Demophon of Athens

In Greek mythology, Demophon /ˈdɛməˌfɒn, -fən/ (Ancient Greek: Δημοφῶν or Δημοφόων) was a king of Athens.

Demophon
King of Athens
Member of the Achaeans
Edward Burne-Jones Phyllis and Demophoon 1870.jpg
Phyllis and Demophoön by Edward Burne-Jones (1870)
PredecessorTheseus
AbodeAthens
Personal information
ParentsTheseus and Phaedra or Iope
SiblingsAcamas
ConsortPhyllis
OffspringOxyntes by unknown consort

FamilyEdit

According to Pindar, Demophon was the son of Theseus and Phaedra, brother of Acamas.[1] Some say that Demophon's mother was Iope, daughter of Iphicles.[2]

MythologyEdit

 
Demophon (?) freeing Aethra, Attic white-ground kylix, 470–460 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2687)

Trojan warEdit

Demophon fought in the Trojan War and was among those who entered the city in the Trojan Horse. The brothers freed their grandmother Aethra, who had been captured by the Dioscuri and served Helen as a handmaid for a while, and brought her home.[3]

Thracian princessEdit

 
Early 16th century woodcut of Phyllis and Demophon

Demophon married Phyllis, daughter of a Thracian king (possibly of Sithon), while he stopped in Thrace on his journey home from the Trojan war. On the next day after the wedding, however, he had to leave, promising to return and take Phyllis with him as soon as possible. She gave him a casket and told not to open it unless he should lose every hope to return to Thrace. Demophon eventually settled in Cyprus and forgot about Phyllis. She would come to the sea shore every day, expecting to see the sails of his ship, but in vain. After the appointed date was past, she either died of grief or hanged herself. One day Demophon opened the casket out of curiosity; what he saw there was so horrifying that he jumped onto his horse and rode like wild till he fell off the horse on his own sword and died.[4] Others, however, say that he did return, but Phyllis was already dead by the time; when he embraced the lifeless almond tree into which she was said to have transformed after death, it started to blossom.[5]

HeraclidesEdit

Not all sources, however, accepted the tradition of Demophon's death in Cyprus. In Euripides' play Heracleidae, Demophon was the king of Athens, having succeeded to his father's power.[6] He granted the children of Heracles, who were fleeing from Eurystheus, refuge in Athens. As Eurystheus prepared to attack, an oracle told Demophon that he would win if and only if a noble virgin was sacrificed to Persephone. Macaria volunteered for the sacrifice and a spring was named the Macarian spring in her honor. When Diomedes, having landed on the coast of Attica after a storm and failing to recognize the land, started to ravage it, Demophon marched out against the invaders, and was successful enough to take the Palladium from Diomedes. However, he accidentally killed a fellow Athenian in the battle, and was tried in court for that.[7] Demophon had a son Oxyntes.[8]

Versions of mythEdit

Lucian[9] relates the story concerning Phyllis not of Demophon, but of his brother Acamas, probably because the character of his work was supposed to be ignorant and to have confounded the two brothers. Tzetzes[10] repeats the mistake. Acamas is better known for having been loved by Laodice, daughter of Priam.[11][12]

Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Athens Succeeded by

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 1.18; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.62.1
  2. ^ Stesichorus fr. 193.23–24; Iope is also mentioned by Plutarch in Theseus 29.1
  3. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22
  4. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.16–17; Ovid, Heroides 2; Hyginus, Fabulae 59
  5. ^ Servius on Virgil's Eclogues 5.10
  6. ^ See also Hyginus, Fabulae 48 & Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 33
  7. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.28.9
  8. ^ Tzetzes, Chiliades 1.181
  9. ^ Lucian, De saltatione 40
  10. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 495
  11. ^ Parthenius, Erotica Pathemata 16
  12. ^ However, Plutarch (Theseus 34) makes Laodice mother of Mounychus (others call her son Munitus) by Demophon, not Acamas

ReferencesEdit

  • Antoninus Liberalis, The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis translated by Francis Celoria (Routledge 1992). Online version at the Topos Text Project.
  • Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
  • Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1989. Vol. 3. Books 4.59–8. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site
  • Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888–1890. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
  • Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, Lives with an English Translation by Bernadotte Perrin. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. 1. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
  • Parthenius, Love Romances translated by Sir Stephen Gaselee (1882-1943), S. Loeb Classical Library Volume 69. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. 1916. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
  • Parthenius, Erotici Scriptores Graeci, Vol. 1. Rudolf Hercher. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1858. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. ISBN 0-674-99328-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
  • Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Publius Ovidius Naso, The Epistles of Ovid. London. J. Nunn, Great-Queen-Street; R. Priestly, 143, High-Holborn; R. Lea, Greek-Street, Soho; and J. Rodwell, New-Bond-Street. 1813. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Tzetzes, John, Book of Histories, Book I translated by Ana Untila from the original Greek of T. Kiessling's edition of 1826. Online version at theio.com