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Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (commonly abbreviated as an DDVP[1]) is an organophosphate, widely used as an insecticide to control household pests, in public health, and protecting stored product from insects. The compound has been commercially available since 1961 and has become controversial because of its prevalence in urban waterways and the fact that its toxicity extends well beyond insects.[2] The insecticide has been banned in EU since 1998.[3]

Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos Structural Formulae .V.1.svg
Dichlorvos3d.png
Clinical data
Trade namesDDVP, Vapona etc.[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
ATCvet code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.000.498 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC4H7Cl2O4P
Molar mass220.98 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
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Contents

InventionEdit

Dichlorvos was developed from nerve gas agents after the end of World War II in 1955.[citation needed]

UseEdit

It is effective against mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and whiteflies in greenhouse, outdoor crops. It is also used in the milling and grain handling industries and to treat a variety of parasitic worm infections in animals and humans. It is fed to livestock to control bot fly larvae in the manure. It acts against insects as both a contact and a stomach poison. It is available as an aerosol and soluble concentrate. It is also used in pet collars and "no-pest strips" in the form of a pesticide-impregnated plastic; this material has been available to households since 1964 and has been the source of some concern, partly due to its misuse.[4]

Mechanism of actionEdit

Dichlorvos, like other organophosphate insecticides, acts on acetylcholinesterase, associated with the nervous systems of insects. Evidence for other modes of action, applicable to higher animals, have been presented.[5][6] It is claimed to damage DNA of insects.[7]

RegulationEdit

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has reviewed the safety data of dichlorvos several times.[8] In 1995 a voluntary agreement was reached with the supplier, Amvac Chemical Corporation, which restricted the use of dichlorvos in many, but not all, domestic uses, all aerial applications, and other uses.[9] Additional voluntary cancellations were implemented in 2006, 2008 and 2010. Major concerns focus on acute and chronic toxicity and the fact that this pesticide is prevalent in urban waterways.[10] A 2010 study found that each 10-fold increase in urinary concentration of organophosphate metabolites was associated with a 55% to 72% increase in the odds of ADHD in children.[11][12][13]

SafetyEdit

People can be exposed to dichlorvos in the workplace by breathing it in, skin absorption, swallowing it, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for dichlorvos exposure in the workplace as 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, dichlorvos is immediately dangerous to life and health.[14]

Effects on humansEdit

Since it is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, symptoms of dichlorvos exposure include weakness, headache, tightness in chest, blurred vision, salivation, sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, eye and skin irritation, miosis (pupil constriction), eye pain, runny nose, wheezing, laryngospasm, cyanosis, anorexia, muscle fasciculation, paralysis, dizziness, ataxia, convulsions, hypotension (low blood pressure), and cardiac arrhythmias.[14]

It is also known to affect DNA growth,[15] and interfere with the human nervous system.[16]

Lethal concentration (LC50) data[17]
Dose Organism Time
15 mg/m3 rat 4 h
13 mg/m3 mouse 4 h
Lethal dose (LD50) data[17]
Dose Organism Route
100 mg/kg dog oral
61 mg/kg mouse oral
10 mg/kg rabbit oral
17 mg/kg rat oral

Pop cultureEdit

Dichlorvos is mentioned in John Brunner's science fiction novel The Sheep Look Up. One of the book's many vignettes tells of a woman who nearly dies, having taken barbiturates and gone to sleep in a closed room where a fly-killing strip doused with the material was placed.[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Dichlorvos". Haz-Map. U.S. National Library of Medicine. August 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  2. ^ DAS, SUCHISMITA (2013). "A review of Dichlorvos toxicity in fish". Current World Environment Journal. 8 (1). doi:10.12944/CWE.8.1.08.
  3. ^ "Which pesticides are banned in Europe?" (PDF). pan-europe.info. 2008.
  4. ^ W. Gillett, James; R. Harr, James; T. Lindstrom, Frederick; A. Mount, Darl; D. St. Clair, Akos; J. Weber, Lavern (1972). Evaluation of human health hazards on use of dichlorvos (DDVP), especially in resin strips. Residue Reviews. 44. pp. 115–159. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-8491-9_6. ISBN 978-0-387-05863-4.
  5. ^ Pancetti, F.; Olmos, C.; Dagnino-Subiabre, A.; Rozas, C.; Morales, B. (2007). "Noncholinesterase Effects Induced by Organophosphate Pesticides and their Relationship to Cognitive Processes: Implication for the Action of Acylpeptide Hydrolase". J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part B. 10 (8): 623. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.334.9406. doi:10.1080/10937400701436445. PMID 18049927.
  6. ^ Booth, E. D.; Jones, E.; Elliott, B. M. (2007). "Review of the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of dichlorvos". Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 49 (3): 316. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2007.08.011. PMID 17936460.
  7. ^ Espeland, M.; Irestedt, M.; Johanson, K. A.; Åkerlund, M.; Bergh, J.-E.; Källersjö, M. (2010). "Dichlorvos exposure impedes extraction and amplification of DNA from insects in museum collections". Frontiers in Zoology. 7: 2. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-7-2. PMID 20148102.
  8. ^ Mennear, John H. (1998). "Dichlorvos: A Regulatory Conundrum". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 27 (3): 265–272. doi:10.1006/rtph.1998.1217. PMID 9693077.
  9. ^ "Dichlorvos (DDVP): Deletion of Certain Uses and Directions". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Pesticide Programs. April 19, 1995. pp. 19580–19581. Docket Control Number OPP-38511.
  10. ^ Wines, Michael (11 September 2014). "Pesticide Levels in Waterways Have Dropped, Reducing the Risks to Humans". The New York Times.
  11. ^ "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com.
  12. ^ http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2010/05/17/peds.2009-3058.full.pdf
  13. ^ "Slow-Acting: Scientific American". scientificamerican.com.
  14. ^ a b NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0202". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  15. ^ "Preferential Effect of Dichlorvos(Vapona) on Bacteria deficient in DNA polymerase" (PDF). Cancer Research.
  16. ^ "Big Court win for public health". www.nrdc.org.
  17. ^ a b "Dichlorvos". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  18. ^ Brunner, John (1972). The Sheep Look Up. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-06-010558-7. LCCN 72-79705.

External linksEdit