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Destination Moon (a.k.a. Operation Moon) is a 1950 American Technicolor space exploration science fiction film drama, independently made by George Pal, directed by Irving Pichel, that stars John Archer, Warner Anderson, Tom Powers, and Dick Wesson. The film was distributed in the United States and the United Kingdom by Eagle-Lion Classics.

Destination Moon
Destination Moon DVD.jpg
DVD cover
Directed byIrving Pichel
Produced byGeorge Pal
Screenplay by
Based onthe novel Rocket Ship Galileo
by Robert A. Heinlein
Starring
Music byLeith Stevens
CinematographyLionel Lindon
Edited byDuke Goldstone
Production
company
George Pal Productions
Distributed byEagle-Lion Classics
Release date
  • June 27, 1950 (1950-06-27) (United States)
Running time
91 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$592,000[1]
Box office$5 million[2] or $1.3 (US)[3]

Destination Moon was the first major U.S. science fiction film to deal with the dangers inherent in human space travel and the possible difficulties landing on and safely returning from our only natural satellite.

The film's premise is that private industry will mobilize, finance, and manufacture the first spacecraft to the Moon, and that the U.S. government will be forced to purchase or lease the technology to remain the dominant power in space. Different industrialists cooperate to support the private venture. In the final scene, as the crew approaches the Earth, the traditional "The End" title card heralds the dawn of the coming Space Age: "This is THE END...of the Beginning".[4]

Contents

PlotEdit

When their latest rocket test fails and government funding collapses, rocket scientist Dr. Charles Cargraves (Warner Anderson) and space enthusiast General Thayer (Tom Powers) enlist the aid of aircraft magnate Jim Barnes (John Archer). With the necessary millions raised privately from a group of patriotic U.S. industrialists, Cargraves, Warner and Barnes build an advanced single-stage-to-orbit atomic powered spaceship, named Luna, at their desert manufacturing and launch facility. The project is soon threatened by a ginned-up public uproar over "radiation safety", but the three circumvent legal efforts to stop their expedition by launching the world's first Moon mission ahead of schedule. As a result, they must quickly substitute Joe Sweeney (Dick Wesson) as their expedition's radar and radio operator.

En route to the Moon they are forced to spacewalk outside. They stay firmly attached to Luna with magnetic boots so they can easily walk to and free up the frozen piloting radar antenna that the inexperienced Sweeney innocently greased before launch. In the process, one of the crew becomes untethered in free fall and is lost overboard. He is retrieved by another crewman who cleverly uses a large oxygen cylinder as an improvised propulsion unit.

After achieving lunar orbit the crew begins the complex landing procedure, but they use too much fuel during the descent. Safely on the Moon, they explore the lunar surface and describe by radio their view of the Earth as contrasted against the black lunar sky. One crew member photographs another pretending to "hold up" the Earth like a modern Atlas. Events takes a serious turn when the crew realize that with their limited remaining fuel they must lighten Luna in order to achieve lunar escape velocity.

No matter how much non-critical equipment they strip out and discard on the lunar surface, the hard numbers radioed from Earth continue to point to one conclusion: one of the crew will have to remain on the Moon if the others are to safely return to Earth. With time running out for their return launch window, the crew continues to engineer their way home. They jettison the ship's radio, losing contact with Earth. In addition, an oxygen tank is used as a tethered, suspended weight to pull their sole remaining space suit outside through the open airlock, which is then remotely closed and resealed. Their critical take-off weight finally achieved, and with all her crew safely aboard, Luna blasts off from the Moon for home.

CastEdit

ProductionEdit

Before Destination Moon, there were very few serious science fiction films: 1929's Frau in Mond (The Woman in the Moon), 1931's Frankenstein, and 1936's Things to Come are worthy antecedents (fantasy efforts notwithstanding).

George Pal was a Hungarian who made cute commercials that played as short subjects with feature films in Europe. He later advanced into animated cartoon-like short features that were made using carefully hand-manipulated tiny sculptures instead of drawings; these shorts were called “Puppetoons”, and they became popular in Europe. Pal was in the U.S. when Hitler invaded Poland. He was offered a contract to produce his Puppetoons for Paramount Pictures, some of which were later nominated for Academy Awards.[5] [6]

DevelopmentEdit

By 1949, Pal wanted to get into feature film production. He convinced the independent Eagle-Lion Films to co-finance his own two-picture deal, with him putting up half of the money. The first of the two films, The Great Rupert, about a Puppetoon-like dancing squirrel, starring popular comic Jimmy Durante, flopped at the box office. But his second feature, Destination Moon, was a major hit.

Eagle-Lion's publicity department saw the promotional possibilities for a film about a rocket expedition to the Moon. They promoted the film heavily in both general family magazines and in many science fiction digest magazines, emphasizing its Technicolor visuals and expert consultants. Destination Moon was constantly in the limelight of the era's popular press, including the high-profile Life magazine; by the time the film was shown in theaters, its success seemed a foregone conclusion.[7]

Pal commissioned an initial screenplay from screenwriters James O'Hanlon and Rip Van Ronkel, but science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein contributed significantly to Destination Moon's final screenplay, also serving as the film's technical adviser. Certain story elements from his 1947 juvenile novel Rocket Ship Galileo were adapted for use in the film's final screenplay. Heinlein also published a tie-in novella, Destination Moon, based on the screenplay. The film's storyline also resembles portions of Heinlein's novel The Man Who Sold the Moon, which he wrote in 1949 but did not publish until 1951, a year after the Pal film opened.[8]

Matte paintings by BonestellEdit

Destination Moon uses matte paintings by noted astronomical artist Chesley Bonestell. These were used for the departure of the Luna from Earth; its approach to the Moon; the spaceship's landing on the lunar surface; and a panorama of the lunar landscape.[9] An oft-noted criticism of the film is the fact that the lunar surface is crisscrossed with gaping cracks. This would imply that the surface was once mud, which requires water, and the Moon doesn’t contain water. Noted artist and Hollywood matte painter Chesley Bonestell, who painted the large backdrop that mimicked lunar crags and mountains, was unhappy with the cracks, which were designed by art director Ernst Fegté. “That was a mistake”, he insisted to Gail Morgan Hickman, author of The Films of George Pal. But Pal explained to Hickman, “Chesley was right, of course ... but we were shooting on a small sound stage because of our limited budget. We had to make the set look bigger. Chesley designed a beautiful backdrop, but it needed something to give it depth. That’s why we made the cracks. The cracks in the foreground were big and those in the distance were small, so it gave a real feeling of perspective. For some scenes we even used midgets in small spacesuits to add to the feeling of depth”. [10] [11] [12]

DirectorEdit

Irving Pichel began his Hollywood career as an actor during the 1920s and early 1930s, in such films as Dracula's Daughter and The Story of Temple Drake.[13] He began directing in 1932; Destination Moon was his 30th film. Pichel was blacklisted after he was subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947, despite having never been called to testify.[14] He directed five more films after Destination Moon before his death in 1954.[15]

Woody WoodpeckerEdit

George Pal and Walter Lantz, who created the cartoon character Woody Woodpecker, had been close friends ever since Pal left Europe and arrived in Hollywood. Out of friendship and for good luck, Pal always tried to include Woody in all his films. (On the commentary track of the Special Collector's DVD Edition of George Pal's science fiction film War of the Worlds (1953), actors Ann Robinson and Gene Barry point out that Woody can be seen in a tree top, center screen, near the beginning of the film.)

Pal incorporates Woody (voiced by Grace Stafford) in an engaging cartoon shown within the film that explains, in layman's terms, the scientific principles behind space travel and how a trip to the Moon might be accomplished.[16] The cartoon is shown to a gathering of U.S. industrialists who, it is hoped, will patriotically finance such a daring venture before an unnamed, non-western power can do so successfully.[17]

SoundtrackEdit

The soundtrack music, written by composer Leith Stevens, is noteworthy for its atmospheric themes and musical motifs, all of which add subtle but important detail and emotion to the various dramatic moments in the film. According to George Pal biographer Gail Morgan Hickman, "Stevens ... consulted with numerous scientists, including Wernher von Braun, to get an idea of what space was like in order to create it musically."[18][19][20] The Stevens Destination Moon film score had its first U.S. release in 1950 on a 10-inch 33 rpm Monaural LP by Columbia Records (#CL 6151):[21]

Side A
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Earth: Prelude"Leith Stevens02:50
2."Earth: Planning and Building of the Great Rocket"Stevens05:03
3."In Outer Space"Stevens06:53
Total length:14:46
Side B
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."On the Surface of the Moon: The Crater Harpalus"Stevens04:10
2."On the Surface of the Moon: Exploring the Moon"Stevens01:58
3."On the Surface of the Moon: The Dilemma"Stevens02:40
4."On the Surface of the Moon: Escape from the Moon and Finale"Stevens03:11
Total length:11:59

Later in the 1950s, the score was re-released on a 12-inch high-fidelity mono LP by Omega Disk (#1003). Omega Disk re-released it in 1960 as a stereophonic 33 1/3 LP (#OLS-3). In 1980, the score was re-released on stereo LP by Varise Sarabande (#STV 81130) and again in 1995 on stereo LP by Citadel Records (#STC 77101). An expanded and complete 56.32 minute version of Steven's original film score, limited to 1,000 copies, was released on CD in 2012 by Monstrous Movie Music (#MMM-1967); also on the CD is Clarence Wheeler's incidental music used for the film's Woody Woodpecker cartoon. An illustrated 20-page booklet of liner notes is also included.[22]

Film rightsEdit

As of 2019, Destination Moon in not in the public domain. Due mainly to the growing popularity of color television, many owners of black and white "B" movies of the 1950s (and some color, too) were anxious to sell them. By the mid-70s, the original 1950 George Pal Productions, Inc., copyright of Destination Moon was renewed through assignment to long-time Kansas City, Missouri, exhibitor, restorer, and conservationist of vintage films Wade Williams, who currently owns all rights to the film worldwide into perpetuity, including, but not limited to, 16mm/35mm/Laserdisc/VHS/DVD/Blu ray/4K/trailer/television/cable/theatrical/non-theatrical/clips/stills and posters/ and remake rights (RE 6-506). [23] [24]

ReceptionEdit

ReleaseEdit

Despite a budget of approximately $500,000 and a large national print media and radio publicity campaign preceding its delayed release, Destination Moon ultimately became the "second" space adventure film of the post-World War II era. Piggybacking on the growing publicity and expectation surrounding the Pal film, Lippert Pictures quickly shot Rocketship X-M in 18 days on a $94,000 budget. The film, about the first spaceship to land on Mars, opened theatrically 25 days before the Pal feature.[4]

Critical reactionEdit

Bosley Crowther in his review of Destination Moon for The New York Times, opined, "... we've got to say this for Mr. Pal and his film: they make a lunar expedition a most intriguing and picturesque event. Even the solemn preparations for this unique exploratory trip, though the lesser phase of the adventure, are profoundly impressive to observe".[25]

In a later appraisal in Time Out Film Guide, editor John Pym saw Destination Moon as having both good and bad aspects "... characteristically thin on plot and characterization, high on patriotism, and impressive in its colour photography and special effects; a true precursor to Star Wars".[26]

A contemporary review by writer and early space enthusiast Arthur C. Clarke reads in part: "[T]his [is a] remarkable exciting and often very beautiful film—the first Technicolor expedition into space. After years of comic strip treatment of interplanetary travel, Hollywood has at last made a serious and scientifically accurate film on the subject, with full cooperation of astronomers and rocket experts. The result is worthy of the enormous pains that have obviously been taken, and it is a tribute to the equally obvious enthusiasm of those responsible." [27]

Author and film critic Leonard Maltin awarded the film two-and-a-half out of four stars, calling it "modestly mounted but still effective". He also praised Bonestell's lunar paintings as being visually striking.[28]

“But make no mistake about it, this picture, flaws and all, is a very important step in the evolution of the serious, special effects-laden science fiction motion picture that reached its peak with ... 2001: A Space Odyssey”. —Barry Atkinson in Atomic Age Cinema

“The visual effects in Pal’s [Destination Moon] were art. They are aesthetically stunning ... they bear the imprint of gifted artists’ hands.... The Luna rocket of Destination Moon still [has] the capacity to astonish”. —Justin Humphreys in “A Cinema of Miracles: Remembering George Pal”, from the memorial program notes for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ George Pal: Discovering the Fantastic: A Centennial Celebration, August 27, 2008[29]

Peter Nicholls in The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction said, “Destination Moon is a film with considerable dignity and, in a quiet way, a genuine sense of wonder”. [30]

In his autobiography Isaac Asimov called the Pal film "the first intelligent science-fiction movie made".[31]

On the other hand, the film has its detractors:

“Trivial in plot ... viewed today Destination Moon is less than impressive; the rocket journey is ploddingly consistent with the scientific standards of 1950... Destination Moon makes rather dull viewing nowadays”. —John Baxter in Science Fiction in the Cinema [32]

Destination Moon now seems tame”. —John Stanley in Creature Features: The Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Movie Guide[33]

"Today it seems dated and slow-moving with flat characters". —John Brosnan in The Science Fiction Encyclopedia[34]

“The Destination Moon script seems colorless and wooden”. —Phil Hardy in The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: Science Fiction [35]

Destination Moon has aged badly ... [it] seems old hat and pedestrian to today’s viewers”. —Barry Atkinson in Atomic Age Cinema [36]

Awards and honorsEdit

Destination Moon won the Academy Award for Best Special Effects in the name of the effects director, Lee Zavitz. The film was also nominated for the Art Direction Academy Award, by Ernst Fegté and George Sawley.[37]

At the 1st Berlin International Film Festival it won the Bronze Berlin Bear Award, for "Thrillers and Adventure Films."[38]

Retro Hugo Awards: A special 1951 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation was retroactively awarded to Destination Moon by the 59th World Science Fiction Convention (2001) exactly 50 years later for being one of the science fiction films eligible in calendar year 1950.[39] (50 years, 75 years, or 100 years govern the time periods when a Retro Hugo can be awarded by a Worldcon for the years prior to 1953 when the Hugos were established and first awarded.)[40]

AdaptationsEdit

 
Comic book tie-in (Fawcett Comics, 1950).

Episode 12 of the Dimension X radio series was called Destination Moon and was based on Heinlein's final draft of the film's shooting script. During the broadcast on June 24, 1950, the program was interrupted by a news bulletin announcing that North Korea had declared war on South Korea, marking the beginning of the Korean War.[41]

Robert A. Heinlein published an adaptation in the September 1950 issue of Short Stories magazine.[citation needed]

A highly condensed version of the Dimension X Destination Moon radio play was adapted by Charles Palmer and was released by Capitol Records for children, who had become familiar with their recordings through a Bozo the Clown-approved record series. The series featured 7-inch, 78-rpm recordings and full-color booklets which children could follow as they listened to the stories. The Destination Moon record was narrated by Tom Reddy, and Billy May composed the incidental and background music. The record's storyline took considerable liberties with the film's plot and characters, although the general shape of the film story remained.[42]

In 1950, Fawcett Publications released a 10-cent Destination Moon film tie-in comic book.[43][44] DC Comics also published a comic book preview on the Pal film; it was the cover feature of DC's brand new science fiction anthology comic book Strange Adventures # 1 (September 1950).[4]

The same year, Tintin Magazine released an unrelated serialization from The Adventures of Tintin stories but titled Destination Moon. It was from Belgian cartoonist Herge and ran from 30 March 1950 to 7 September 1950.[45]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Scheuer, Philip K. (8 June 1970). "Patience Key to Pal Success". Los Angeles Times. p. e19.
  2. ^ "Destination Moon (1950)". The Numbers. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  3. ^ "Top Grosses of 1950". Variety. January 3, 1951. p. 58.
  4. ^ a b c Warren 1982[page needed]
  5. ^ Hickman, Gail Morgan. The Films of George Pal. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977. ISBN 0-498-01960-8.
  6. ^ Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4.
  7. ^ Enter Robert L. Lippert, a producer of very inexpensive, very quickly made films designed to veer droves of the unwary into theaters. He noticed all this nationwide publicity for Destination Moon and decided to take advantage of all this free promotion for Destination Moon. While Destination Moon had been in production for two years and was costing more than half a million dollars, Lippert was able to quickly combine two rejected plots pitched earlier and separately by Kurt Neumann and Jack Rabin to create a similar film, Rocketship X-M, with $94,000 and a shooting schedule of 18 days. In fact, he made it so fast, it arrived in theaters a full month before Destination Moon. Both films were huge popular and financial successes, leading to the science fiction boom of the 1950s. if Destination Moon had not appeared to have been a slam-dunk, Lippert would never had bothered to make Rocketship X-M. If both pictures, released one right after the other, had not provided the one-two punch of major unexpected financial success, studio executives would never have awakened to the fact that there was a big market for films about outer space and rockets. But once producers saw the writing on the wall, throughout the very next year, in 1951, audiences were treated to The Day the Earth Stood Still, Flight to Mars, Lost Continent, The Man from Planet X, The Thing from Another World, and When Worlds Collide. If Destination Moon had failed, George Pal’s film career could well have been over, and he may have never made When Worlds Collide and The War of the Worlds. If those two Paramount films had not succeeded, there would likely never have been Forbidden Planet or This Island Earth.
  8. ^ name="Warren"
  9. ^ Spudis, Paul D. "Chesley Bonestell and the Landscape of the Moon." Airspacemag.com, June 14, 2012. Retrieved: January 12, 2015.
  10. ^ Hickman, Gail Morgan. The Films of George Pal. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977. ISBN 0-498-01960-8.
  11. ^ Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4.
  12. ^ Readers may recall that the final airport scene in Casablanca also employed little people working around a cardboard cutout airplane in the foggy distance in order to give that dramatic scene perspective.
  13. ^ Koszarski 1977, p. 68.
  14. ^ Buhle and Wagner 2002, p. 184.
  15. ^ McBride 2003, p. 462.
  16. ^ Lev 2003, p. 174.
  17. ^ Adamson 1985, p. 183.
  18. ^ Hickman, Gail Morgan. The Films of George Pal. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977. ISBN 0-498-01960-8.
  19. ^ The 1960 Destination Moon Omega Disk stereo soundtrack album (#OSL-3) liner notes include background by music-commentator Cy Schneider: "When Leith Stevens was called upon back in 1950 to compose a score for George Pal's motion picture Destination Moon, he had a peculiar creative problem on his hands. The picture dealt with man making a rocket to fly him to the moon and this science fiction fantasy itself was created to play upon unexperienced emotions by showing images never before seen. At that time, information on space, the moon's surface, rocket launchings and all the other scientific lingo that has become popular knowledge today, was considerably harder to come by. It took Stevens over three months to steep himself in enough scientific lore to prepare himself to write the first notes. He consulted with many scientists... In these conferences and by studying countless artist’s sketches of the moon’s surface, Stevens was able to discover what the space world was like. The result was a startling, particularly dramatic score which became immediately popular. The music evoked new feelings, new mental pictures ... it investigated a musical world never before probed or propounded so sharply." (Schneider, Cy. Destination Moon soundtrack liner notes, Omega Disk label stereophonic 33 1/3 LP [#OSL-3], 1960. ASIN: B002MK54BQ.)
  20. ^ Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4.
  21. ^ Warren, Bill. Keep Watching the Skies!: American Science Fiction Movies of the 50s (21st century ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2009. ISBN 978-0-78644-230-0.
  22. ^ Discogs[1]
  23. ^ "'Destination Moon'." Archived 2015-04-18 at the Wayback Machine wadewilliamscollection.com. Retrieved: April 17, 2015.
  24. ^ Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4 pp. 54, 68, 155.
  25. ^ Crowther, Bosley. "Destination Moon (1950); The screen: Two new features arrive: 'Destination Moon,' George Pal version of 'Rocket Voyage'." The New York Times, June 28, 1950.
  26. ^ Pym 2004, p. 295.
  27. ^ Journal of the British Astronomical Society, October 1950
  28. ^ Leonard Maltin; Spencer Green; Rob Edelman (January 2010). Leonard Maltin's Classic Movie Guide. Plume. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-452-29577-3.
  29. ^ From the memorial program notes for The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ George Pal: Discovering the Fantastic—A Centennial Celebration, August 27, 2008 p.2
  30. ^ >John Clute and Peter Nicholls (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. p. 324
  31. ^ Asimov (1979) In Memory Yet Green, Avon Books, p. 601
  32. ^ Baxter, John. Science Fiction in the Cinema. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970.
  33. ^ Stanley, John. Creature Features: The Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Movie Guide. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 2000.
  34. ^ Nicholls, Peter, ed. The Science Fiction Encyclopedia. New York: Doubleday, 1979. p. 166
  35. ^ Hardy, Phil (Ed.). The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: Science Fiction. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Books, 1994. pp. 124-125
  36. ^ Atkinson, Barry. Atomic Age Cinema: The Offbeat, the Classic and the Obscure. Baltimore: Midnight Marquee Press, 2014. atomic+age+cinema
  37. ^ "Destination-Moon - Cast, Crew, Director and Awards." The New York Times. Retrieved: January 12, 2015.
  38. ^ "1st Berlin International Film Festival: Prize Winners." Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), 2013. Retrieved: January 12, 2015.
  39. ^ The Hugo Awards[2]
  40. ^ The Hugo Awards, Retro-Hugos[3]
  41. ^ "'Destination Moon' Radio broadcast (22:48)." Dimension X, NBC, June 24, 1950.
  42. ^ "BOZO approved singles, Week 46." Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine Kiddie Records Weekly, 2005. Retrieved: January 12, 2015.
  43. ^ "Fawcett: Destination Moon". Grand Comics Database.
  44. ^ Fawcett: Destination Moon at the Comic Book DB
  45. ^ Tintin Magazine; 'The Adventures of Tintin' books

BibliographyEdit

  • Adamson. Joe The Walter Lantz Story: With Woody Woodpecker and Friends. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1985. ISBN 978-0-39913-096-0.
  • Buhle, Paul and Dave Wagner. A Very Dangerous Citizen: Abraham Lincoln Polonsky and the Hollywood Left. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-52023-672-1.
  • Heinlein, Robert A. "Shooting Destination Moon". Astounding Science Fiction. London: Atlas Pub. and Distributing Co., July 1950. ISSN 1059-2113.
  • Hickman, Gail Morgan. The Films of George Pal. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977. ISBN 0-498-01960-8.
  • Johnson, William. Focus on the Science Fiction Film (Illustrated ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972. ISBN 978-0-13795-179-6.
  • Kondo, Yoji. Requiem: New Collected Works by Robert A. Heinlein and Tributes to the Grand Master. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 1992. ISBN 978-0-81251-391-2.
  • Koszarski, Richard. Hollywood Directors, 1941–1976. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-19502-218-6.
  • Lev, Peter. Transforming the Screen: 1950–1959. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-52024-966-0.
  • McBride, Joseph. Searching For John Ford: A Life. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-31231-011-0.
  • Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. The Great Science Fiction Pictures. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-81081-029-7.
  • Pym, John, ed. "Destination Moon." Time Out Film Guide. London: Time Out Guides Limited, 2004. ISBN 978-0-14101-354-1.
  • Schneider, Cy. Destination Moon soundtrack liner notes, Omega Disk label stereophonic 33 1/3 LP (#OSL-3), 1960. ASIN: B002MK54BQ.
  • Strick, Philip. Science Fiction Movies (Illustrated ed.). London: Octopus Books 1976. ISBN 978-0-7064-0470-8.
  • Warren, Bill. Keep Watching the Skies!: American Science Fiction Movies of the 50s (21st century ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2009. ISBN 978-0-78644-230-0.

External linksEdit