wonders!
Hark! the trumpet's awful sound,
Louder than a thousand thunders,
Shakes the vast creation round!
How the summons will the sinner's heart confound!

Jan Kasprowicz, a Polish poet, wrote a hymn entitled "Dies iræ" which describes the Judgment day. The first six lines (two stanzas) follow the original hymn's metre and rhyme structure, and the first stanza translates to "The trumpet will cast a wondrous sound".

The American writer Ambrose Bierce published a satiric version of the poem in his 1903 book Shapes of Clay, preserving the original metre but using humorous and sardonic language; for example, the second verse is rendered:

Ah! what terror shall be shaping
When the Judge the truth's undraping –
Cats from every bag escaping!

The Rev. Bernard Callan (1750–1804), an Irish priest and poet, translated it into Gaelic around 1800. His version is included in a Gaelic prayer book, The Spiritual Rose.[9]

Literary referencesEdit

MusicEdit

Musical settingsEdit

The words of "Dies iræ" have often been set to music as part of the Requiem service. In some settings, it is broken up into several movements; in such cases, "Dies iræ" refers only to the first of these movements, the others being titled according to their respective incipits.

The original setting was a sombre plainchant (or Gregorian chant). It is in the Dorian mode.[11] In four-line neumatic notation, it begins:  

In 5-line staff notation:

 

The earliest surviving polyphonic setting of the Requiem by Johannes Ockeghem does not include "Dies iræ". The first polyphonic settings to include the "Dies iræ" are by Engarandus Juvenis (1490) and Antoine Brumel (1516) to be followed by many composers of the renaissance. Later, many notable choral and orchestral settings of the Requiem including the sequence were made by composers such as Mozart, Berlioz, Verdi, and Stravinsky.

Musical quotationsEdit

The traditional Gregorian melody has been used as a theme or musical quotation in many classical compositions, film scores, and popular works, including:


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Dies Iræ" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Crociani, G. (1901). Scritti vari di Filologia (in Latin). Rome: Forzani &c. p. 488. LCCN 03027597. OCLC 10827264. OL 23467162M. Retrieved 2022-03-15 – via Internet Archive.
  3. ^ Bugnini, Annibale (1990). "Chapter 46: Funerals". The Reform of the Liturgy: 1948–1975. Translated by O'Connell, Michael J. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. p. 773. ISBN 9780814615713. LCCN 90036986. OCLC 1151099486. OL 1876823M. Retrieved 2022-03-15 – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ a b Liturgia Horarum (in Latin). Vol. IV. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2000. p. 489. ISBN 9788820928124. OCLC 44683882. OL 20815631M. Retrieved 2022-03-15.
  5. ^ Missale Romanum (PDF) (in Latin) (3rd ed.). Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis. 1962. p. 706. OCLC 61411326. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-02-16. Retrieved 2022-03-15.
  6. ^   The full text of Dies Irae (Irons, 1912) at Wikisource
  7. ^ The Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. New York City: Church Pension Fund. 1940. p. 468. Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2022-03-15 – via Hymnary.org.
  8. ^ "The Order for Funerals for use by the Ordinariates erected under the auspices of the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus" (PDF). Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter (in English and Latin). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2022-03-15.
  9. ^ Kennedy, Matthew (1825). The Spiritual Rose; Or Method Of Saying The Rosaries Of The Most Holy Name Of Jesus And The Blessed Virgin, With Their Litanies: Also The Meditations And Prayers, Adapted To the Holy Way Of The Cross, &c (in English and Irish). Monaghan: Greacen, Printer. OCLC 299179233. OL 26201026M. Retrieved 2022-03-16 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ Leroux, Gaston (1911). The Phantom of the Opera. New York City: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 164. ISBN 9780758318008. OCLC 4373384. Retrieved 2022-03-15 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Vorderman, Carol (2015). Help your Kids With Music (1st American ed.). London: Dorling-Kindersley. p. 143. ISBN 9781465485489.
  12. ^ a b c d "Quotes – Musical Quotations of the Dies Irae plainchant melody". Retrieved 2022-06-14.
  13. ^ Leonard, James. Tchaikovsky: Suite No. 3; Stravinsky: Divertimento at AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  14. ^ Lintgen, Arthur. "Tchaikovsky: Manfred Symphony". Fanfare (review). Archived from the original on 2018-08-06. Retrieved 2022-03-15.
  15. ^ Cummings, Robert. Intermezzo for piano in E-flat minor, Op. 118/6 at AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-07-17.
  16. ^ Barnett, Rob. "Hans Huber" (review). Archived from the original on 2021-10-31. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  17. ^ "Kastalsky, A.: Requiem for Fallen Brothers (Dennis, Beutel, Cathedral Choral Society, The Clarion Choir, Orchestra of St. Luke's, Slatkin)". Naxos. Archived from the original on 2020-08-09. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  18. ^ Greenberg, Robert (2011). The 30 Greatest Orchestral Works. The Great Courses. The Teaching Company. ISBN 9781598037708. OCLC 1285468511. OL 28263230M.
  19. ^ Henken, John. "Sonata in A minor for Solo Violin ("Obsession"), Op. 27, No. 2 (Eugène Ysaÿe)". LA Phil. Archived from the original on 2021-05-12. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  20. ^ Johnson, Edward (May 1984). "Respighi – Church Windows / Brazilian Impressions, CHAN 8317" (PDF) (Media notes). Chandos Records. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-03-16. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  21. ^ Spratt, Geoffrey K. (1987). The Music of Arthur Honegger. Cork University Press. p. 640. ISBN 9780902561342. OCLC 16754628. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  22. ^ a b Burgess, Melissa (2015-11-09). "Pop Culture Keeps Resurrecting This Deathly Gregorian Chant". The Federalist. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  23. ^ Simmons, Walter (2004), Voices in the Wilderness: Six American Neo-romantic Composers, Scarecrow, ISBN 0-8108-4884-8, retrieved 2022-03-16
  24. ^ Roberge, Marc-André. "Citations of the Dies irae". Sorabji Resource Site. Université Laval. Archived from the original on 2021-10-27. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  25. ^ Wade, Graham. "Tedesco: 24 Caprichos de Goya, Op. 195". Naxos. Archived from the original on 2018-08-06. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  26. ^ "Pontins Championship 2003 – Test Piece Reviews: Resurgam". 4barsrest.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-26. Retrieved 2021-05-26.
  27. ^ Zadan, Craig (1989). Sondheim & Co (2nd ed.). Perennial Library. p. 248. ISBN 9780060156497. LCCN 86045165 – via Internet Archive.
  28. ^ Webb, Martin (2019). And the Stormwatch Brews…. Stormwatch: The 40th Anniversary Force 10 Edition (Media notes). Chrysalis Records. Archived from the original on 2022-03-16. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  29. ^ Gengaro, Christine Lee (2013). Listening to Stanley Kubrick: The Music in His Films. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-8108-8564-6 – via Google Books.
  30. ^ "Supernatural Reality: The Sound of New Hollywood Horror in Count Yorga, The Mephisto Waltz, The Exorcist and The Omen". Diabolique Magazine. 2016-06-13. Archived from the original on 2020-09-28. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  31. ^ Tagg, Philip. "Musemes from Morricone's music for The Mission" (PDF) (analysis). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-11-12. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  32. ^ Hoyt, Alia (2018-03-22), Why Sountracks love the Day of Wrath Theme (analysis)
  33. ^ Chorus, David Ogden Stiers, Paul Kandel & Tony Jay – The Bells of Notre Dame (in English and Latin), archived from the original on 2021-10-16, retrieved 2021-05-12
  34. ^ "About this Recording – 8.559635 – Daugherty, M.: Metropolis Symphony / Deus ex Machina (T. Wilson, Nashville Symphony, Guerrero)", Naxos, archived from the original on 2018-08-06, retrieved 2022-03-16
  35. ^ Grantham, Donald (2004), "Donald Grantham", in Camphouse, Mark (ed.), Composers on Composing for Band, vol. 2, Chicago: GIA, pp. 100–101, ISBN 9781579993856, retrieved 2022-03-16
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External linksEdit