Demographics of the European Union

The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. As of 1 February 2020, the population of the EU is about 445 million people.[3]

Demographics of the European Union
Population density by NUTS 3 region (2017).svg
Map showing the population density by NUTS3 region, 2017, before Brexit
Population447,706,209 (2020)[1]
Growth rate0,1 (2020 est.)[2]
Birth rate9.5 births per 1,000 (2020 est.)[2]
Death rate10.7 deaths per 1,000 (2020 est.)[2]
Life expectancy80.9 years[2]
 • male78 years[2]
 • female83.9 years (2020 est.)[2]
Fertility rate1.62 children per woman (2020 est.)[2]
Infant mortality rate3.7 deaths per 1,000 live births (2020 est.)[2]
Language
OfficialSee languages of the European Union
SpokenGerman: 16% (2020)[2]
The population density of the EU is 117 people per km².
A cartogram depicting the population distribution between old EU-27 member states (including the UK and excluding Croatia). 58% of all citizens of the EU live in the four largest member states: Germany, France, Italy, and Spain.
The fertility rate in the EU was 1.6 in 2014 (Kindergarten in France).

Population by countryEdit

The most populous member state is Germany, with an estimated 82.8 million people, and the least populous member state is Malta with 0.48 million. Birth rates in the EU are low with the average woman having 1.6 children. The highest birth-rates are found in Ireland with 16.876 births per thousand people per year and France with 13.013 births per thousand people per year. Germany has the lowest birth rate in Europe with 8.221 births per thousand people per year.

.[4]

Population and total area of the 27 member states of the European Union
(1 January 2017 estimate[5])
Member State Population Percent
of total EU-27 pop.
Total area
km2
Percent
of total EU-27 area
Pop. density
People/km2
  European Union 445,834,883 100.00% 4079962 100.00% 105.3
  Austria 8,772,865 1.97% 83858 1.98% 104.6
  Belgium 11,351,727 2.55% 30510 0.72% 372.1
  Bulgaria 7,101,859 1.59% 110912 2.62% 64.0
  Croatia 4,154,213 0.93% 56594 1.34% 73.4
  Cyprus 854,802 0.19% 9250 0.22% 92.4
  Czech Republic 10,578,820 2.37% 78866 1.86% 134.1
  Denmark 5,748,769 1.29% 43094 1.02% 133.4
  Estonia 1,315,635 0.30% 45226 1.07% 29.1
  Finland 5,503,297 1.23% 337030 7.96% 16.3
  France 66,989,083 15.03% 643548 15.20% 104.1
  Germany 82,521,653 18.51% 357021 8.43% 231.1
  Greece 10,768,193 2.42% 131957 3.12% 81.6
  Hungary 9,797,561 2.20% 93030 2.20% 105.3
  Ireland 4,904,226 1.10% 70280 1.66% 68.1
  Italy 60,589,445 13.59% 301320 7.12% 201.1
  Latvia 1,950,116 0.44% 64589 1.53% 30.2
  Lithuania 2,847,904 0.64% 65200 1.54% 43.7
  Luxembourg 590,667 0.13% 2586 0.06% 228.4
  Malta 460,297 0.10% 316 0.01% 1456.6
  Netherlands 17,081,507 3.83% 41526 0.98% 411.3
  Poland 37,972,964 8.52% 312685 7.38% 121.4
  Portugal 10,309,573 2.31% 92931 2.19% 110.9
  Romania 19,644,350 4.41% 238391 5.63% 82.4
  Slovakia 5,435,343 1.22% 48845 1.15% 111.3
  Slovenia 2,065,895 0.46% 20253 0.48% 102.0
  Spain 46,528,966 10.44% 504782 11.92% 92.2
  Sweden 9,995,153 2.24% 449964 10.63% 22.2

Most populous areasEdit

The European Union has a significant number of global cities. It contained 13 of the 60 cities which composed the 2008 Global Cities Index,[6] as well as 16 of the 41 "alpha" global cities classified by Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network (including Paris, Milan, Amsterdam and Brussels among others).[7] The following is a list of the ten most populous cities, urban areas and urban zones in the European Union, with their population:

City proper
(2011)

mill.
Urban area
(2014)

mill.
LUZ
(2016)

mill.
       
  Berlin 3.6   Paris 10.9   Paris 12.0
  Madrid 3.1   Ruhr Area 6.7   Madrid 6.4
  Rome 2.7   Madrid 6.2   Barcelona 5.4
  Paris 2.2   Milan 5.3   Ruhr Area 5.0 Berlin Madrid Rome Paris
  Bucharest 2.1   Barcelona 4.7   Berlin 5.0        
  Vienna 1.9   Berlin 4.1   Milan 4.3
  Hamburg 1.8   Rome 3.9   Naples 4.1
  Warsaw 1.8   Naples 3.7   Athens 3.9
  Budapest 1.8   Athens 3.5   Rome 3.7 Bucharest Vienna Hamburg Warsaw

Population shiftsEdit

Country Population
(2019)[3]
Population growth
(‰) (2018)[8]
Natural change
(‰) (2018)[9]
Net migration
(‰) (2018)[10]
Total fertility rate
(2018)[11]
  European Union 446,824,564 1.6 -1.0 2.6 1.55
  Germany 83,019,214 2.7 -2.0 4.8 1.57
  France 67,028,048 1.4 2.2 -0.8 1.88
  Italy 60,359,546 -2.1 -3.2 1.1 1.29
  Spain 46,934,632 6.0 -1.2 7.1 1.26
  Poland 37,972,812 -0.1 -0.7 0.6 1.46
  Romania 19,401,658 -6.0 -3.1 -2.8 1.76
  Netherlands 17,282,163 5.9 0.9 5.0 1.59
  Belgium 11,467,923 5.0 0.7 4.3 1.62
  Greece 10,722,287 -1.5 -3.2 1.6 1.35
  Czech Republic 10,649,800 3.7 0.1 3.6 1.71
  Portugal 10,276,617 -1.4 -2.5 1.1 1.42
  Sweden 10,230,185 10.8 2.3 8.5 1.76
  Hungary 9,772,756 -0.6 -3.9 3.3 1.55
  Austria 8,858,775 4.1 0.2 4.0 1.47
  Bulgaria 7,000,039 -7.1 -6.6 -0.5 1.56
  Denmark 5,806,081 4.3 1.1 3.2 1.73
  Finland 5,517,919 0.9 -1.3 2.1 1.41
  Slovakia 5,450,421 1.3 0.6 0.7 1.54
  Ireland 4,904,226 15.2 6.2 9.0 1.75
  Croatia 4,076,246 -7.1 -3.9 -3.3 1.47
  Lithuania 2,794,184 -5.3 -4.1 -1.2 1.63
  Slovenia 2,080,908 6.8 -0.4 7.2 1.60
  Latvia 1,919,968 -7.5 -4.9 -2.5 1.60
  Estonia 1,324,820 4.3 -1.0 5.3 1.67
  Cyprus 875,898 13.4 4.1 9.3 1.32
  Luxembourg 613,894 19.6 3.2 16.3 1.38
  Malta 493,559 36.8 1.6 35.3 1.23
Country Population Population growth Natural change Net migration Total fertility rate

MigrationEdit

The movement of people within the Union i.e. internal migration, remains limited; it has traditionally followed two patterns:

  • Younger workers from less economically developed regions and countries of the EU tend to move to more prosperous regions in their country or to EU countries with good economic prospects (i.e. Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Poland[12])
  • Retirees from wealthier places with colder weather (i.e. Benelux and Germany) tend to move to the sun belt in southern Europe - i.e. Spain, Portugal, Southern France, Italian peninsula and Greece.

Immigration and emigrationEdit

At present, more people immigrate into the European Union than emigrate from it. Immigration is a controversial issue in many member states, including Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and France.[citation needed] It was also a major cited as a major factor in the Brexit referendum of 2016.

In 2010, 47.3 million people living in the EU, or 9.4% of the total population, had been born outside their resident country. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) had been born outside the EU; 16.0 million (3.2%) had been born in another member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[13]

In 2017, approximately 825,000 persons acquired citizenship of a member state of the European Union, down from 995,000 in 2016.[14] The largest groups were nationals of Morocco, Albania, India, Turkey and Pakistan.[15]

Spain in particular receives most of the immigrants coming illegally to Europe from Africa, probably due to its large coastal area and its proximity to and land borders with Morocco at Ceuta and Melilla; African immigrants try to enter the country by boat from Morocco or Senegal or by jumping the border fences. For example, during just the first weekend of September 2006, more than 1,300 illegal immigrants arrived on beaches in the Canary Islands[16] and estimates are that between 50,000 and 70,000 people enter the European Union illegally through Spanish borders or beaches. Border fences have been built at both the Ceuta and Melilla borders in an attempt to stop illegal entrance to the country. Illegal immigration is an issue in Spanish politics, and also a big human rights problem, since many people die during the journey. Spain has been Europe's largest absorber of migrants for the past six years, with its immigrant population increasing fourfold as 2.8 million people have arrived, mostly from Latin America. Spectacular growth in Spain's immigrant population came as the country's economy created more than half of all the new jobs in the European Union between 2001 and 2006.[17]

The net migration rate for the EU in 2008 was 3.1 per 1,000 inhabitants;[18] this figure is for migration into and out of the European Union, and therefore excludes any internal movements between member states. Annual net migration has varied from 1.5 to 2.0 million people since 2003.[18]

Country Total population 2010 (1000) Total Foreign-born (1000) % Born in other EU state (1000) % Born in a non EU state (1000) %[19]
  Old EU-27 501,098 47,348 9.4 15,980 3.2 31,368 6.3
  Germany 81,802 9,812 12.0 3,396 4.2 6,415 7.8
  France 64,716 7,196 11.1 2,118 3.3 5,078 7.8
  Spain 45,989 6,422 14.0 2,328 5.1 4,094 8.9
  Italy 60,340 4,798 8.0 1,592 2.6 3,205 6.5
  Netherlands 16,575 1,832 11.1 428 2.6 1,404 8.5
  Greece 11,305 1,256 11.1 315 2.8 940 8.3
  Sweden 9,340 1,337 14.3 477 5.1 859 10.2
  Austria 8,367 1,276 15.2 512 6.1 764 9.1
  Belgium 10,666 1,380 12.9 695 6.5 927.6 7.3
  Portugal 10,637 793 7.5 191 1.8 602 5.7
  Denmark 5,534 500 9.0 152 2.8 348 6.3

Vital statistics [20]Edit

27 countries (from 2020)Edit

Since 2020, EU data is aggregated for the 27 remaining states. UK is no more a member due to Brexit.

Year Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1960 355,557,414 6,642,919 3,585,994 3,056,925 18.7 10.1 8.6
1961 358,917,677 6,657,429 3,508,800 3,148,629 18.5 9.8 8.8
1962 362,292,099 6,600,463 3,721,195 2,879,268 18.2 10.3 7.9
1963 365,754,385 6,715,244 3,723,423 2,991,821 18.4 10.2 8.2
1964 368,938,389 6,796,911 3,622,925 3,173,986 18.4 9.8 8.6
1965 371,982,334 6,640,838 3,751,106 2,889,732 17.9 10.1 7.8
1966 374,882,363 6,578,243 3,718,683 2,859,560 17.5 9.9 7.6
1967 377,698,630 6,718,346 3,811,566 2,906,780 17.8 10.1 7.7
1968 380,351,144 6,610,324 3,951,103 2,659,221 17.4 10.4 7.0
1969 382,976,404 6,482,385 4,079,386 2,402,999 16.9 10.7 6.3
1970 385,137,827 6,302,419 3,986,877 2,315,542 16.4 10.4 6.0
1971 387,270,862 6,303,901 4,047,311 2,256,590 16.3 10.5 5.8
1972 389,902,199 6,152,597 3,995,901 2,156,696 15.8 10.2 5.5
1973 392,434,984 6,032,514 4,079,758 1,952,756 15.4 10.4 5.0
1974 394,804,887 6,098,560 4,046,095 2,052,465 15.4 10.2 5.2
1975 396,936,395 5,961,857 4,163,866 1,797,991 15.0 10.5 4.5
1976 399,002,351 5,927,646 4,163,979 1,763,667 14.9 10.4 4.4
1977 400,935,349 5,860,777 4,096,398 1,764,379 14.6 10.2 4.4
1978 402,782,640 5,774,451 4,171,363 1,603,088 14.3 10.4 4.0
1979 404,564,541 5,730,006 4,144,125 1,585,881 14.2 10.2 3.9
1980 406,417,979 5,720,295 4,250,071 1,470,224 14.1 10.5 3.6
1981 408,131,851 5,591,081 4,217,650 1,373,431 13.7 10.3 3.4
1982 409,501,178 5,523,341 4,183,575 1,339,766 13.5 10.2 3.3
1983 410,557,063 5,355,464 4,304,514 1,050,950 13.0 10.5 2.6
1984 411,456,968 5,318,550 4,233,094 1,085,456 12.9 10.3 2.6
1985 412,391,874 5,264,500 4,335,723 928,777 12.8 10.5 2.3
1986 413,482,162 5,243,235 4,296,210 947,025 12.7 10.4 2.3
1987 414,653,514 5,193,167 4,242,345 950,822 12.5 10.2 2.3
1988 415,967,079 5,221,160 4,246,582 974,578 12.6 10.2 2.3
1989 417,372,976 5,123,258 4,265,774 857,484 12.3 10.2 2.1
1990 418,764,395 5,095,162 4,324,569 770,593 12.2 10.3 1.8
1991 419,958,792 4,950,436 4,350,854 599,582 11.8 10.4 1.4
1992 421,163,060 4,837,349 4,304,019 533,330 11.5 10.2 1.3
1993 422,508,788 4,691,242 4,367,728 323,514 11.1 10.3 0.8
1994 423,532,766 4,562,253 4,314,434 247,819 10.8 10.2 0.6
1995 424,301,173 4,448,929 4,355,217 93,712 10.5 10.3 0.2
1996 424,957,650 4,453,778 4,361,669 92,109 10.5 10.3 0.2
1997 425,560,270 4,446,644 4,316,381 130,263 10.4 10.1 0.3
1998 427,740,621 4,420,951 4,329,087 91,864 10.3 10.1 0.2
1999 428,431,186 4,418,622 4,331,000 87,622 10.3 10.1 0.2
2000 428,929,021 4,487,745 4,267,048 220,697 10.5 9.9 0.5
2001 429,481,944 4,393,825 4,231,178 162,647 10.2 9.9 0.4 1.43
2002 430,456,663 4,364,928 4,284,989 79,939 10.1 10.0 0.2 1.43
2003 431,976,112 4,384,916 4,373,650 11,266 10.2 10.1 0.0 1.44
2004 433,589,156 4,441,177 4,190,920 250,257 10.2 9.7 0.6 1.46
2005 435,116,254 4,454,301 4,288,668 165,633 10.2 9.9 0.4 1.47
2006 436,521,866 4,515,537 4,224,330 291,207 10.3 9.7 0.7 1.50
2007 437,984,240 4,551,180 4,271,736 279,444 10.4 9.8 0.6 1.52
2008 439,386,639 4,675,051 4,312,237 362,814 10.6 9.8 0.8 1.57
2009 440,426,387 4,622,368 4,341,741 280,627 10.5 9.9 0.6 1.56
2010 441,041,446 4,603,858 4,344,647 259,211 10.4 9.9 0.6 1.57
2011 440,260,386 4,458,386 4,318,817 139,569 10.1 9.8 0.3 1.54
2012 440,905,186 4,417,656 4,441,347 -23,691 10.0 10.1 -0.1 1.54
2013 441,958,943 4,303,313 4,419,258 -115,945 9.7 10.0 -0.3 1.51
2014 443,274,551 4,361,239 4,372,607 -11,368 9.8 9.9 0.0 1.54
2015 444,234,821 4,330,922 4,620,411 -289,489 9.7 10.4 -0.7 1.54
2016 445,167,186 4,379,549 4,534,200 -154,651 9.8 10.2 -0.3 1.57
2017 445,816,427 4,320,121 4,659,998 -339,877 9.7 10.5 -0.8 1.56
2018 446,461,494 4,245,710 4,693,445 -447,735 9.5 10.5 -1.0 1.55
2019 447.706,2xx 4,151,9xx 4,650,1xx -498,3xx 9.3 10.4 -1.1
2020
Year Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate

28 countries (2013–2020)Edit

Before Brexit, EU data was aggregated for 28 countries member of the EU from 2013 until 2020, including the UK.

Year Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1960 407,929,914 7,561,205 4,189,322 3,371,883 18.5 10.3 8.2
1961 411,717,677 7,601,829 4,140,600 3,461,229 18.5 10.1 8.4
1962 415,542,099 7,576,063 4,357,295 3,218,768 18.2 10.5 7.7
1963 419,404,385 7,705,444 4,377,723 3,327,721 18.4 10.4 7.9
1964 422,938,389 7,811,611 4,234,125 3,577,486 18.5 10.0 8.5
1965 426,330,384 7,638,113 4,378,902 3,259,211 17.9 10.3 7.6
1966 429,530,863 7,554,843 4,362,436 3,192,407 17.6 10.2 7.4
1967 432,642,230 7,680,146 4,428,276 3,251,870 17.8 10.2 7.5
1968 435,562,844 7,557,624 4,607,101 2,950,523 17.4 10.6 6.8
1969 438,418,154 7,402,685 4,738,923 2,663,762 16.9 10.8 6.1
1970 440,801,077 7,206,326 4,642,263 2,564,063 16.3 10.5 5.8
1971 443,167,085 7,205,501 4,692,389 2,513,112 16.3 10.6 5.7
1972 445,988,264 6,986,597 4,669,839 2,316,758 15.7 10.5 5.2
1973 448,629,511 6,812,059 4,749,450 2,062,609 15.2 10.6 4.6
1974 451,034,861 6,835,698 4,713,454 2,122,244 15.2 10.5 4.7
1975 453,162,195 6,659,375 4,826,343 1,833,032 14.7 10.7 4.0
1976 455,214,319 6,603,172 4,844,778 1,758,394 14.5 10.6 3.9
1977 457,128,841 6,517,815 4,751,541 1,766,274 14.3 10.4 3.9
1978 458,979,144 6,461,403 4,838,540 1,622,863 14.1 10.5 3.5
1979 460,811,492 6,464,578 4,819,701 1,644,877 14.0 10.5 3.6
1980 462,732,195 6,474,003 4,911,588 1,562,415 14.0 10.6 3.4
1981 464,465,680 6,321,793 4,875,624 1,446,169 13.6 10.5 3.1
1982 465,814,819 6,242,340 4,846,376 1,395,964 13.4 10.4 3.0
1983 466,889,911 6,076,702 4,963,615 1,113,087 13.0 10.6 2.4
1984 467,879,040 6,047,951 4,878,012 1,169,939 12.9 10.4 2.5
1985 468,942,142 6,015,020 5,006,379 1,008,641 12.8 10.7 2.2
1986 470,163,558 5,998,040 4,956,675 1,041,365 12.8 10.5 2.2
1987 471,455,564 5,968,572 4,886,687 1,081,885 12.7 10.4 2.3
1988 472,895,406 6,008,463 4,895,767 1,112,696 12.7 10.4 2.4
1989 474,449,687 5,900,294 4,923,507 976,787 12.4 10.4 2.1
1990 476,011,981 5,893,526 4,966,368 927,158 12.4 10.4 1.9
1991 477,383,689 5,742,705 4,997,035 745,670 12.0 10.5 1.6
1992 478,743,462 5,618,148 4,938,257 679,891 11.7 10.3 1.4
1993 480,227,402 5,452,768 5,026,209 426,559 11.4 10.5 0.9
1994 481,398,511 5,312,733 4,942,070 370,663 11.0 10.3 0.8
1995 482,320,203 5,180,511 5,000,710 179,801 10.7 10.4 0.4
1996 483,124,600 5,186,641 4,997,674 188,967 10.7 10.3 0.4
1997 483,877,224 5,173,266 4,946,126 227,140 10.7 10.2 0.5
1998 486,227,762 5,137,839 4,958,257 179,582 10.6 10.2 0.4
1999 487,113,652 5,118,598 4,963,062 155,536 10.5 10.2 0.3
2000 487,821,535 5,166,774 4,875,413 291,361 10.6 10.0 0.6
2001 488,601,617 5,062,948 4,833,446 229,502 10.4 9.9 0.5 1.46
2002 489,827,142 5,033,705 4,891,203 142,502 10.3 10.0 0.3 1.46
2003 491,623,688 5,080,465 4,984,835 95,630 10.3 10.1 0.2 1.47
2004 493,577,060 5,157,173 4,774,002 383,171 10.4 9.7 0.8 1.50
2005 495,517,460 5,176,850 4,871,331 305,519 10.4 9.8 0.6 1.51
2006 497,368,686 5,264,100 4,796,554 467,546 10.6 9.6 0.9 1.54
2007 499,306,703 5,323,425 4,846,423 477,002 10.7 9.7 1.0 1.56
2008 501,193,634 5,469,434 4,891,934 577,500 10.9 9.8 1.2 1.61
2009 502,702,657 5,412,572 4,901,358 511,214 10.8 9.8 1.0 1.61
2010 503,807,810 5,411,129 4,906,313 504,816 10.7 9.7 1.0 1.62
2011 503,519,196 5,266,162 4,871,049 395,113 10.5 9.7 0.8 1.59
2012 504,605,401 5,230,626 5,010,371 220,255 10.4 9.9 0.4 1.59
2013 506,087,216 5,081,671 4,994,203 87,468 10.0 9.9 0.2 1.55
2014 507,876,849 5,137,147 4,941,447 195,700 10.1 9.7 0.4 1.58
2015 509,351,040 5,107,668 5,221,683 -114,015 10.0 10.3 -0.2 1.58
2016 510,778,779 5,153,935 5,129,855 24,080 10.1 10.0 0.0 1.60
2017 511,875,286 5,074,875 5,265,746 -190,871 9.9 10.3 -0.4 1.59
2018 512,921,838 4,976,628 5,307,758 -331,130 9.7 10.3 -0.6 1.56
2019
Year Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate

ReligionEdit

The EU has significant religious diversity, mirroring its diverse history and culture. The largest religious group professes Christianity and accounts for 64% of the EU population in 2019,[21] down from 72% in 2012.[22] Largest christian groups are Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Several EU nations do not have a Christian majority and for example in Estonia and the Czech Republic the majority have no religious affiliation.

European countries have experienced a decline in church attendance as well as a decline in the number of people professing a religious belief. The 2010 Eurobarometer Poll found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of EU Member States state that they believe there is a God, 26% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force and 20% don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force. 3% declined to answer.[23] These figures show a 2% change from theism to atheism since 2005.[24]

European indigenous (or native) religions are still alive in small and diverse minorities, especially in Scandinavia, Baltic states, Italy and Greece.[citation needed]

The recent influx of immigrants to the affluent EU nations has brought in various religions of their native homelands, including Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and the Baháʼí Faith. Judaism has had a long history in Europe and has coexisted with the other religions for centuries, despite periods of persecution or genocide by European rulers. Islam too has had a long history in Europe, with Spain and Portugal at one time having a Muslim majority.[25] Large Muslim populations also exist in the Balkans and parts of Eastern Europe, due to a legacy of centuries of Ottoman rule.

LanguageEdit

The first official language of each of the 27 Member Countries has the status of an official language of the European Union. In total there are 24, with Irish, Bulgarian and Romanian gaining official language status on 1 January 2007, when the last two countries joined the European Union, and Croatian becoming official in 2013.

Before Brexit, English was the most spoken language in the EU, being spoken by around 51% of its population. This high proportion is because 38% of EU citizens speak it as a language other than their mother tongue (i.e. second or foreign language). German is the most spoken first language, spoken by more than 20% of the population following Brexit.

Demographic futureEdit

The EU faces challenges in its demographic future. Most concerns center around several related issues: an ageing population, growing life expectancy and immigrant flow.

After hitting a historical low of 1.47 children born per female, the total fertility rate of the EU started to increase again, to reach a level of 1.60 in 2008.[26] The positive trend was observed in all member states with the exception of Luxembourg, Malta and Portugal. The largest increases over this period were observed in Bulgaria (from 1.23 children per woman in 2003 to 1.57 in 2009), Slovenia (from 1.20 to 1.53), the Czech Republic (from 1.18 to 1.49) and Lithuania (from 1.26 to 1.55).[26] In 2009, the Member States with the highest fertility rates were Ireland (2.06), France (2.00), Sweden (1.94), and the United Kingdom (1.90), all approaching the replacement level of 2.1 children born per female.[26] The lowest rates were observed in Latvia (1.31), Hungary and Portugal (both 1.32) and Germany (1.36). The increasing fertility rate has also been accompanied by an upward trend in the natural increase of the population which is due to the moderate increase of the crude birth rate that reached 10.9 births per 1000 inhabitants in 2008, an increase of 0.3 compared with 2007. The increase was observed in all member countries except Germany. The EU crude death rate remained stable at 9.7 per 1000 inhabitants.[18] The relatively low fertility rate means retirement age workers are not entirely replaced by younger workers joining the workforce. The EU faces a potential future dominated by an ever-increasing population of retired citizens, without enough younger workers to fund (via taxes) retirement programs or other state welfare agendas.[27]

A low fertility rate, without supplement from immigration, also suggests a declining overall EU population,[28] which further suggests economic contraction or even a possible economic crisis.[29] Some media have noted the 'baby crisis' in the EU,[30] some governments have noted the problem,[31] and the UN and other multinational authorities have warned of a possible crisis.[32] At this point however such a decrease in the population of the EU is not observed as the overall natural growth remains positive and the EU continues to attract large numbers of immigrants. In 2010, a breakdown of the population by citizenship showed that there were 20.1 million foreign citizens living in the EU representing 4% of the population.[26]

Over the last 50 years, life expectancy at birth in the EU27 has increased by around 10 years for both women and men, to reach 82.4 years for women and 76.4 years for men in 2008. The life expectancy at birth rose in all Member States, with the largest increases for both women and men recorded in Estonia and Slovenia.[26]

Population projectionsEdit

In 2017, Eurostat released yearly projections up to 2080.

The table figures below are in thousands.[33]

Country
Population 2015
Population 2040
Percent change
Population 2080
Percent change
  EU-28 (including UK) 508,401 528,357 3.9% 518,798 2.0%
  Austria 8,576 10,087 17.6% 10,072 17.4%
  Belgium 11,208 12,844 14.6% 14,189 26.6%
  Bulgaria 7,202 5,933 -17.6% 4,593 -36.2%
  Cyprus 847 954 12.6% 1,004 18.5%
  Czech Republic 10,538 10,552 0.1% 9,777 -7.2%
  Denmark 5,659 6,564 16.0% 6,858 21.2%
  Estonia 1,313 1,283 -2.3% 1,140 -13.2%
  Finland 5,471 5,722 4.6% 5,577 1.9%
  France 66,415 72,915 9.8% 78,688 18.5%
  Germany 81,197 84,133 3.6% 77,793 -4.2%
  Greece 10,858 9,419 -13.3% 7,264 -33.1%
  Hungary 9,855 9,471 -3.9% 8,691 -11.8%
  Ireland 4,628 5,396 16.6% 6,220 34.4%
  Italy 60,795 59,982 -1.3% 53,784 -11.5%
  Latvia 1,986 1,598 -19.5% 1,284 -35.3%
  Lithuania 2,921 2,128 -27.1% 1,658 -43.2%
  Luxembourg 562 860 53.0% 1,066 89.7%
  Malta 429 505 17.7% 517 20.5%
  Netherlands 16,900 19,035 12.6% 19,728 16.7%
  Poland 38,005 35,840 -5.7% 29,044 -23.6%
  Portugal 10,374 9,553 -7.9% 7,579 -26.9%
  Romania 19,870 17,069 -14.0% 14,530 -26.8%
  Slovakia 5,421 5,373 -0.9% 4,714 -13.0%
  Slovenia 2,062 2,066 0.2% 1,938 -6.0%
  Spain 46,449 48,244 3.9% 50,988 9.8%
  Sweden 9,747 11,994 23.1% 14,388 47.6%

Ethnic compositionEdit

There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people (without nation state), nationality, national minority, ethnic minority, linguistic community, linguistic group and linguistic minority are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.[34]

Defining ethnic composition requires defining ethnic minority groups. European Commission, funded the European Social Survey which considered three different way to define ethnic minority groups:

  • citizenship is the traditional criteria in the EU, it might be meaning full in western Europe and meaningless in eastern Europe and the USA
  • country of birth in combination with country of birth of the parents gives three classes: native background, western foreign background, and non-western background with two levels: first generation (foreign born) and second generation (born in the country)
  • membership to one member country minority group.[35]

However main legal EU statistics published by Eurostat focus on citizenship and country of birth.

Ethnicity based on nationalityEdit

The largest groups that account for about 400 million people in the European Union are:

  1.   Germany (c. 83 million)
  2.   France (c. 67 million)[36]
  3.   Italy (c. 60 million)
  4.   Spain (c. 46 million)
  5.   Poland (c. 40 million)
  6.   Bulgaria (c. 20 million)
  7.   Romania (c. 20 million) (not counting Moldovans and Aromanians)
  8.   Netherlands (c. 17.2 million)
  9.   Belgium (c. 11.4 million),
  10.   Greece (c. 11 million)
  11.   Portugal (c. 10.8 million)
  12.   Czech Republic (c. 10.5 million)

The rest are various smaller ethnic groups include Swedes (c. 10.2  million), Hungary (c. 9.8 million), Austrians (c. 8.8 million), Flemish, Croats, Slovaks, Silesians, Danes, Finns, Irish, Walloons, Lithuanians, Slovenes, Latvians, Estonians, Russians, Maltese, Moravians, Frisians and Basques.

More than 5 million ethnic groups

  1.   Sweden (c. 10.2 million)
  2.   Hungary (c. 9.8 million)
  3.   Austria (c. 8.8 million)
  4. About 6.3 million Irish people live in (the Republic of) Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  5. Some 6 million Romani people live in various parts of the EU.[37]
  6.   Denmark (c. 5.8 million)
  7.   Finland (c. 5.5 million).
  8.   Slovakia (c. 5.4 million).

On current trends European populations will become more ethnically diverse, with the possibility that today's majority ethnic groups will no longer comprise a numerical majority in some countries.[38]

In 2011, almost a quarter of new EU citizens were Moroccans, Turks, Ecuadorian or Indians. The new citizens in the old EU27 in 2011 came mainly from Africa (26% of the total number of citizenships acquired), Asia (23%), non-EU27 Europe (19%), North and South America (17%) or another EU27 Member State (11%). In 2011, the largest groups that acquired citizenship of an EU27 Member State were citizens of Morocco (64 300 persons, of which 55% acquired citizenship of France or Spain), Turkey (48 900, 58% acquired German citizenship), Ecuador (33 700, 95% acquired Spanish citizenship) and India (31 700, 83% acquired British citizenship).[39]

In 2012, 34.3 million foreign citizens lived in the old 27 European Union member states, accounting for 6.8% of the European Union population,[40] of whom 20.5 million were third country nationals (i.e. nationals of non-EU countries). The number of foreign-born (which includes those who have naturalised or are dual nationals) was 48.9 million or 9.7 per cent of the total population.[41]

A total of 8.0 million citizens from European countries outside of the old EU-27 were residing in the EU at the beginning of 2012; among these more than half were citizens of Turkey, Albania or Ukraine. The next biggest group was from Africa (24.5%), followed by Asia (22.0%), the Americas (14.2%) and Oceania (0.8%). Romanians (living in another EU Member State) and Turkish citizens made up the biggest groups of non-nationals living in the EU-27 in 2012. There were 4.4 million Romanian citizens living outside of Romania within the EU-27 and 2.3 million Turkish citizens living in the EU-27; each of these two groups of people accounted for 7.0% of all foreigners living in the EU-27 in 2012. The third largest group was Moroccans (1.9 million people, or 5.6% of all foreigners).[42]

Approximately 20 million non-Europeans live in the EU, 4% of the overall population.[43]

Miscellaneous statisticsEdit

Age structure: (2006 est.)

  • 0–14 years: 16.03% (male 37,608,010/female 35,632,351)
  • 15–64 years: 67.17% (male 154,439,536/female 152,479,619)
  • 65 years and over: 16.81% (male 31,515,921/female 45,277,821)

Birth rate: 10.9 births/1,000 population (2008)[44]

Death rate: 9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2008)[44]

Net migration rate: 3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008)[44]

Marriage rate: 4.9 marriages/1,000 population (2007)[45]

Divorce rate: 2.0 divorces/1,000 population (2005)[46]

Sex ratio: (2006 est.)

  • at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and older: 0.69 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.96 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: (2005)[46]

  • total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  • male: N/A
  • female: N/A

Life expectancy: (2005)[46]

  • total population: 78.9 years
  • male: 75.8 years
  • female: 81.9 years

Total fertility rate: 1.59 children born/woman 2009[47]

Live Births outside marriage: 40% of total live births in 2012[48]

See alsoEdit

The demographics of the member states of the European Union:

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit