The German Historical Museum (German: Deutsches Historisches Museum), known by the acronym DHM, is a museum in Berlin, Germany devoted to German history. It describes itself as a place of "enlightenment and understanding of the shared history of Germans and Europeans". It is often viewed as one of the most important museums in Berlin and is one of the most frequented. The museum is located in the Zeughaus (armoury) on the Unter den Linden as well as in the adjacent Exhibition Hall designed by I. M. Pei.
The German Historical Museum is under the legal form of a foundation registered by the Federal Republic of Germany. Its highest-ranking body is the Board of Trustees (Kuratorium) with representatives of the federal government, the German Bundestag (Parliament) and the governments of the German Länder, or states.
Founding and historyEdit
The museum was founded on 28 October 1987, on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of the founding of Berlin; it was inaugurated in the Reichstag building in former West Berlin. After the success of an exhibition on Prussia, which was shown in the Martin-Gropius-Bau in 1981, the then Governing Mayor of (West) Berlin, Richard von Weizsäcker, commissioned four prominent historians – Hartmut Boockmann, Eberhard Jäckel, Hagen Schulze and Michael Stürmer – to prepare a memorandum, which appeared in January 1982 under the title Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin. The project enjoyed great support from Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who termed the founding of a German historical museum in Berlin a national priority of European importance in his speech on the State of the Nation before the German Bundestag on 27 February 1985. A commission consisting of 16 leading historians, art historians and museum directors worked out a concept for the museum in 1985/86 and put it up for discussion in public hearings in 1986. The final version became the basis for the founding of the DHM. The core of the Museum's brief was to present German history in an international context. Multi-perspective perceptions aimed to encourage an understanding of the viewpoint of others in order to allow for a high level of reflection on history and culture in a time of the internationalisation of everyday life and the globalisation of work and commerce. On 28 July 1987, the partnership agreement was signed between the Federal Republic of Germany and the state of (West) Berlin concerning the establishment of the temporary trusteeship of the German Historical Museum as a private limited company.
Originally the Museum was to be located near the Reichstag Building at the Spreebogen, the government complex at the bend of the River Spree. The architecture competition for the project was won by the Italian architect Aldo Rossi in 1988. However, in 1989 the fall of the Berlin Wall led to a change of plans: on the day of reunification 3 October 1990, the Federal Government transferred the collection and premises of the former Museum für Deutsche Geschichte (Museum for German History) to the DHM; the last government of the GDR had already dissolved that museum in September 1990 and made its property and contents available to the DHM. And thus the Zeughaus of 1695 – the oldest building on Unter den Linden – became the seat of the German Historical Museum. The first exhibitions were shown in the Zeughaus in September 1991.
The DHM began expanding its collections shortly after its founding. Opening in December 1994, the former Permanent Exhibition, then entitled German History in Images and Testimonials, presented an initial cross-section of the collection with more than 2000 exhibits.
The façade of the Zeughaus was restored between 1994 and 1998 on the basis of historical documents. The building was closed from 1998 until 2003 while extensive restoration measures were carried out by the architectural office of Winfried Brenne. In the course of the construction of the new adjacent museum hall by Ieoh Ming Pei between 1998 and 2003, glass roofing was once more installed above the Schlüterhof, the inner courtyard with the masks by Andreas Schlüter. The new building by I. M. Pei with a surface area of 2,700 m2 (29,000 sq ft) on four floors, and structurally engineered by Leslie E. Robertson Associates, was opened for temporary exhibitions in 2003. The Permanent Exhibition German History in Images and Artefacts was inaugurated in the Zeughaus by Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel on 2 June 2006. As of 30 December 2008 the DHM assumed the legal form of a Public Law Foundation of the Federal Government (Stiftung öffentlichen Rechts des Bundes). Founded in 2009 to establish a centre for the remembrance and documentation of flight and expulsion, the Stiftung Flucht, Vertreibung, Versöhnung (Foundation Flight, Expulsion, Reconciliation) is under the aegis of the German Historical Museum.
General Director of the Museum and President of the Foundation:
- Christoph Stölzl (1987–1999)
- Hans Ottomeyer (2000–2011)
- Alexander Koch (2011–2016)
- Raphael Gross (present)
The Zeughaus is closed for necessary renovations and for the renewal of the Permanent Exhibition since 28 June 2021. It is expected to open again at the end of 2025. The four floors of the I. M. Pei Exhibition Hall are devoted to the Museum's temporary exhibitions.
The specialised research library on German and general history as well as museum work contains more than 225,000 volumes, including 13,000 rare books, 40,000 volumes of magazines and newspapers, 5,000 volumes of militaria and 15,000 museum catalogues. The public reference library is located behind the Zeughaus in the Museum's administrative building, which had belonged to the Prussian credit union Prussische Central-Genossenschaftskasse from 1899 to 1945 and later to the GDR state-run company Minol.
The Zeughauskino, a movie theatre seating 165 guests, is an integral part of the German Historical Museum and is located in the Zeughaus. Its main aim is to bring together historical and film-historical questions in a programme that is marked by film series to accompany exhibitions as well as thematic retrospectives.
- Everyday Life Culture I
- Technical and medical products and instruments, Household objects, product advertising: c. 70,000 objects
- Everyday Life Culture II
- Fashion, costumes, badges, religious articles: c. 45,000 objects
- Everyday Life Culture III
- Toys, postcards, political objects, special inventory: c. 40,000 objects
- Old and valuable prints
- Prints from 15th century – 20th century: c. 25,000 objects
- Documents I
- Deeds, broadsheets, flyer and map collections, autographs, Seals and albums up to 1914: c. 50,000 objects
- Documents II
- Photo albums, newspapers, flyers, propaganda materials, Maps and autographs since 1914: c. 120,000 objects
- Picture archive
- Estates of photographers and picture agencies, c. 500.000 photographic prints
- Film collection
- 850 films
- Applied arts and sculptures up to 1900
- Furniture, ceramics, glass and metal art, design: c. 6,000 objects
- Print collection
- on the history of events from the 16th to the 20th century, Portrait engraving collection from the 15th to the 20th century: c. 100,000 prints
- Art I
- Paintings up to 1900: 857 objects
- Art II/ Photo collection
- Paintings and sculptures from the 20th and 21st centuries: c. 3,000 objects as well as 20,000 photographs
- Militaria I
- Old weapons and armour, military equipment: c. 20,000 objects
- Militaria II
- Uniforms, flags, medals and decorations, military prints: c. 30,000 objects
- c. 80,000 objects, c. 15,000 securities
- Artistic posters 1896–1938 from the Hans Sachs Collection, political posters 1920–1960 from the Wolf Collection, and GDR posters: c. 80,000 objects. In 2012, following a court decision, the heirs of Hans Sachs were granted possession of his collection which had been expropriated from Dr. Sachs by the Nazis in 1938.
Online database and picture archiveEdit
The German Historical Museum has the most extensive object database of all museums in Germany that can be consulted on the Internet. The collections of the Museum are recorded and administered in the database. It currently comprises around 500,000 objects and provides digital photos of some 70 percent of these objects. Reproduction rights for commercial purposes are managed by the DHM picture archive, which charges industry-standard usage fees.
In cooperation with the Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Bonn the German Historical Museum operates a wide-ranging Internet service called LeMO (Lebendiges virtuelles Museum Online, or Living virtual Museum Online), with information on German history from 1871 to the present. More than 30,000 HTML pages, 165,000 pictures as well as audio and video clips are available on the Web.
- Deutsches Historisches Museum. Ideen – Kontroversen – Perspektiven. Hrsg. Christoph Stölzl. Frankfurt/Berlin 1988, p.641.
- Kate Connolly, "Poster collection stolen by Nazis is returned to family after 74 years", The Guardian, March 16, 2012
- Christoph Stölzl: Deutsches Historisches Museum. Ideen – Kontroversen – Perspektiven. ISBN 3-549-06682-1
- Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin. Aldo Rossis Entwurf im Gefüge der Kulturformen, ISBN 3-421-03004-9
- Heike Werner und Mathias Wallner: Architektur und Geschichte in Deutschland. pp. 162–163, München 2006, ISBN 3-9809471-1-4
- Jürgen Kocka: Ein chronologischer Bandwurm. Die Dauerausstellung des Deutschen Historischen Museums. In: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 32/2006, pp. 398–411.
- Ulrike Kretzschmar (Hrsg.): Das Berliner Zeughaus. Vom Waffenarsenal zum Deutschen Historischen Museum. The Berlin Armoury. From the Arsenal to the German Historical Museum. München/Berlin/London/ New York, Prestel Verlag 2006. 112 S., zahlr. farb. Abb. ISBN 3-7913-3356-9.
- Heinrich Müller, Hartmut Kölling: Europäische Hieb- und Stichwaffen aus der Sammlung des Museums für Deutsche Geschichte Berlin, Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik 1981, 2. Auflage 1982, 448 S., zahlr. farb. und s/w Abb., fotografiert von Gerd Platow, Bestellnummer:746 245 6. Out of print, available only as a used book (deals with the collection of the former GDR history museum)