Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret, BWV 31

Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret (Heaven laughs! Earth exults),[1] BWV 31, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach for the first day of Easter. Bach composed the cantata in Weimar and first performed it on 21 April 1715.

Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret
BWV 31
Church cantata by J. S. Bach
Weimar-1840-Herderplatz-Oeder.jpg
St. Peter und Paul, Weimar, probably the location of the first performance
OccasionFirst Day of Easter
Cantata text
Chorale
Performed21 April 1715 (1715-04-21): Weimar
Movements9
Vocal
Instrumental
  • 3 trumpets
  • timpani
  • 3 oboes
  • taille
  • bassoon
  • 2 violins
  • 2 violas
  • 2 cellos
  • continuo

History and wordsEdit

On 2 March 1714 Bach was appointed concertmaster of the Weimar court capelle of the co-reigning dukes Wilhelm Ernst and Ernst August of Saxe-Weimar. As concertmaster, he assumed the principal responsibility for composing new works, specifically cantatas for the Schloßkirche (palace church), on a monthly schedule.[2] Bach composed the cantata for Easter Sunday in 1715. The prescribed readings for the feast day were from the First letter to the Corinthians, "Christ is our Easter lamb" (1 Corinthians 5:6–8), and from the Gospel of Mark, the Resurrection of Jesus (Mark 16:1–8). The text was written by the Weimar poet Salomon Franck who published it in Evangelisches Andachts-Opffer (Evangelical Devotional Offering). The verses consist purely of free poetry and interpret the Easter message, connected to the request to believers to let Jesus also be resurrected within their souls. The final movement, the last verse of the chorale "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist" (When my hour is come) by Nikolaus Herman,[3][4] expresses the desire to die, to follow Jesus in resurrection.[5]

Bach first performed the cantata on 21 April 1715. Looking at the rich scoring of three instrumental groups and a five-part choir, John Eliot Gardiner suggests that the cantata was not performed in the court's small Schloßkirche, but in the town church St. Peter und Paul, where the ducal family evidently at times attended services.[6] Bach later performed the cantata several times in Leipzig in a slightly modified form. There is proof of performances for the years 1724 and 1731; a further performance in 1735 is probable as well. Since the Weimar tuning of the organ, which served as a reference for the string instruments, was probably a third higher than the standard tuning tone in Leipzig, Bach had to either leave out the voices of the reed instruments or rewrite them for the Leipzig performances, or to replace the parts by different instruments.[5][7]

Scoring and structureEdit

The cantata in nine movements is festively scored for three vocal soloists (soprano, tenor and bass), a five-part choir (SSATB), three trumpets, timpani, three oboes, taille (tenor oboe), bassoon, two violins, two violas, two cellos and basso continuo. The scoring for five parts in the choir, five parts in the woodwinds and six parts in the strings is unusual.[5]

Movements of Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret
No. Title Type Vocal Winds Strings Brass Percussion Key Time
1 Sonata 3 oboes, taille, bassoon 2 violins, 2 violas, 2 cellos, basso continuo 3 trumpets Timpani C major 6/8
2 Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret Chorus SSATB 3 oboes, taille, bassoon 2 violins, 2 violas, 2 cellos, basso continuo 3 trumpets Timpani C major  
3 Erwünschter Tag! Recitative Bass 1 cello, basso continuo  
4 Fürst des Lebens, starker Streiter Aria Bass 1 cello, basso continuo C major  
5 So stehe dann, du gottergebne Seele Recitative Tenor 1 cello, basso continuo  
6 Adam muss in uns verwesen Aria Tenor 2 violins, 2 violas, 2 cellos, basso continuo G major  
7 Weil dann das Haupt sein Glied Recitative Soprano 1 cello, basso continuo  
8 Letzte Stunde, brich herein Aria Soprano 1 oboe 2 violins, 2 violas, 1 cello, basso continuo C major 3/4
10 So fahr ich hin zu Jesu Christ Chorale SSATB 3 oboe, taille, bassoon 2 violins, 2 violas, 2 cellos, basso continuo 1 trumpet C major  

MusicEdit

The festive character of the work is demonstrated by a sonata with a fanfare-like introduction, a concerto of the three groups brass, reeds and strings, all divided in many parts.[6] The first choral movement, sung by a five-part chorus, evokes the "celestial laughter and worldly jubilation" of the text, according to John Eliot Gardiner, who continues:

the dance-propelled rhythms and the trumpet-edged brilliance look forward to the Gloria from the B minor Mass, even to the slowing down of tempo and silencing of the brass when the words speak of Christ's release from the tomb.[6]

The bass voice announces the resurrection of Jesus in a recitative and continues in an aria, both accompanied only by the continuo. The aria, marked Molto adagio, praises Jesus as "Prince of life"[1] and "strong fighter".[1][7]

The higher tenor voice addresses in a recitative the soul to look to the "new life in spirit", followed by a bright aria, accompanied by the strings, which speaks of "der neue Mensch" (the new man), free from sin.[7]

The highest voice, the soprano, sings in the first person as the soul in a recitative,[8] convinced of taking part in the resurrection. In the last aria, soprano and solo oboe in echo-effects contrast with low-lying unison strings, which already anticipate the closing chorale's melody.[7] The hymn is a "death-bed chorale", set for a four-part choir, crowned by a descant from the trumpet and first violin.[6][8]

RecordingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Dellal, Pamela. "BWV 31 – Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  2. ^ Koster, Jan. "Weimar 1708–1717". let.rug.nl. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist / Text and Translation of Chorale". Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  4. ^ "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist". Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German). 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 234–237. ISBN 3-423-04080-7.
  6. ^ a b c d Gardiner, John Eliot (2007). Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) / Cantatas Nos 4, 6, 31, 66, 134 & 145 (Media notes). Soli Deo Gloria (at Hyperion Records website). Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Tadashi Isoyama, Tadashi Isoyama (1997). "BWV3I: Der Himmel lacht, die Erde jubilieret / The heavens laugh. the earth rejoices" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  8. ^ a b Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 47 BWV 31 Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret. / The heavens laugh and the world rejoices". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.

SourcesEdit