Open main menu

In grammar, denominal verbs are verbs derived from nouns. Many languages have regular morphological indicators to create denominal verbs.

Contents

EnglishEdit

English examples are to school, from school, meaning to instruct; to shelve, from shelf, meaning to put on shelves; and to symbolize, from symbol, meaning to be a symbol for.

Some common denominalizing affixes in English are -ize/-ise (e.g., summarize), -ify (e.g., classify), -ate (e.g., granulate), en- (e.g., enslave), be- (e.g., behead), and zero or -∅ (e.g.,, school).[1]

A variety of semantic relations are expressed between the base noun X and the derived verb; there is no simple relationship between the affix and the semantic relation:[1]

  • resultative: to make something into an X, e.g., victimize, cash
  • locative: to put something in X, e.g., box, hospitalize
  • instrumental: to use X, e.g., sponge, hammer
  • ablative, privative: to remove X from something, e.g., shell (peas), behead, bone
  • ornative: to add X to something or to cover something with X, e.g., rubberize, salt
  • similative: to act like or resemble X, e.g., tyrannize, guard
  • performative: to do or perform X, e.g., botanize, tango

RgyalrongEdit

In Rgyalrong languages, denominal derivation are extremely developed and have given rise to incorporating and antipassive constructions (Jacques 2012, 2014).

LatinEdit

Many Latin verbs are denominal.[2] For example, the first declension verb coronare (to crown) is derived from corona (a crown),[2] and the fourth declension verbs mollire (to soften) and servire (to serve) are derived from mollis (soft) and servus (a slave) respectively.[3]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Carolyn A. Gottfurcht, Denominal Verb Formation in English, Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2008 full text
  2. ^ a b Moreland, Floyd L.; Fleischer, Rita M. (1990). Latin: An Intensive Course. London, England: University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 0520031830.
  3. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. IV (2004). "13.13". Indo-European Languages and Culture. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0315-2.

ReferencesEdit